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Nos. I. to ELL— 1867. 



"It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men 
of science in different parts of Asia, Avill commit their observations to writing, 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such 
communications shall be long intermitted ;~ajulit will die aAvay, if they shall 
entirely cease." '^V^L *J&l^y#Sv, 

£? ft£ ' " • i^A SlR Wm - Jones - 





-■a Q ^ 

No. I. 

(Published 11th July, 1867.) 

The Initial Coinage of Bengal. — By Edward Thomas, Esq.,... 1 

Notes on the Jumnia Masjid of Et.iwah. — By C. Horne, Esq , 

C. S., 74 

Translation of an Inscription copied in the temple of Nakhon 
Vat, or the City of Monasteries, near the capital of ancient 

Kambodia. — By Dr. A. Bastian, 76 

Literary Intelligence, 83 

No. II. 
(Published 1st November, 1867.) 

Notes on Sinijuddaulah and the town of Murshid&Md, taken 
from a Persian Manuscript of the Tarikh-i-Manciiri. — 
By H. Blociimann, Esq., M. A., 85 

Notes on Buddhist Remains near Mynpoorie. — By C. Horne, 

Esq., B. C. S., 105 

Notes on the Carvings on the Buddhist Bail-posts at Buddha 

Gaya.— By C. Horne, Esq., B. C. S., 107 

The Pegu Pagoda. — By Capt. H. A. Browne, Deputy Com- 
missioner of Rangoon, 109 

The Antiquities of Bagerhat. — By Babu Gourdass Bysack, 

Deputy Magistrate and Deputy Collector of Maunbhoom, 118 

On the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets in Roman Charac- 
ter.— By F. S. Growse, Esq., M. A. Oxon., B. C. S., 136 

iv Contents. 

No. III. 

(Published 1st May, 1868.) 


On the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. — No. 2, By 

J. Bbambs, Esq., B. C. S., 145 

Remarks on some ancient Hindu Ruins in the G-arhwal 
Bhatur. — By Lieutenant Ayrtox Pullan, Assistant Sur- 
veyor, Great Trigonometrical Survey, 154 

Notes on ancient Remains in the Mainpuri District. — By 

C. Horne, Esq., B. C. S., , 157 

Literary Intelligence, 170 


I. Bengal Coins, k 39 

II. Bengal Coins, 58 

III. Plan and Detail Drawings of Jumma Masjid, Etawah, ... 74 

IV. Carvings on Buddhist Rail-posts, 107 

IVa Do. do. do. do 107 

V. Do. do. do. do 107 

VI. Views of Karimganj and Thakura mounds, 165 

VII. Anjuni Carvings, 163 

VIII. Nonaira Carvings, , 166 

IX. Mulaiin Carvings, - 168 

X. Karauli Carvings, 171 


'Aazam Shah, Coins of, 

*b debased Bengal Coins, 

Abul Fazl's account of value of gold in Akbar's time, 

Aftabi, weight of an, 

Ahabala Sanhita, 

Akbar, Value of gold in the time of, ... 

A'la-uddin A'li Shah, Coins of, 

Ala-uddin Muhammad, Coins of, 

■ , Do-kani of, 

, Hasht-kani of, 

, Bhash kani of, 

Altamash's first Coins, Tankah, 

— — new Coinage, Value of, 


Ann'rchand, Double dealings of Clive with, ... 
Amojdha, Maharaja, 
Anjani, Ruins in, 
Antiquities of Bagerhat, ... 
A'jtastanibha Dharma Sutra, Notice of, 
Aphangtirat, Anecdote of Prince, 
Apollophanes, Coin of, 
Arabic chosen by the people, 

elements in official Hindustani, 

Arabic, Sacred language to the Converts, 

Arabicized dialect of the Courts,... 

Arabs, founders of the Urdu, 

Ariendakumn, Reign of, 

Arimathiya or Phra Sian-Metray, 

Asauli, Ruins in, 

Assay of Koch Behar Coins, 

Asubodha Vyakarana, 

Asvalayana Srauta Sutra, Completion of, 

Attanagaluvansa of Ceylon, 

Ava dynasty of Hanthawadie, 

'Aziinabad, M. Las' flight to, ... 


. 67 
, 1L 
. 16 

, 17 


































Baber's account of Shia and Nukra Tankah, 
Bagerhat, Antiquities of, 

, Derivation of the word, 


, Tehsildar of, 

Bahadur Shah, Coins of, ... ... ... . 

. raised the standard of Bengal Coins, 

Bastian, Dr. A, on the Nakhon vat Inscription, 

Beanies, J. Esq , on the Arabic Elements in Official Hindustani, 

Bengal, Capital of, ... 

, Coinage in, 

, Coinage introduced by the Mahommcdans in, 

« debased by Bahadur Shah, 

Coins, standard raised, ... 

-, Copper Coins of, ... 
-, Kaudi or shell currency in, 
-, Currency of, 
-, Earliest Copper Coins of, 
-, Governors of, 
, Initial Coinage of, 
Mints, List of, 


Behn (The) Surname of Kambodia, 

Bhagavat, Phra-Phakana Kambodian name for, 

Bhavishya Parana, ... ... ... 

Bhojpuri dialect, 

Bhrigu sanhita, ... ... ... 

Black Tankah s of Muhammad bin Tughlak, 
Blochmann, H. Esq., on Siraj-ud-daulah and the town of Mm 

■ Two Treatises on Metre and Rhyme, 

Boddhisatva, Phra Photisat, 

, The Holy, ... ... ... \\ 

Brahma, Phra-Phrom the Kambodian, ... 

Brown, Capt. H. A., on the Pegu Pagoda, 

Buddha Gaya Bail-posts, Buddhist origin of the, 

. Phra-Phuttha, ... ... ... \ 

- Sri Ariya or Arimathiya the future, 

— '■ Statue of, 

Buddhist Carvings on the Buddha Gaya Railposts, 

ornaments of the Etawah Temple, 

remains at Mainpuri, ... 

Buhler's Digest of the Hindu Law, 

Burman dynasty, 

Burmese Pagoda, Sacred Chronicle of the, 

Burrisal guns heard at Bagerhat, ... 

Bustus, Value of, 

Bysack, Babu Gouradasa, on the Antiquities of Bagerhat, 
























Capital of Bengal, ... ... ... ... 4 

Catalogue of Vernacular Publications, ... 143 

Chahir-deva, Coins of, ... ... ... ... 37 

Chandananagara, Bombardment of, ... 88 

Chan dakausika, Drama of,... ... ... ... 1 TO 

Chhataka consisting of six takas of 145 grains each, ... 6 

Chital currency of Bengal, ... ... 19 

of Firuz, ... ... ... ... 12.") 

Chugal, Weight of a, ... ... 17 

Chulamani chaitya, Phra-chedi, the, ... ... ... 77 

Clive, Col. Correspondence of, with Siraj-ud-daulah, 87 

Coinage introduced by the Mahommedans in Bengal, ... 4 

Medallic, of Muhammad Bakhtiar, ... 5 

of Ilias Shah, ... . . .' ... ... 27 

of Sonargaon, ... ... 10 

Coins (first) struck by the English in India, ... ... 90 

found near Gosain Marai, ... 2 

List of Delhi, ... ... ... ... 22 

of 'Azam Shah, ... ... 67 

of 'Ala-ud-din 'Ali Shah, ... ... ... 53 

of 'Ala-ud-din Muhammad, ... 20 

of Altamash, ... ... ... ... 5 

of Apollophanes, ... ... 14$ 

— of Bahadur Shall, ... ... ... ... 50 

of Chahir-deva, ... ... :J7 

of Delhi mixed with those of the Koch Behar Mint, ... 2 

of Eucratides, ... ... 143 

of Fakr-ud-din Mubarik Shah, ... ... ... 52 

of Firuz and Kaikaiis, ... ... 11 

of Ghias-ud-din 'Azam Shah bin Sikandar Shah, ... G8 

of Ikhtiar-ud-din Ghazi Shah, ... ... 3, 54 

of Jalalat-ud-din Riaiah, ... ... ... 39 

of Kaikaiis, ... ... ... 42 

of Koch Behar assayed, ... ... ... 12 

of Lakhnauti, ... ... 39 

of Maharaja Amojdha, ... ... ... 155 

Muhammad-bin-Sham, ... ... 12 

— i of Muhammad-bin- Toghlak j ... ... ... 3 

of Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Shah, ... 35 

of Riziah, ... ... ... 38 

of Shahab-ud-din Bagorah Shah, ... 45 

of Shams-ud-din Firuz, .,, ,.. 27, 43 

— - of Shams-ud-din Ilias Shah, ... 55 

of Sikandar, ... ... ... ... 1 

of Sikandarbin Ilias, ... ... ... 58, 62 

Purity of imperial, ... ... ... ... 11 

selectedforCol.C.S. Guthrie, ... 1 

viii Index. 


Coins, Silver found in Koch Behar, ... ... ... 1 

Copper Coin, Karshapanaa, ... ... 24 

■ of Bengal, ... ... ... ... 4 

Currency of Bengal, ... ... ... ... 4 

D'Alwis, Translation of the Attanagaluvansa by, 175 

Dharmakosha, ... ... ... ... 177 

Dattaka Siromani, Notice of, ... ... 175 

Dehli Coins, List of, ... " ... ... 22 

— Mixed with those of Koch Behar mint, .. 2 

~x*^^ w* «vvii irwi... 1.11.HV, 

walla, Muhammadan Coinage of Delhi with Bull and 

horseman device of Prithvi raja, 

Digest of Hindu Law, ... ... ... ... 83 

Do-kani of 'Ala-ud-din Muhammad, ... 20 

Dravidian origin of the term Kani, ... ... ... 21 

English Coins first struck in Bengal, ... 90 

Etawah, Date of the Temple of, ... ... ... 74 

Eucratides, Gold Coin of, ... ... 143 

Europe, Sivaism in, ... ... ... ... 181 

Fakr-ud-din Mubarak Shah, Coin of, ... ... ... 52 

Fatah-Namah or Medallic Coinage of Muhammad Bakktiar, ... 5 

Figures 108 and 13 in Scandinavia, ... ... ... 179 

Firuz and Kaikaiis, Purity of coins of, ... ... 11 

Fort William built, ... .. ... 89 

Foucaux's Translation of Sakuntala, ... ... ... 84 

Ganes'a, Figure of, in Mandhal, ... ... 155 

Garhwal Bhatur, Hindu ruins in, ... ... ... 154 

Garga Sanhita, ... ... ... ... 177 

G-audama's hair deposited in Shwe Hmawdaw temple, , v , ... 112 

Gaudama, Relics of, ... ... ... ... 113 

Gaudama's visit to Hanthawadie, ... 110 

Gaura-Sarshapa, Weight of a, ... ... ... 23 

Geography, Sanskrit Works on, ... ... ... 176 

Ghias-ud-din, 'Aazam Shahbin Sikandar Shah, Coins of, 68 

Gold and silver, Batios of, in Akbar's time, ... ... 17 

Gosain Murrai, Coins found near, ... 2 

Growse, F. S. Esq., on the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets in 

Roman characters, ... ... 136 

Gulpeb-devi, Figure of, ... ... ... ..,158 

and Vishnu, Identity of, ... 158 

Guthrie, Col. C. S., Coins selected for, ... ... 1 

Hanthawadie, Anecdote of, ... ... 110 

List* of Kings and Governors of, ... ... 123 

Thirty-two cities of, ... ... ... 110 

Hashtkani of 'Ala-ud-din Muhammad,... ... ... 20 

Hawkin's ratios of gold and silver in Jahangir's time, 18 

Hientharaza, Reign of, ... ... ... ...117 

Hindi is native to the soil, ... ... 147 

Index. ix 


Hindu dynasty of Nuddeah expelled by Muhammad Bakhtiar 

Khilji, ... ... ... 4 

Hindu Law, Buliler and West's Digest of, ... ... ,x:> 

Hindu origin of the Etawah Masjid, ... 74 

Hindu ruins in Garhwal Bhatur, ... ... ##< 154 

Holmboe, Professor C, on Sivaism in Europe, ... ... Isl 

on Sculptures on a rock in Scandinavia, 177 

on Horse sacrifice in Scandinavia, ..*. ... 178 

— on Gold rings lor taking oaths, ... 17g 

on the Figures 108 and 13, ... ... ... ]7<j 

Home, C. Esq., on ancient remains in Mainpuri District, 157 

Notes on the Buddha (Java Rail-posts, ... 107 

Notes on the Jumma Masjid of Ktawah, ... 74 

Notes on the Buddhist remains in Mainpuri, ... 105 

Horse sacrifice in Scandinavia, ... ... ... 178 

Ilusain, Mourning for, in Murshidalmd, ... yQ 

Ibn-Batuta's account of relative values of gold and silver in 

India, ... ... ... 15 

Ikhtiai-ud-din Altamash revolts against Biziah, ... 33 

Ghazi Shah, Coin of, ... ... S, 54 

Ilahi or Lai Jalali, Weight of an, ... ... ... 17 

Bias Shah, Coinage of, ... ... 27 

Imambara built by Siraj-ud-daulah, ... „.. ... 97 

Im, the restorer of the venerable Phra, ... 73 

Indian alphabets, Transliteration of the, ... ... 1 3(3 

Philology, Publication of, ... 143 

Inscriptions from Bagerhat, .. ... ... 435 

at Nakhou vat, ... ... 7$ 

Ishta Purana,... ... ... ... ... 177 

Jafar promises to fight for Siraj ud-daulah, . . ... 91 

Jaganmohan Tarkalankara's editions of Chandakausika and 

Venisanhara, ... ... ... ... 176 

Jehangir, Value of gold in the time of, ... 18 

Jelalat-ud-din Biziah, Coin of, ... ... ... 39 

Jumma Masjid of Etawah, Notes on the, ,.. 74 

Jungdes Kumara, ... ... ... ... 157 

Jasrau village, Buins at, ... ... 172 

Kaikaiis, Coins of, ... ... ... ... 42 

and Firuz, Purity of coins of, ... H 

Kani, Dravidian origin of the term, ... ... ... 21 

1 or the large Tankah, ... ... 20 

Karaian, Belative value of silver and gold in, .-. . ... 14 

Karauli, Buins at, ... ... ... ... 170 174 

Karazon, Value of silver in, ... ... ... 14 

Karinda of Baja Prithvi Siiiha, . . . ... 1(37 

Karimganj, Buins at, ... ... ... ... 164 

Karsha, Meaning of the word, ... ... 21 

x Index. 


Karshapanaj ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Kaudi or shell currency in Bengal, ... 3 

Khan Jahan, tehsildar of Bagerhat, ... ... ... 127 

Khemisvara, author of Chandakausika, ... ... 175 

Khwajah Kiser, Hazarat, Fireworks in Memory of, 103 

Koch Behar Coins, Assay of, ... ... ... 12 

, Silver coins found in, ... 1 

Kracheh, Scented powder of, ... ... ... 83 

Kislmala, Weight of a, ... ... 23 

Kuntesvara Raja, capital of, ... ... ... 2 

Kutb-ud-dm Aibek, left as a Viceroy by Muhammad bin Sham, 4 

Lakhnauti, Capital of Bengal transferred to,... 4 

Coins of, .. ... ... ... 39 

Las, M., takes refuge at the Murshidabad court, 89 

Law, Digest of Hindu, ... ...» ... ... 83 

Liksha, Weight of a, ... ... 23 

List of Bengal Mints, ... ... ... ... 93 

of Delhi Coins,... ... ... 22 

of Pathan Sultans, ... ... ... ... 32 

of Rangoon Kings, ... ... Ill 

Luni Sat, Stone slabs in, ... ... ... ... 156 

Madhavikosha, ... ... ... 177 

Mahathala and Tsoolathala conveyed relics of Gaudama, ... 113 

Mainpuri, Ancient remains in, ... ... 157 

Buddhist remains, Notes on the, ... ... 105 

Malaun, Ruins at, ... ... ... 1G8 

Mandhal, carved rlgure of a bull in, ... ... ... 155 

Manu's system of Weights, ... ... ... 23 

Marco Polo's account of relative value of gold and silver in 

Karaion, ... ... ... ... 14 

Martaban (The dynast)^,) ... ... ... 121,124 

Moslem faith, tracts of country connected to, ... ... 152 

Masha, Weight of a,... ... ... 23 

Mien, Value of gold in, ... ... 15 

}ling (The), ... ... ... ... ... 77 

Mint pf Bengal, List of, ... ... 93 

-, Muazamabad, ... ... ... ... 61 

• , Satgaon, ... ... ... 60 

, , ShahrNan, ... ... ... ... 60 

, Sonargaon, . . . ... ... 61 

Miran murders Siraj-ud-daulah, ... ... ... 94 

Mir J'aaf ar's treasury inspected, ... ... 95 

Mishkal, Value of a, determined from the recorded weight of 

Baber's diamond, ... ... ... 7 

Mitra, Babu Rajendralala, appointed to select coins from the 

Koch Behar trove, ... ... ... .".. 1 

Muhar, or Adl-Guthki, Weight of a, ... ... ... 17 

Tndeaf, xi 


Muhammad Bakhtiar Khilji expels tlie Hindu dynasty <»i Nud- 

dea, ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Jasim Khan captures Siraj-ud-daulah, 94 

bin-Sham appoints Kutb-uddin Aibek generalissimo 

in Delhi, ... ... ... 4 

bin-Toghlak, Coins of, ... ... ... 3 

Toghlak, Tankah of , ... 20 

Muhammadan rule in Pegu, ... ... ... 122 

Muharram celebration in Murskidabad, ... ... 101 

Mulnam, Weight of a, ... ... 17 

Mnrshidabad described, ... ... ... ... 96 

Notes on, ... ... 85 

Nakhon-vat inscription, ... ... ... ... 7(i 

Nang Phrakavali, Anecdote of the restoration of, <- _ ; 

Narayana, or Phra Naray, .. ... ... ...82' 

Naair-ud-dfn Muhammad Shah, Coins of, ... 36 

Nayagrahas, Figures of the, ... ... ... 162 

Neakkhasen, Nagsena or Nagarjana, ... v <> 

Niphon, Prayer to lead all beings to the road to, ... ... 80 

Nnddea, Hindu dynasty expelled from, ... 4 

Nonaira, Ruins at, ... ... ... ... L65 

Obituary of Premachanda Tarkavagis'a, ... 84 

Bamanarayana Vidyaratna, ... ... ... 84 

Pagan Governors of Hanthawadie, ... 124 

Pagoda, The Pegu, ... ... ... ... 109 

. , The Shwe Hmamdaw, ... ... 109 

Pandya King of Ceylon, ... ... ... 1*20 

Panduwala, Lingani at, ... ... 150 

Parasara Sanhita, ... ... ... . 177 

Patali put, King Athawaka's return to, ... ... 115 

Pathan Sultans of Hindustan, List of, ... 32 

Persian founders of the Urdu, ... ... ... 148 

Pegu governed by a Muhammadan Captain, ... 122 

Pegu or Pago or Hanthawadie, ... ... ... 109 

Pegu Pagoda, the, ... ... 10S 

Phra-Chedi Chulamani the Holy Chaitya, ... ., 77 

Phra Naray or Narayana, ... ... 82 

Phra-Phakana or Bhagavat, ... ... ... 80 

Phra-Photisat, the holy Boddhistva, ... 76 

Phra-Phutsakam or Visvakarma, ... ... ... 82 

Phra-Phuttha Rub, the statue of Buddha,... 76 

Phra-Sian-Metray, ... ... ... ... 80 

Plassey, Events before and after the battle of, 90 

Precious Metals, Relative rate of exchange of, ... ... 14 

Premachanda Tarkavagis'a, Obituary of, ... 84 

Prithvi Raja's, Bull and Horseman device retained in Dehli- 

walas,... ... ... ... 5 


Prithvi Raja, Karinda of, ... 

Pullan, Lieutenant, on Hindu ruins in Gurhwal Bhatur, 

Purana of thirty-two ratis, 

Qasimbazar plundered, 

Rajasarshapa, Weight of a, 

Rajmahal, S'iraj-ud-daulah's flight to, 

Rakshasha (Sack), Anecdote of the, 
Ramanarayana, Obituary notice of Pandita, ... 
Rangoon Kings, List of, 

, Township of, 

Rati, Determination of the value of a, ... 

Rings of gold for taking oaths, 

Riziah, Coins of, ... 

Riziah captivated by Governor of Tiberhind, 

Rnkn-ud-clin Kaikaiis, 

Sak (The), ... 

Sakuntala of Kalidasa, Foucaux's, 

Sakya Muni, Faith of, debased by superstition, 

invoked in Nakkon-Vat inscription, 

Sangabodhi, Chronicles of, 

Sanskrit not heard in camp of the Elori, 

Satgumbaj of Bagerkat, 

Satgaon, Mint of, 

Scandinavia, Sculptures on a rock in, ... 

Gold rings for taking oaths in, 

Numbers 108-13 in, 

Sivaism in, 

Horse sacrifice in, 

Sculptures in Scandinavia, 

Shahab-ud-din Bagorah Shah, Coin of, 

Shahr Nan, Mint of, 

Shamala and Weimala founded Hanthawadie, 

Shams-ud-din Firuz, Coins of, 

Ilias Shah, Coin of, 

Shams-i Siraj's account of Firuzshah's coinage, 

Shiahs, (The) in Murshidabad, ... 

Shash Kani of 'Ala-ud-din Muhammad, 

Sher Shah's introduction of the names of the Imams 

coinage of India, ... 
Shwe Hmawdaw, List of people dedicated to the service 
Shwe Hmawdaw, Pagoda, .. . 
Sikandar-bin-Ilias, Coin of, 
Sihansah, Weight of a, 
Sikandar's coinage, 
Sikkah of Altamash, 
Siraj-ud-daulah murdered, ,,, 
, -Notes on, ... 

... 107 
... 154 
... 5 
... 89 
... 23 
... 93 
... 82 
... 84 
... Ill 
... 110 
... 6 
... 178 
... 38 
... 38 
... 40 
... 77 
... 84 
... 160 
... 76 
... 175 
... 149 
... 133 
.. 60 
... 177 
... 178 
... 179 
... 181 
... 178 
... 177 
... 45 
... 60 
,.. 110 






, 62 



Siraj-ud-daulah treacherously given up to the Governor 

Sinaprastha, Tlie magic of the stones, ... 
Sivaism in Europe, ... 
Siva, worship of in Europe, 
Sonargaon, Coinage of, 

, Mint of, 

Srauta Sutra of A'^valayana, completion of the, 

Suvarna, Sixteen niaslias make a, 

Suta Sanhita, 

Syrian founders of the Urdu, 

Tagore family of Calcutta, Pindi stain of the, 

Tahungkram, Prayer for the people of, 

Taittinva SaShita, Publication of the,... 

Talaing dynasty, 

Tankah, Black and White, 

, Coins of Altamash, 

, Derivation of the term, 

, of Muhammad Toghlak, 

Taranath Vachaspati, author of Tuladana Puddhati and 

dlia Vyakarana, 
Tarikh-i-Maneuri, Dedication of, 
Tarikh-i-Mancuri of Sayyid A'li,... 
Tarikh-i-Mancuri, Style of, 
Tartar founders of the Urdu, 
Tavernier's account of value of gold, ... 
Temple of Etawah, Date of the, ... 
Temple in Garhwal, 
Thakura, Ruins at, ... 

Thamaing or Sacred Chronicle of Birmese Pagoda, .. 
Thomas. E. Esq., on the Initial Coinage of Bengal, 
Tietha the last of the Hanthawadie race, 
Tonghu dynasty of Hanthawadie, 

Rules of, 

Trasarenu, Measure of a, 

Terrancau, treachery of M., 

Transliteration of the Indian Alphabets, 

Tuladana Paddhati, 

Turks founders of the Urdu, 

Urdu, Founders of the, 

Urdu Language, Imperfections of the, ... 

Vedas, Traihet, Kambodian name of the three, 

Venisanhara, Drama of, 

Vernacular Publications, Catalogue of,... 

Vishnu and Culpibdevi, Identity of, 

Visvakarma or Phra-Phutsakam, 

Waroonee, Reign of , . . . 

of Raj- 
















































xiv Index. 


Weeniala Kooma, Reign of, ... ... ... 119 

Weight of a Chigal, ... ... ... ... 17 

G-aura Sarshapa, ... ... ,.„, ... 23 

an Ilahi or Lai Jalali, ... ... ... 17 

■ — — Krshnala, ... ... 23 

Liksha, ... ... ... ... 23 

Masha,... ... ... 23 

• an Aftabi, ... ... ... 17 

a Muhar, ... ... ... 17 

Rajasarshapa. ... ... ... ... 23 

a Sihansah, ... ... 17 

Yava, ... ... ... .. 23 

Weights, Mann's System of, ... ... 23 

West, Digest of Hindu Law, ... ... ... 83 

Wilford, Col. Notices of Sanskrit Works on Geography, 176 




No. I.— 1867. 

The Initial C<>in<i<jr of Bengal. — By Edward Thomas, Esq, 

[Received December 5ili, 1866. Reprinted from the Journal of the Royal Asia- 
tic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. ii. p. I. N. S.] 

Towards the end of August, 1863, an unusually large hoard of 
coins, numbering in all no less than 13,500 pieces of silver, was 
found in the Protected State of Kooch Behar, in Northern Bengal, 
the contents of which were consigned, in the ordinary payment 
of revenue, to the Imperial Treasury in Calcutta. Advantage was 
wisely sought to be taken of the possible archaeological interest 
of such a discovery, in selections directed to be made from the 
general bulk to enrich the medal cabinets of the local Mint and the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. The task of selection, and 
with it of inevitably final rejection, was entrusted to Babu Rajendra 
Lai Mitra — an experienced scholar in many branches of Sanskrit litera- 
ture, and who, in the absence of more practised Numismatists, cou- 
rageously encountered the novel study and impromptu exposition of 
Semitic Palaeography as practically developed in his own native land 
six centuries ago. The Babu, after having assiduously completed his 
selections for the Government,* was considerate enough to devote 
himself to renewed and more critical examinations of this mass of 
coined metal, with a view to secure for Colonel C. S. Guthrie (late of 
the Bengal Engineers), any examples of importance that might have 
escaped his earlier investigations. The result has been that more 
than a thousand additional specimens have been rescued from the 
* J. A. S. Bengal, 1864, p. 480. 

2 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Presidency Mint crucibles, and now contribute the leading materials 
for the subjoined monograph. 

An autumnal fall of a river bank, not far removed from the tradi- 
tional capital of Kunteswar Bdja, a king of mark in provincial 
annals,* disclosed to modern eyes the hidden treasure of some credu- 
lous mortal who, in olden time, entrusted his wealth to the keeping of 
an alluvial soil, carefully stored and secured in brass vessels specially 
constructed for the purpose, but destined to contribute undesignedly 
to an alien inheritance, and a disentombment at a period much pos- 
terior to that contemplated by its depositor. This accumulation, so 
singular in its numerical amount, is not the less remarkable in the 
details of its component elements — whether as regards the, so to say, 
newness and sharpness of outline of the majority of the pieces them- 
selves, the peculiarly local character of the whole collection, or its 
extremely limited range in point of time. It may be said to embrace 
compactly the records of ten kings, ten mint cities, and to represent 
107 years of the annals of the country. The date of its inhumation 
may be fixed, almost with precision, towards .the end of the eighth 
century a. h., or the fourteenth century a. d. A very limited pro- 
portion of the entire aggregation was contributed by external curren- 
cies, and the imperial metropolis of Dehli alone intervenes to disturb 
the purely indigenous issues, and that merely to the extent of less 
than 150 out of the 13,500 otherwise unmixed produce of Bengal 

The exclusively home characteristics of the great majority of the 
collection are enlivened by the occasional intrusion of mementoes of 

* Col. J. C. Haughton, to whom we are mainly indebted for the knowledge of this 
trouvaille, has been so obliging as to furnish me with some interesting details 
of the site of discovery and illustrations of the neighbouring localities. 
Col. Haughton writes : — " The place where the coin was found is about three 
miles S. W. of Deenhatta, not far from the Temple of Kunteswaree (or Komit- 
Eswaree) on the banks of the river Dhurla. Near to this temple is a place 
called Gosain Moraee, a short distance from which are the ruins of Kuntesur 
Raja's capital, called Kunteswaree-Pat, consisting of a mound of considerable 
extent, which has been surrounded with several ditches and walls, which are 
again protected at the distance of a mile or two by enormous mounds of nearly 
100 feet high. The brass vessels, in which the treasure was deposited, were 
ordinary brass lotahs, to which the top or lip had not been fixed, but in lieu 
thereof the vessels were covered by canister tops, secured by an iron spike 
passing from side to side." 

f I wish to explain the reservations I make in thus stating this total below 
that given in Rajendra Lai's list of 150 coins of seven Dehli kings (J. A. S. B., 

1867.] .The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 3 

imperial rc-asscrtions, and numismatic contributions from other inde- 
pendent sources aid in the casual illustration of the varying political 
conditions of the province, and of the relations maintained from time 
to time between the too-independent governors of a distant principali- 
ty and their liege suzerains at Dehli. 

Muhammadan writers have incidentally preserved a record of the 
fact, that on the first entry of their armies into Bengal, they found an 
exclusive cowrie or shell currency, assisted possibly by bullion in the 
larger payments, but associated with no coined money of any descrip- 
tion ;* a heritage of primitive barter, indeed, which survived undis- 

Septcmbcr, 1864, p. 181). In the first place, I greatly mistrust the reading of 
tlio sixthkiug's title. Blnhamnmd bin Tnghlak was called Fukhrad-d4n Jonah 
in his youth only ; on his tirst mission to the Dakliin in 7-1 v. H., the higher 
title of Ulugh Khdai was conferred upon him by his father, hut from the date 
of his accession to the throne of Hindustan, lie contented himself with the use 
of his simple name and patronymic; no Longer the " glory of the faith," ho 
was the far more humble ^^+2^)] iXxjUj (jj- 5 *^! or *" no convcn tional 
AJJ| JUxvo ^i ^Lsr^l (Zrad-Barui., Calcutta edit., p. 196), both of which 
were so persistently copied by the independent Bengal Sultans. Certainly no 
such title as ^J^J| ysz* occurs on any of the specimens of the Kooch Bahw 

collection, that the Babu has selected for Col. Guthrie, with the exception of 
those bearing the names of Fakr-ud-din Mubdfrdk Shah. 

The second question of the altogether improbable intrusion of coins of 
Muhammad Add Shah ("new typo") 1 must meet in a more direct way, by 
assigning the supposed examples of his money to the potentate from whose mints 
they really came, that is, Ikhtwr-ud-dm (iii.xzi SHAH (No. 7, infra), giving a 
difference in the age of the two kings, as far as their epochs affect the probable 
date of the concealment of this trouvaille, of more than two centuries (753 a.ii. 
against 960 a.ii.).» The Babu has himself discovered his early error of making 
Shams-ud-din Firuz, one of the Dehli Pathdna (as reported in the local news- 
papers), and transferred him, in the printed proceedings in the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal, to an anomalous position tit. the end of the Bengal Pathans (p. 483), 
while omitting to deduct him from the total cumber of " i vghi Dehli Pathans," 
which reckoning has been allowed to stand at p. 180, In the matter of date, 
we are not informed why this king should be assigned to A.n. 1191, instead of to 
the true 1320 A.D. which history claims for him. 

* Minhaj-ul-Seraj, who was resident in Lakhnauti in a.h. 641, writes 

»-^-^i oljj JU*. u^y^ *zjX z>&± &\jd &Z ^^ y % , yo cjUa. 

Tabakat-i-Nasiri, p. 149, Calcutta printed edition (1864). Ibn Batutah give3 
an account of the collection of the cowrie shells in the Maldive Islands, from 
whence they were exported to Bengal in exchange for rice ; the gradational 

quantities and values are detailed as follows : }$U*«— 100 cowries. (Jli— 700' 

« The title of Mohammed bin Toghlak on the specimens in the Society's 
cabinet is aJJ| Jua.*» .J ^Ats^l and the coin which was first taken for that 
of Adil Shah has on it Llddiar iildin Ghdzi Shah—fto, 

4 Tlie Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

turbecl in many of the out-lying districts up to the early part of the 
present century. The consistent adherence of the people to this simple 
medium of exchange, goes far to explain an enigma recently adverted 
to* in my paper on the identity of Krananda as to the general ab- 
sence of all specimens of money of high antiquity within certain limits 
northward of the seaboard, and may serve to reconcile the anomaly of 
conterminous nationalities appearing in such different degrees of 
advancement when tried by similar isolated tests of local habitudes. 
For the rest, the arms of Islam clearly brought with them into 
Bengal what modern civilization deems a fiscal necessity — a scheme 
of national coinage ; and the present enquiry is concerned to determine 
when and in what form the conquerors applied the theory and prac- 
tice they themselves as yet but imperfectly realized. 

When Muhammad bin Sam had so far consolidated his early suc- 
cesses in India, into a design of permanent occupancy, leaving a 
viceroy and generalissimo in Dehli, in the person of Kutb-ud-din 
Aibek, while his own court was still held at Ghazni, the scattered 
subordinate commanders each sought to extend the frontiers of the 
faith beyond the limits already acquired ; in pursuance of this accepted 
mission, Muhammad Bakhtiar Khilji, Sipahsdldr in Oude, in a. h. 599, 
pushed his forces southward, and expelled, with but little effort, the 
ancient Hindu dynasty of Nuddeah, superseding that city as the 
capital, and transferring the future metropolis of Bengal to the prox- 
imate site of Lakhnauti, where he ruled undisturbed by higher 
authority, till his own career was prematurely cut short in a. h. 602. 

^i^— 12,000. jJL*j=rlOO,000, four hustus were estimated as worth one gold 

dinar ; but the rate of exchange varied considerably, so that occasionally a 
dindr would purchase as many as twelve hustus, or twelve lakhs of cowries ! 
(French edit., iv., p. 121. Lee's Translation, p. 178.) Sir Henry Elliot men- 
tions that " in India, in 1740, a rupee exchanged for 2,400 cowries ; in 1756, 
for 2,560 cowries ; and (1845) as many as 6,500 could be obtained for a rupee." 
— Glossary of Indian Terms, p. 373. They were estimated in the currency 
scheme of 1833 at 6,400 per rupee. — Prinsep's U. T., p. 2. Major Rennell, 
who was in Silhet in 1767-8, speaking of the cowrie money, remarks: "I 
found no other currency of any kind in the country ; and upon an occasion, 
when an increase in the revenue of the province was enforced, several boat loads 
(not less than 50 tons each) were collected and sent down the Burrampooter to 
Dacca." As late as 1801 the revenues of the British district of Silhet "were 
collected in cowries, which was also the general medium of all pecuniary trans- 
actions, and a considerable expense was then incurred by Government in effect- 
ing their conversion into bullion." — Hamilton's Hindostan, London, 1820, i. 
p. 195. * j. R# a. S., vol. i., N. S., p. 473-4. 

18G7.] The Initial Coinage of Benyal 5 

Considering the then existing timc-hononrcd system of valuations by 
shells, — which would certainly not invite a hasty issue of coin, — 
Muhammad Bakhtiar's acknowledged subordination to Kutb-ud-din, 
who, so far as can be seen, uttered no money in his own name, it may 
fairly be inferred that if a single piece was produced, it formed a 
part only of an occasional, or special, Medallic mintage constituting a 
sort of numismatic Fatah-mimah, or assertion and declaration of 
conquest and supremacy alone, and designedly avoiding any needless 
interference with the fixed trade by adventitious monetary complica- 
tions, which so anprogressive a race as the Hindus would naturally 
be slow to appreciate. 

Similar motives may be taken to have prevailed in the north, where 
the least possible change was made in the established currency of the 
country, extending, indeed, to a mere substitution of names in the 
vernacular character on the coin, which was allowed to retain the 
typical " Bull and Horseman" device of Prithvi Raja and his prede- 
cessors. The pieces themselves, designated from their place of mint- 
age Dehli-walas* were composed of a mixture of silver and copper in 
intentionally graduated proportions, but of the one fixed weight of 
thirty-two ratis, or the measure of the old Purdna of silver of Manu's 
day. Progressive modifications were effected in the types and legends 
of these coins, but no systematic reconstruction of the circulating 
media took place until the reign of Altamsh ; who, however, left the 
existing currencies undisturbed, as the basis for the introduction of the 
larger and more valuable and exclusively silver &*&id popularly known 
in after times as the Tanlah,\ a standard which may also be supposed 

* The name is written <J| ^)^ in Kutb-ud-din Aibek's inscription on 
the mosque at Dehli. (Priusep's Essays, i. 327). The Taj-ul-Maasir and 
other native authorities give the word as (Jj-xLi,^ Hasan Nizami, the author 
of the former work, mentions that Kubachah, ruler of Sind, sent his son with an 
offering of 100 laks of Dehli-wals to Altamsh, and no less than 500 laksofthe 
same description of coin were eventually found in Kubachah's treasury, many of 
which were probably struck in his own mints. (Sue Ariana Antiqua, pi. x\\, 
fig. 19 ; J. A S. B., iv., pi. 37, figs. 28, 29, 47 j and Prinsep's Essays, i., pi. xxvi., 
figs. 28, 29, 47.) 

f Erskine derives this name from the Chagatai Turki word, tang, u white." 
(History of India under Babcr. London, 1854, vol. i. p. 546). Vullers gives a 

tenuis, suff. $). Ibn Batutah carefully preserves the orthography as AjtJJ, 

different and clearly preferable derivation in <UoJ (fort. ex. tJjJ s. »-S^> 

s. ■gf^f and ^r^. 

6 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

to have followed traditional weights in the contents assigned to it, as 
the 96 rati-piece modern ideas would identify with the Tolah : or it 
may possibly have been originated as a new 100 rati coin, a decimal 
innovation on the primitive Hindu reckoning by fours, a point which 
remains to be determined by the correct ascertainment of the normal 
weight of the rati, which is still a debated question. My own results, 
obtained from comparative Numismatic data of various ages, point to 
1.75 grains,* while General Cunningham adheres to the higher 
figures of 1.8229 grains.f 

* J. A. S. Bengal, 1865, p. 25, and Numismatic Chronicle. Vol iv., N. S. p. 
131, March, 1864. 

f General Cunningham's deductions are founded on the following estimates : 
— " I have been collecting materials for the same subject [Indian Weights] for 
nearly twenty years, and I have made many curious discoveries. I see that Mr. 
Thomas quotes Sir William Jones as fixing the weight of the Krishnala, or 
Rati seed, at l T 5 g grain ; but I am satisfied that this is a simple misprint of 
Jones's manuscript for 1 for 1833 grain, which is as nearly as possible the 
average weight of thousands of seeds which I have tested. The great unit of 
medieeval and modern times is the tdka of not less than 145 grains, of which six 
make the chha-tdka, or cliliatak, equal to 870 grains, or nearly two ounces ; and 
100 make the sataka, or ser, the derivation being sat-tdka, or 100 tdlcas. For 
convenience I have taken, in all my calculations, the rati seed at 1-8229 grain. 
Then 80 ratis or 145-832 was the weight of the tangka of copper, and also of tho 
golden suvarna, which multiplied by six gives 874.99 grains, or exactly two 
ounces for the chha-tdlca or chhatak." — J. A. S. Bengal, 1865, page 46. 

Mr. N. S. Maskelyne, of the Mineral Department, British Museum, who, some 
time ago, entered into an elaborate series of comparisons of Oriental weights, with 
a view to determine the identity of one of our most celebrated Indian diamonds, 
has been so obliging as to draw up for me the following memorandum, exhibiting 
the bearing of an entirely independent set of data upon the question under review, 
the true weight of the Indian Rati. The value of this contribution in itself, 
and the difficulty of doing justice to it in an abstract, must plead my excuse for 
printing it in extenso in this plaoe : — ■ 

I shall confine my answer to your question about the rati to the estimate of it, 
as derived from the Mishkal. The other channel of enquiry, that namely of 
Hindoo metrology and numismatics, is too complicated, and so far as I have 
been able to follow it, too unsatisfactory in its results, to justify my urging any 
arguments derived from it. Indeed, the oscillations in the currencies, and our 
knowing so few very fine coins of reigns before Shir Shah, of critical value, make 
this branch of the subject almost unapproachable to one who is not an Oriental 
scholar. I would premise, however, that I do not believe very accurate results 
are to be obtained solely from the weights of coins, except in the few cases where, 
as in the coins of Akbar, or of Abd-el-Malek ben Merwan, we have some literary 
statements about them. Nor can you get any result from weighing carob beans 
to determine the carat, or abrus seeds to determine the rati. I weighed, long- 
ago, hundreds of ratis, that Dr. Daubeny lent me, with an average of 1.694 
troy grains. Sir William Jones found, I believe, one of 1.318, aud Professor 
Wilson, I think, another value again. They vary according to the soil and climate 
they are grown in, and the time and atmosphere they have been kept in. 

My investigation of the rati originated in a desire to determine whether the 
diamond, now the Queen's, was the same that Baber records as having been 
given to Humayun at the taking of Agra, after the battle of Paniput, and which 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. • 7 

However, these silver coins of Altamsh, let their primary static 
ideal have been based upon a duplication of the diihams of Grhazni, 

had once belonged to Ala-cd-dm (Khilji). I also was led to suppose that the 
diamond Tavernier saw at the Court of Aurungzebe was the same, and that he 
had confounded it with one that Mcer Jumla gave to Shah Jehan, and that had 
been recently found at Golconda. I would here observe that Tavernier's weights 
can be very little trusted ; I can give you my reasons for this assertion, if you 
wish for them. 

Babor, in his memoirs, says the weight of Humayun's diamond was about 8 
mishkals. In his description of India, he gives the following ratios of the 
weights in use there : — 

8 ratis = 1 mashah. 
32 „ = 4 „ =1 Tang (Tank). 
40 „ = 5 „ = = = 1 mishkal. 
96 „ = 12 = = = 1 Tola. 

Jewels and precious stones being estimated by the tang. Furthermore he states 
11 tolas =1 sir, 40 sirs = 1 man etc. Thus, then, the 8 mishkals would be 
320 ratis. 

Tavernier says the diamond ho saw weighed 319| ratis* The Koh-i-Nur, in 
1851 (and, I believe, in Baber's day also), weighed 5SD.5 grains troy. The 
theory that it was Allied din's diamond, would demand — 

a mishkal (8) weight of 7:5.7 grains. 

a tola (3±) „ 170.85 „ 

a tank (1*0) „ 58.95 „ 

a masha (40) „ 14.745 „ 

a rati (320 of 8 to the masha) 1.8125,, 

(240 of 6 „ ) 2.53:3 „ 

Now, as to the mishkal — the Mahommadan writers speak of it as not having 
altered from the days of the Prophet. Doubtless, it has been a pretty perma- 
nent weight, and very likely, in Makrizi's time, was but slightly various in 
different places. At present, the following table represents the different mishkals, 
so far as I have been able to ascertain them. 

The gold and silver mishkal of Bassorali = li dirham .. =72 grains. 

The „ „ mussal or mishkal of Qa/m/roon (71,75 miscals 

= 100 mahmoudias = 5136 grains) =71.6. „ 

The gold and silver miscal of Moc ha = 24 carats = 24 T £ 5 vakya 

(of 480 grains, nearly) =72 „ 

That of Bushvre = f^ v of a maand of 53784 grains =74.7 „ 

The metical of Aleppo and Algiers =73 „ 

The „ otTrvpoU =73.6 „ 

In Persian, the demi mishkal = y^i^ of the batman of Chessay ") 

(of 8871 grains) C =73.96,, 

The taurid batman and mishkal = half the above ) 

The mishkal corresponding to the (£) dirham used for gold and 

silver, in Persia =74.5 ,, 

The abbasi corresponding to 1 mishkal, Maraden says =72 „ 

The modern debased mishkal of Bokhara =71 „ 

Baber, in speaking of the mishkal, may either mean his own Bokharan mishkal, 
or, as seems more probable, the current mishkal as existing at that time in India, 
in short, the " Indian or Syrian mishkal " of the Mahommadan writers — which 
was the Greek mishkal -J- 2 kirats. The modern debased mishkal of Bokhara 
we may leave out of our comparisons. It is surely a degraded weight in a 
country that has undergone an eclipse. 

The old " Greek Dinar " is of course the Byzant, or solidus aureus — the 
denarius of Byzantium. It was nominally coined 72 to the Roman lb. The 
Byzantian Roman lb. in the British Museum weighs 4995 grains, so the solidus 

8 TJip Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

or, as is more probable, elaborated out of tlie elements of ancient 

was nomminalVy coined at 69.4 grains. It really issued from the mint at a 
maximum weight of 68 (a very few of the most finely preserved coins reaching 
this amount). Now taking Makrizi's statement that the mishkal was 24 kivats, 
and that of the Ayin-i-Akberi that the Greek mishkal was 2 kirats less than this j 
we find the weight of the mishkal = 68+ f4 = 74.18 grains troy Again, Mak- 
rizi mentions that Abdel-nialek-ben-Merwah coined dinars and dirhams in the 
ratios of 21-2- kirats : 15 kirats. Now this Caliph's gold coins in the British Mu- 
seum (in a very fine state of preservation), weigh 66. 5 grains, and his silver, also 
well preserved, 44.5. Taking the former as coined at 67, we have the ratio : 

Dinar : Dirham= 21| : 15 = 67 : 46.2, 
Which latter gives a probable weight for the dirham as originally coined. (In 
Makrizi's time the ratio was dinar : dirham = 10 : 7 = 21 .75 : 15.22 ; or supposing 
the gold coin unchanged at 67, the silver dirham would become 46.88). Then, 
as the ratio of the dinar (or gold mishkal) to the mishkal weight = 2 If : 24, we 
have for the mishkal weight a value of 73.93 grains. 

These two values, thus severally adduced from different data — viz., 74.18 and 
73.93 — sufficiently nearly accord to justify, I think, our striking the balance 
between them, and declaring of the ancient mishkal — (" the Syrian or Indian 
mishkal ") to have been very nearly 74 grains. Hence the kirats would be 3.133 
grains, troy. The modern carat varies from 3.15 ; the modern Indian carat to 
3.28, the old French carat (made this probably to be an aliquot part of the old 
French ounce). The English carat = 3.168 ; the Hamburgh = 3.176, and the 
Portuguese = 3.171. 

The above value of the mishkal accords extremely well with my theory about 
the diamond. 

That the " Greek Dinar" of Makrizi was the Sassanian gold is not at all 
likely, although the silver dirham was, no doubt, originally derived from the 
Sassanian drachma. Of the few gold pieces of Sassanian coinage, the one in the 
Museum, of Ardashir I., weighs now 65.5, and could not have been coined at 
less than 66.5 grains — which would give a mishkal of 72.04. But under the 
Sassanidae, the gold coinage was quite exceptional, and was not lai-ge enough to 
have formed the basis of the monetary system of the Caliphs, which was 
professedly founded on Greek coins, current. 

As to the Bokharan mishkal of Baber's time, how are we to arrive at it ? 
You — and if you can't, who can ? — are able to make little firm ground out of the 
weights of Sassanian, or Ghasnavid coins — nor will the coins of the Ayubite, 
Mamluke and Mamluke Bahrite Caliphs (of which I have weighed scores), 
give any much more reliable units on which to base the history of the progress 
of change in the mishkal. The limits of its variation in modern times seem 
to have lain between 74.5 and 72 troy grains ; I believe 74 as a near as possible its 
true original weight, the weight of the Syrian and of the Indian mishkal. This 
would give the rati on the goldsmith's standard of 8 to the masha, and 49 to the 
mishkal, as 1.85 grains, and the limits of this rati would be 1.862 and 1.80. 
The value of the jeweller's rati (6 to the mashi) would be for the 74 grain 
mishkal 2.47 grains, and its limits would be 2.483 and 2.40. 

That Baber's and Humayun's now worn and dilapidated coins of 71 and 71.5 
grains were mishkals, is not improbable ; but they certainly were not coined at 
less than 74 grains. 

Without entering into the Indian numismatical question, I may remind you of 
Tuglak's coin of 174 grains (one in the British Museum = 172.25), probably 
coined at 175 or 176 ; a fair weight of issue for a coin nominally of some 177 or 
178 grains. These coins, I believe, you consider to represent the tola. A tola 
of 177.6 would accord on the ratios of Baber's table with a mishkal of 74 grains. 
I am strongly tempted to enter further into this question of the ponderary 
systems of India, but I am warned by your own able papers of the difficulties 
in the path of one who deals only in translations and in the weight of coins* 
24th Nov., 1865. 

1867.] Hie Initial Coinage of Bengal. 9 

Indian Metrology — may be quoted in tlieir surviving integrity of 
weight and design, as having furnished the prototypes of a long line 
of sequent Dehli mintages, and thus contributing the manifest intro- 
ductory model of all Bengal coinages.* 

The artistic merits of the produce of the southern mints, though 
superior in the early copies to the crude introductory issues of Al- 
tnmsh, seldom compete with the contemporary design or execution of 
the Dehli die-cutters, and soon merge into their own provincialisms, 
which are progressively exaggerated in the repetition, until, at last, 
what with the imperfection of the model, the progressive conventiona- 

* There three are varieties of Altnmsh's silver coinage, all showing more or 
less the imperfection of the training of the Indian artists in the reproduction of 
the official alphabet of their conquerors. The designs of these pieces were clear- 
ly taken from the old C.ha/.ni model of Muhammad bin Sam's Dirliams and 
Dinars, and the indeterminate form of the device itself would seem to indicate 
that they mark the initial effort of the new Muhammadan si I ver currency which 
so soon fixed itself into one unvarying type, and retained its crude and unim- 
proved lettering for upwards of a century, till Muhammad binTughlak inaugu- 
rated his reign by the issue of those choice specimens of the Moneyer's art 
which stand without compeers in the Dehli series. 

No. 1, Silver. Size, vii. ; weight, 162.5. Supposed to have been struck on 
the receipt of the recognition of the Khalif of Baghdad in 626 a. h. 

Obverse: square area, with double lines, within a circle. 
Legend, aJJ| J^j ^x* tl)\ <jJ| }/ 

Reverse : Square area, with double lines, within a circle. 

Legend, ^x yjoj+)\j\*\ j^±l~+)\ fU^ll ±4* ^ 

No. 2, Silver. Size, viii ; weight, 168.5. Date, 630 a. h. 
Obverse : Square area, with double lines, 

Legend, ^J^l j UW| u~*^> *&* ill H)UxLJ| -> 

Reverse : Circular area. 

Legond,^| *U| J^oj ^.^ *U| Jff *J| 51 } 

Margin, A -M l^ A ^j^ 

Mr. Bayley notices the occasional change of the name of the piece to the 
generic ASU | as well as the ignorant substitution of <xJJ|yo bj*fiil«**/| for 
the Khalif's true title. J. A. S. B., 1862, p. 207. Col. Guthrie's coin (Type 
No. 2) discloses a similar error. • 

Legend, ^^^J|^V 3, ^^^"* , ^..(*^°^L^*" C LS 9 
Margin, Lc&)\ 8<>A <Sj^ 

No. 3, Silver. Size, viii. ; weight, 163.5 gr. 
Obverse, as No. 2, but the square area is enclosed an a circle. 
Reverse : Square area enclosed within a circle, identical with the obverse 


10 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

lism of the designers, and the ignorance and crude mechanical imita- 
tion of the engravers, their legends become mere semblances of intelli- 
gible writing, and, as the plates will show, like Persian shikastah, 
easy to read when one can divine what is intended, but for anything 
like precision in obscure and nearly obliterated margins, a very un- 
trustworthy basis for the search after exact results. 

The different mints each followed its own traditions, and the school 
of art stood generally at a higher level in the eastern section of the 
kingdom, especially when Sonargaon was held by its own independent 
rulers. The lowest scale of die execution, exemplified in the present 
series, was reserved for the capital of the united provinces under the 
kingship of Sikandar (No. 23 infra). The numismatic innovations 
of Muhammad bin Tughlak, were felt and copied in the south, espe- 
cially in the reproduction of the titular legends, but his own coins 
struck at the " city" — he would not call it capital — of Lakhnauti, 
evince the haste and carelessness of a temporary sojourn, and still 
worse, the hand of a local artist, all which short-comings may be 
forgiven to a monarch who in his own imperial metropolis had raised 
the standard of the beauties of Arabic writing, as applied to coin 
legends, to a position it had never before attained, and which later 
improved appliances have seldom succeeded in equalling. 

The Bengal Sultans, mere imitators at first, were original in their 
later developments of coin .illumination, and the issues of the fully 
independent kings exhibit a commendable variety of patterns in the 
die devices, damaged and restricted, however, in the general effect by 
the pervading coarseness and imperfection of the forms of the letters. 
Then, again, the tenor of the inscriptions is usually of independent 
conception, especially in the refusal to adopt the ever recurring 
halimah, and in the suggestive mutations of titles assigned to the 
lieutenants of the prophet on earth, whose names they did not care to 
learn. So also was their elaboration of the titular adjuncts of the 
four Imams uninfluenced by northern formula ; many of which con- 
ventionalisms survived for centuries, till Shir Shah, in the chances of 
conquest, incorporated them into the coinage of Hindustan, during the 
exile of the temporarily vanquished Humayun. 

The standard of the Bengal coinage was necessarily, like the pieces 
themselves, a mere imitation of imperial mint quantities, and the 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 11 

early issues will be seen to follow closely upon the proper amount 
in weight contemplated in the Dehli prototypes ; but one of the curious 
results the Kooch Behar collective find determines is, that though the 
first kings on the list clearly put forth money of full measure, their 
pieces were, in most cases, subjected to a well understood Indian 
process of boring-out, or reduction to the exact weight to which we 
must suppose subsequent kings lowered the legal standard of their 
money, so that, although some of the silver pieces of Kai Kaiis and 
Firuz have escaped the debaser's eye, and preserve the completeness of 
their original issue denomination, the great majority of the older 
coins have been brought down to the subsequent local standard of 
166 grains, at which figure, in troy grains, the bulk of the hoard 
ranges ; or, in more marked terms, 166 grains is the precise weight of 
the majority of the very latest and best preserved specimens, which 
must have been consigned to their recent place of concealment when 
very fresh from mints but little removed from the residence of the 
accumulator of the treasure, and be held to represent coin which 
could scarcely have changed hands. 

The intrinsic value of the money of these sovereigns follows next in 
the order of the enquiry. This department of fiscal administration 
might naturally have been expected to have been subject to but limited 
check or control, when regulated by the uncertain processes of 
Oriental metallurgy ; but, in practice, it will be seen that some of the 
native Mint-masters were able to secure a very high standard of 
purity, and, what is more remarkable, to maintain a singularly uniform 
scale in the rate of alloy. In the case of the imperial coins subjected 
to assay in Calcutta, specimens spreading over, and in so far, represen- 
ting a sequent eighty years of the issues of the northern metropolis, 
vary only to the extent of six grains in the thousand, or 0.6 per cent. 
As the Dehli coinage proves superior, in point of weight, to the sou- 
thern standard, so also does it retain a higher degree of purity ; the 
990 and 996 of silver to the test total of 1,000 grains, sinks, in the earliest 
examples of the Bengal mintages, to 989, from which figures it expe- 
riences a temporary rise, in possibly exceptional cases, under Bahadur 
Shah, who may be supposed to have brought down, with his reinstitu- 
ted honours and the coined treasure so lavishly bestowed upon him by 
Muhammad bin Tughlak, on his restoration to the government of 

12 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Sonargaon, certain implied responsibilities for the equity and fulness 
of his currencies ; while in the subsequent irregularly descending scale, 
Azam Shah's officials arrived at the most unblushing effort of debase- 
ment, in the reduction of silver to 962 grains. Among other unex- 
pected items for which the aid of modern science may be credited, is 
the support which the intrinsic contents of the erroneously-classed coins 
of Adil Shah under native interpretation, lend to the correctness of 
the revised attribution of the pieces themselves suggested by the criti- 
cal terms of their own legends, in the manifest identity of their assay 
touch with the associate coins of the lower empire of India. 

Colonel Guthrie has furnished me with the following data, concern- 
ing the assay of the various coins composing the Kooch Bahar 
hoard : — " When the Bengal Asiatic Society made their selection of 
coins from the trove, they set apart four of each description for the 
Mint, two being for special assay, two for the Mint collection. The 
result of the assay was as follows (1,000 represents absolute purity) ;" 


1. Balban (a. h. 664) ... 990 and 996 

2. Kai Kobad (a.h. 685) 990 and 996 

3. Ghias-ud-din Tughlak (a.h. 720) 


4. Adil Shah [i.e. Ghazi Shah of 

Bengal, a.h. 751] 989. 


1. Shams-ud-dm Firuz 989 

2. Bahadur Shah 988 and 993 

3. Mubarak Shah 987 

4. Bias Shah (1st type) 989 j (2nd) 
982 ; (3rd) 988. 

5. Sikandar Shah (return lost). 

6. Azam Shah (1st type) 981 ; (2nd) 
989 ; (3rd) 962 j (4th) 977 j 
(5th) 985. 

A question that has frequently puzzled both Oriental and European 
commentators on the history of India, has been the intrinsic value of 
the current coin at the various epochs referred to, so that the most 
exact numerical specifications conveyed but a vague notion of the 
sterling sum contemplated in the recital by any given author. Numis- 
matists have been for long past in a position to assert that the Dehli 
Tankah contained absolutely 173 grains, which would presuppose a 
theoretical issue weight of 174 or 175 grains, and a touch of nearly 
pure silver ; but assuming this specific coin to have been a white or 
real " Tankah of Silver" (*j& &&J) a doubt necessarily remained as to 
what was to be understood by the alternative black Tankah (*Lx*» *&J). 
Nizam-ud-din Ahmad, in his Tabakat-i-Akbari, seems to assign the 
introduction of these black Tankahs to Muhammad bin Tughlak, who 
notoriously depreciated the currency to a large extent, before he re- 

1867.] The Initial Coinage oj Bengal. 13 

sorted to the extreme measure of a forced currency, thougli it may be 
doubted whether any such depreciation would have been thought of, 
even if there had been time to effect the conversion, at the very com- 
mencement of his reign, to which period Nizam-ud-din attributes the 
issue of these pieces, in the apparent desire of explaining the bare 
possibility of the possession of such numerical amounts as are stated to 
have been squandered in largesses by the newly-enthroned monarch. 
However, the real debasement of the coin need not have extended much 
beyond the point indicated by the superficial aspect of his own Bengal 
mintages, and Azam Shah's coins of the same locality probably exceed 
that accusatory measure of debasement ; while, on the other hand, 
Muhammad bin Tughlak, on reverting to specie currencies, after his 
futile trial of copper tokens, seems to have aimed at a restoration of 
the ancient purity of metal in his metropolitan issues, as I can quote 
a coin of his produced by the Dehli Mint in a. h. 734, which has 
every outward appearance of the component elements of unalloyed 
silver, and equally retains the fair average weight of 168 grains.* 
All these evidences would seem to imply that the Bengal ratio of 
purity was intentionally lower, and that a very slight addition to the 
recognised alloy would bring the local issues fairly within the cate- 
gory of black Tankahs. Such a supposition of the inferiority of the 
coinages of the southern kingdom appears to be curiously illustrated 
by Baber's mentioning that, in a. ii. 932, a portion of the revenues of 
the district of Tirhut, a sort of border-land of his kingdom, which did 
not extend over Bengal, was payable in Tankah Nukrah, and the 
larger remainder in Tankah Sidh } f an exceptional association of cur- 

* This coin is similar, but not identical in its legends with the gold piece^ 
No. 84, of 736 a. h., p. 50 Pathan Sultans. The following are the inscriptions : 

Obverse— |yiAJ| Ju| j ^sjJl &Xi\j 

Reverse — (jJ->o ^&+s.'° iXg.£ ^ 
Margin — iL>U*.x*oj ^^ J £}j\ &-W|*3L»Vl j\^i' 
f Baber has left an interesting account of the revenues of his newly-acquired 
kingdom in India, as estimated after the battle of Panipat, in A. H. 932, to the 
effect that " the countries from Bhira to Bahar which are now under my domi- 
nion yield a revenue of 52 krores " of Tankahs. In the detail of the returns 
from different provinces, Tirhut is noticed as Tribute (Khidmatana) of the 
Tirhuti Rajah 250,000 tankah nuhrah, and 2,750,000 tanlcah sidh. William 
Erskine, History of India under Baber and Humayun, London, 1854, vol. i., p. 
540. See also Leyden's Memoirs of Baber, London, 1826, p. 334. 

14 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1 

rencies in a given locality, which can scarcely be explained in a more 
simple and reasonable manner than by assuming the lower description 
of the conventional estimate piece to have been concurrent with a 
better description of the same coin, constituting the prevailing and 
authorized revenue standard of the northern portions of the conquer- 
ing Moghul's Indian dominions. 

Another important element of all currency questions is the relative 
rate of exchange of the precious metals inter se.' And this is a divi 
sion of the enquiry of- peculiar significance at the present moment, 
when Her Majesty's Government are under pressure by the European 
interest to introduce gold as a legal tender at a fixed and permanent 
rate, or, in effect, to supersede the existing silver standard, the single 
and incontestable measure of value, in which all modern obligations 
have been contracted, and a metal, whose present market price is, in 
all human probability, less liable to be affected by over production 
than that of gold : the bullion value of which latter had already begun 
to decline in the Bazars of India, simultaneously with the arrival of 
the first fruits of Australian mining. 

If the contemplated authoritative revolution in the established cur- 
rency had to be applied to a fully civilized people, there might be 
less objection to this premature experiment ; but to disturb the deal- 
ings of an empire, peopled by races of extreme fixity of ideas, to give 
advantages to the crafty few, to the detriment of the mass of the un- 
lettered population, is scarcely justified by the exigencies of British 
trade, and India's well-wishers may fairly advance a mild protest 
against hasty legislation, and claim for a subject and but little under- 
stood Nationality, some consideration before the ruling power forces on 
their unprepared minds the advanced commercial tenets of the cities of 
London and Liverpool. 

The ordinary rate of exchange of silver against gold in Marco Polo's 
time (1271-91 a. d.),* maybe inferred to have been eight to one ; 

* The Province of Karaian. " For money they employ the white porcelain 
shell found in the sea, and these they also wear as ornaments about their necks. 
Eighty of the shells are equal in value to a saggio of silver, or two Venetian 
groats, and eight saggi of good silver to one of pure gold." Chap, xxxix. 

The Province of Karazan. " Gold is found in the rivers, both in small 
particles and in lumps ; and there are also veins of it in the mountains. In 
consequence of the large quantity obtained, they give a saggio of gold for six 
saggi of silver. They likewise use the before-mentioned porcelain shells in 
currency, which, however, are not found in this part of the world, but are 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 15 

though exceptional cases are mentioned in localities within the reach of 
Indian traders, where the ratios of six to one and five to one severally 

Ibn Batutah, in the middle of the fourteenth century, when 
he was, so to say, resident and domesticated in India, reports the 
relative values of the metals as eight to one.* 

brought from India." — Chap. xl. ; also Pinkerton (London, 1811), vol. vii., 143. 

The Province of Kahdandan. "The currency of this country is gold by 
weight, and also the porcelain shells. An ounce of gold is exchanged for five 
ounces of silver, and a saggio of gold for five saggi of silver ; there being no 
silver mines in this country, but much gold ; aud consequently the merchants 
who import silver obtain a large profit." Chap. xli. 

The Kingdom of Mien (Ava). '"You then reach a spacious plain [at the 
foot of the Yunnan range], whereon, three days in every week, a number of 
people assemble, many of whom come down from the neighbouring mountains, 
bringing their gold to be exchanged for silver, which the merchants who repair 
thither from distant countries carry with them for this purpose; and one 
saggio of gold is given for five of silver." Chap, xliii. Travels of Marco Polo, 
by W. Marsden, London, 1818 ; and Bohn's Edition, 1854. 

iv. 10, t\y* lj&\ ^A jiaJfc pW*)Z> J f*\)Z> ty^Jj* ^AJI J^^l 
" J'ai vu vendre le riz, dans les marches de ce pays [Bengale], sur le pied de 
vingt-cinq rithl do Dihly pour un dinar d' argent : celui-ci vaut huit drachmes, 
et leur drachme equivaut absolument a la drachme d' argent. " (iv. 210.) 

The difficulty of arriving at any thoroughly satisfactory interpretation of 
theoebscure Arabic text, as it now stands, may be frankly admitted, nor do I 
seek to alter or amend the French translation, further than to offer a very 
simple explanation of what probably the author really designed to convey in 
the general tenor of the passage in question. It was a crude but established 
custom among the early Muhammadan occupying conquerors of India to issue 
gold aud silver coins of equal weights, indentical fabric, and analogous central 
legends ; hence, whenever, as in the present instance, the word Dinar is used 
in apposition w r ith and contrast to the secondary term Durham, the one prima 
facie implies gold, the other silver ; and there can be little doubt but that the 
original design of the text was to specify that one gold piece of a given weight 
passed in situ for eight silver pieces in similar form and of slightly greater 
bulk. It is possible that the term Dinar may in process of time have come to 
stand for a conventional measure of value, like the " pound sterling" suscep- 
tible by common consent of being liquidated in the due equivalent of silver ; 
but this concession need not affect the direct contrast between the Dinar and 
Dirhams so obviously marked in the case in point. 

Ibn Batutah, in an earlier part of his work (iii. 426), [Lee's edition is imper- 
fect at this portion, p. 149] gives us the comparative Delhi rate of exchange 

of which he had unpleasant personal experiences : he relates that he was 
directed to be paid (55,000 + 12,000 =) 67,000 pieces of some well understood 
currency, neither the name or the metal of which is defined, but which may 
legitimately be taken to have been " Silver Tankahs," and in satisfaction of 
this amount, deducting the established one-tenth for Dasturi, which left a 
reduced total of 60,300, he received 6,233 gold tankahs. Under this scale of 
payment the gold must have borne a rate of exchange of one to 9.67 of silver, 
or very nearly one to 10, a proportion which might be supposed to clash with 
the one to eight of the more southern kingdom, but the existing state of the 
currencies of the two localities afford u striking illustration of the consistency 

16 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

The Emperor Akbar's minister, AMI Fazl, has left an official 
record of the value of gold in the second half of the sixteenth century, 
at which period the price was on the rise, so that the mints were 
issuing gold coin in the relation of one to 9.4 of silver. But a re- 
markable advance must have taken place about this time, as in the 
second moiety of the seventeenth century, Tavernier* found gold 
exchanging against fourteen times its weight of silver, from which 
point it gradually advanced to one to fifteen, a rate it maintained 
when the East India Company re-modelled the coinage in 1833.f 

of the African observer's appreciation of money valnes in either case. His 
special patron, Muhammad bin Tughlak, Emperor of Dehli, had, from his first 
elevation to the throne, evinced a tendency to tamper with the currency, 
departing very early in his reign from the traditional equality of weights of 
gold and silver coins ; he re-modelled both forms and relative proportions, 
introducing pieces of 200 grains of gold, styled on their surfaces dinars, and 
silver coins of 140 grains, designated as adalis, in supersession of the ancient 
equable tankahs, both of gold and silver, extant examples of which in either 
metal come up to about 174 grains. More important for the present issue is 
the practical result, that, from the very commencement, Muhammad Tughlak's 
silver money is invariably of a lower standard than that of his predecessors, 
whether this refers to the eai'ly continuation of the full silver tankah, or to his 
own newly devised 140 grain piece, a mere reproduction of the time-honoured 
local weight, which the Aryan races found current in the land some twenty- 
five centuries before this Moslem revival ; but in either case, this payment to 
Ibn Batutah seems to have been made after the Sultan had organised and 
abandoned that imaginary phase of perfection in the royal art of depreciating 
the circulating media, by the entire supercession of the precious metals, and 
following the ideal of a paper currency, the substitution of a copper simula- 
crum of each and every piece in the order of its degree from the Dinar to the 
lowest coin in the realm, the values being authoritatively designated on the 
surface of each. This forced currency held its own, more or less successfully, 
from 730 to 733, when it came to its simple and self- developed end. Taking 
the probable date of this payment as 742-3 A. H. (Ibn B. vi., p. 4, and vol. iii., p. 
xxii.). it may be assumed that the 174 (or 175) grain old gold tankah, which 
had heretofore stood at the equitable exchange of one to eight tankah' s of good 
silver, came necessarily, in the depreciation of the new silver coins, to be 
worth ten or more of the later issues. Pathan Sultans, p. 53). 

* " All the gold and silver which is brought into the territories of the Great 
Mogul is refined to the highest perfection before it be coined into money." — ■ 
Tavernier, London Edition, 1677, p. 2. " The roupie of gold weighs two 
drams and a half, and eleven grains, and is valued in the country at 14 
roupies of silver." — Page 2. " But to return to our roupies of gold, you must 
take notice that they are not so current among the merchants. For one of 
them is not worth above fourteen roupies." The traveller then goes on to 
relate his doleful personal experiences, of how, when he elected to be paid for 
his goods in gold," the king's uncle " forced him to receive the gold rupee at 
the rate of fourteen and a half silver rupees, whereby he lost no less than 3428 
rupees on the transaction. Sir James Stewart, writing in 1772, also estimates 
the conventional proportionate value of silver to gold, as fourteen to one — 
" The Principles of Money applied to the present state of the Coin of Bengal." 
Calcutta, 1772. 

t Prinsep's Useful Tables, pp. 5, 72, 79. 

18(37. J The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 17 

Afterwards, with prospering times, the metal ran up occasionally to 
fabulous premiums, to fall again ignominiously when Californian and 
Australian discoveries made it common in the land. 

I revert for the moment to a more formal recapitulation of the 
computations, which serve to establish the ratios of gold and silver in 
Ak bar's time. 

Abul Fazl's figured returns give the following results : — 

First.— Chugal, weight in gold Tolah 3, Masha 0, Rati 5J=30 
Es. of 11J Mashas each : 549.84: : 172.5X30 (5175.0) : 1 : : 9.4118. 

Second.— Aftabi, gold, weight t. 1, m. 2, r. 4|=12 Es. : 218.90 
: : 172.5 X 12 (2070.O) : 1 : : 9.4563. 

Third. — Ilahi, or Lai Jalalf, also Muianni, gold, weight M. 12, R. 
15=10 Es. : 18328 : : 1725 X 10 (17250) : 1 : : 9*4118. 

3 A. — The larger piece, the Sihansah, in value 100 Lai Jalalis, 
gives an identical return. Weight in gold, t. 101, M. 9, r. 7 = 
1000 Us. : 18328- : : 172 ; 500 (172-5 X 100 X 10) : 1 : : 94118. 

Fourth. — Adl.-G-utkah, or Muhar, also called Mahrabi, gold, weight 
11 Mashas=9 Us. : 165 : : 1725x9 (15525) : 1 : : 940909. 

4 A. — The higher proportions specified under the piece of 100 
round Muhars, produce a similar result. Weight in gold, t. 91, m. 
8=900 Es. : 16500 : : 155250" (172 5 X 100 X 9) : 1 : : 9*40. 

These sums are based upon the ordinary Tolah of 180 gr., Masha 
of 15, and Eati of 1*875 grs. The question of corresponding values 
in the English scale need not affect the accuracy of comparisons 
founded upon the conventional measure by which both metals were 

I have given more prominence to the above calculations, and even 
tested anew my earlier returns by the independent totals afforded 
by the larger sums now inserted, because the obvious result of gold 
being to silver as one to 9*4, has been called in question by an official 
of the Calcutta Mint (a Dr. Sliekleton), who, however, while unable 
either to correct my data, or to produce any possible evidence against 
my conclusions, ventures to affirm, that " 9 4 to one is a relative 
value of gold to silver, which never could really have existed."* 
Nevertheless, here is a series of comparative weights and values, 
furnished by the highest authority of the day, and and all pro- 
# Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, 186 A, p. 517. 

18 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 3, 

duce returns absolutely identical up to the first place of decimals. 
My original estimates were sketched and published at Dehli, in 1851, 
where I had access to the best MSS., to the most comprehensive 
range of antiquarian relics, and at command the most intelligent oral 
testimony in the land. When reprinting Prinsep's " Useful Tables" 
(London, 1858), I had occasion to quote these calculations, and was 
able to fortify them, had it been needed, by the precisely analogous 
results obtained by Colonel W. Anderson, who had tried Abiil Fazl's 
figures, from a different point of view, and for altogether independent 
purposes.* But if there were the faintest reason for doubting so 
moderate rate as one to 9 4, the whole discussion might be set at rest 
by Abul Fazl's own statement as translated into English in 1783 
when, in concluding a very elaborate review of the profit and loss of 
refining gold, for the purpose of coinage, he concludes, and the process 
" leaves a remainder of about one-li alf a tolah of gold, the value of 
which is four rupees. "f It may be as well that I should add, that 
some of my totals differ from those to be found in Gladwin's transla- 
tion of the original Persian text.| I do not recapitulate the several 
divergencies, but it is necessary to prove the justice of one, at least, 
of my emendations. Gladwin's MSS. gave the rupee at 11J mashas, 
(i. p. 34). The more carefully collated Dehli texts showed the real 
weight to be 115 mashas, a static fact of some importance, which is 
curiously susceptible of proof from Gladwin's own data : at page 46 
of his Calcutta edition, a sum is given of the refining charges and 
profits, as understood by the mints of those days, wherein 989 tolas, 
9 mashas of impure silver is stated to be reduced by 14 t. 9 m. 1 r. 
in refining, and a further 4 t. 10 m. 3 r. in manipulation, leaving 
11641 mashas of silver (989. 9. 0. — 14. 9. 1. — 4. 10. 3. = 
11641) which is officially announced as ordinarily coined into 1012 
rupees, (1012 X 115=11638) giving, as nearly as may be, the 
essential 11 J mashas, which the translated text should have preserved 
in its earlier passages. 

Richard Hawkins, who was at Agra in A d. 1609-11, during the 
reign of Jahangir, has left a notice of certain accumulated treasures 
of that prince which he was permitted to behold, and amongst the 
rest he specifies, " In primis, of Seraffins Ecberi, which be ten rupias 

* U. T., Vol. ii. ; p. 32. f Gladwin, i. 44. $ 4to. ; Calcutta, 1783. 

1807.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal 19 

apiece ;" to this passage is added in a marginal note, that, " a tole is 
a rupia challany [current] of silver, and ten of these toles are of the 
value of one of gold."* This evidence might at first sight seem to 
militate against the conclusion arrived at from the official returns 
above summarized, but the value of gold was clearly on the rise, and 
one of the aims of Akbar's legislation on metallic exchanges, which 
had necessarily been disturbed by progressive modifications in the 
relative values of the precious metals, was manifestly to secure an 
authoritative even reckoning by tens and hundreds. The old round 
muhar, (No. 4 of the above list) represented the inconvenient sum of 
nine rupees, or 360 ddms ; by raising the weight of the piece to the 
higher total given under No. 3, the gold ihihl was made equivalent 
to ten rupees, or in fiscal reckoning to 400 dams. Similarly, in the 
case of the silver coin, the old rupee passed for 39 ddms, in the 
new currency a value of 10 ddms was secured, not by an increase of 
weight, but by the declared and doubtlessly achieved higher standard 
of the metal employed, aided by the advantage that contemporary 
mintages so readily secured in India. 

The subdivisions of the standard silver Tankah, as well as the 
relative exchange ratios of silver and copper in their subordinate 
denominations, claim a passing notice. Though Bengal proper pro- 
bably remained satisfied with its lower currency of cowries, supple- 
mented by the occasional intervention of copper, for some time after 
the introduction of gold and silver money, yet as the earliest copper 
coins of that kingdom must have been based upon and, in the first 
instance, supplied by Dehli mintages, the Imperial practice comes 
properly within the range of the local division of the general enquiry. 

It has been seen that Minhaj-ul-Siraj, in comparing the circulating 
media of Hindustan and Bengal, speaks of the currency of the former 
as composed of Chitals, a name which is seemingly used by himself 
and succeeding authors in the generic sense for money, as if these 
pieces continued to constitute the popular standard both in theory 
and practice, notwithstanding the introduction of the more imposing 
tankahs of gold and silver. Up to this time it has not been possible 
satisfactorily to demonstrate the actual value of the coin in question; 
in some cases indirect evidence would seem to bring its intrinsic 
worth down to a very low point, while at times the money calcula- 
* Purchas' Travels, folio, 1625-26, i. 217.' 

20 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 3, 

tions for large sums, in which its name alone is used, appear to invest 
it with a metrical position far beyond the subordinate exchanges of 
mere bazar traffic. 

In the details of the " prices-current" in the reign of Ala-ud-din 
Muhammad, as well as in the relation of certain monetary re-adjust- 
ments made by Firiiz Shah III., the name of the Chital is constantly 
associated in the definition of comparative values with another sub- 
division entitled the Kani, which may now be pronounced with some 
certainty to have been the -g-'j of the original TanJcuh, of 175 grains, 
and Jq of the new silver coin of 140 grains, introduced by Muhammad 
bin Tughlak. The temporary forced currency of this Sultan neces- 
sitated in itself the positive announcement of the names and autho- 
ritative equivalents of each representative piece, and this abnormal 
practice contributes many items towards the elucidation of the quan- 
titative constitution of the real currency of the day, which these 
copper tokens were designed to replace. In illustration of this point, 
I insert a woodcut and description of a brass coin, which was put 
forth to pass for the value of the silver piece of 140 grains, to whose 
official weight it is seemingly suggestively approximated. 

Brass ; weight, 132 grs. ; a. h. 731 ; Common. 
Obverse. — j^^ 8*w j^)j) j* ^4 »lac*v *&J «^*«, 
J.U3 ^s* Struck (lit. sealed), a tankah of fifty 
kanis in the reign of the servant, hopeful (of mercy)? 
Muhammad Taghlak. 
Reverse.— Area, J^M *& c,lkUj| ^Lt| w x> ^^\. "He who 
obeys the king, truly he obeys G-od."* 

Margin, &* ^ a-afiA^j JU abicJjj &\£ c*ir> j&. At the 
capital Daulat-abad, year? 731. 

In addition to this 50 kdni--piece may be quoted extant specimens 
of this Sultan's forced issues, bearing the definitive names 
of " hastkdni" (8 kanis). tl Shash-Mni." (6 kanis) and 
EiA&3y Do-hani (2 kanis.) An obverse of the latter is given in the 
margin. The reverse has the unadorned name of J^** *+ s/0 . 

* In other examples of the forced currency, he exhorts his subjects in more 
nrgent terms to submit to the Almighty, as represented in the person of the 
rulin°" monarch, and to adopt, in effect, the bad money he covers with texts from 
the Kuran — the li Obey God and obey the Prophet and those in authority 
among you," and " Sovereignty is not conferred upon every man," but " some" 
arc placed over "others" — were unueoded on his coinage of pare metal. 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 21 

Next in order, may be quoted historical evidence of Firiiz Shah's 
fiscal re-organizations, in the course of which mention is made of 
pre-existing pieces of 48, 25, 24, 12, 10, 8, and 6 kanis, the lowest 
denomination called by that name ; afterwards the narrative goes on 
to explain that, in addition to the ordinary Ghital piece already in 
use, Firuz Shall originated, for the benefit of the poorer classes of his 
subjects, subdivisional J Chital and \ Chital pieces. 

As the spoken languages of the Peninsula enables ns to restore the 
true meaning to the misinterpreted Sanskrit karsha* so the Dra vidian 
tongues readily explain the term hdni, which finds no place in Aryan 
vocabularies, but which was incorporated into the vernaculars of 
Hindustan, during the southward migrations of the Scythic tribes. 
In Telugu, h&ni means ^j, or one quarter of a sixteenth" (Brown). 
In Canarese -fa (Reeve), and in Tamil -J^. (Winslow). Wilson's 
Glossary gives " Ktini, corruptly, Cawney. Tel. Tain. Karn. -g^, or 
sometimes 75V 't 

The term kdni, in addition to its preferable meaning of -g^, was, as 
we see, also used for the fraction g 1 ^, but its application in the former 
sense to the ruling integer in the present instance, seems to be con- 
clusively settled by the relative proportions assigned to the modified 
tankah of Muhammad bin Tughlak, when compared with the normal 
weight of the earlier coin (: 64 : : 175 : 50 : : 136718). 

The method in which the subdivisional currency was arranged, 
consisted, as has already been stated, of an admixture of the two 
metals, silver and copper, in intentionally varying proportions in 
pieces of identical weight, shape and device ; so that the traders in 
each case had to judge by the eye and hand of the intrinsic value of 
the coin presented to them. To European notions this system would 
imply endless doubt and uncertainty, but under the practised vision 
and delicate perceptive powers of touch, with which the natives of 
India are endowed, but little difficulty seems to have been experi- 
enced ; and I myself can testify to the accuracy of the verdicts pro- 
nounced by the experienced men of Delhi, whose instinctive estimates 
were tested repeatedly by absolute assay. I published many of these 

* Num. Chron. iv. 58 ; J. A. S. B. xxxiii. 2G6. 

f There is a coin called a " Do-gani or Doodee," still quoted in tho Madras 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 

[No. 3, 

results, some years ago, in the Numismatic Chronicle,* where the 
curious in these matters may trace many of the gradational pieces 
of the hinis above enumerated. As some further experiments in 
reference to the intrinsic values of these coins were made, at my in- 
stance, in the Calcutta Mint, I subjoin a table of the authoritative 
results, which sufficiently confirms the previous less exhaustive assays 
by the native process. 


Composed of Silver ami Copper in varying proportions, forwarded for 
examination by Edward Thomas, Esq., C. S., 10th Jane, 1853. 

O <D 

Reference to Numbers 

No. of 


1 Dwts. Fine 

o o 

A. H. 

of Coins in 

Coins in 


Silver per 


" Pathan Sultans." 



ft. in each. 



Mubarak Shah. No. 66. 





Muhammad bin Tughlak. 
No. 91. 





Sikandar Bahlol. No. 163. 





53 33 






33 33 




33 33 




33 33 





33 33 





33 53 






33 33 





33 35 





55 55 


142 500 




33 33 






33 33 

141 150 




53 33 









55 33 





55 35 

140 200 




33 33 





33 33 





33 3) 






33 33 





35 33 






33 33 





55 53 





55 33 





33 35 


138 250 




35 55 

133 250 




55 33 





33 33 





33 33 






33 33 





33 33 



Vol. xv. 1852, p. 121, et seq. 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 23 

The Institutes of Manu have preserved a record, reproduced in the 
subjoined table, of the various weights in use, some centuries before 
Christ,* and among other tilings explain, that the values of gold 
and copper were calculated by a different metric scheme, to that 
applied to silver. A larger number of Ratis went to the Masha in 
the former, and the progression of numbers commenced with a five 
(5 X 16), while the silver estimates were founded on the simple arith- 
metic of fours (2 X 16), which constituted so special a characteristic 
of India's home civilization. Still, the two sets of tables, starting 
from independent bases, were very early assimilated and adapted to 
each other in the advancing totals, so that the 320 ratis constituting 
the saiamdna of the quarternary multiplication, is created in the 
third line by the use of a ten, and the quasi exotic scheme corrects 
its independent elements by multiplying by four, and produces a 
similar total in the contents of the Pala or Nishka. The second lines 
of the tables are severally filled in with the aggregate numbers, 32 
and 80, and as the duplication of the former, or 64, has been seen to 

* Manu. viii. 131. — " Those names of copper, silver, and gold (weights) 
which are commonly used among men for the purpose of worldly business, 
I will now comprehensively explain. 132. — The very small mote which maybe 
discerned in a sunbeam passing through a lattice is the first of quantities, 
and men call it a trasarenu. 133. — Eight of those trasarenus are supposed 
equal in weight to one minute poppy-seed (liksha), three of those seeds 
are equal to one black mustard-seed (rajasarshapa) , and three of these last to a 
white mustard-seed (gaitra-sarshapa) . 131. — Six white mustard-seeds ar equal 
to a middle-sized barley-corn (yava), three such barley-corns to one Tirslinala 
[raktika], five krshnalas of gold are one mdsha, and sixteen such mdshas one 
suvarna. 135. — Four suvarnas make a pala, ten palas a dharana, but two 
krshnalas weighed together are considered as one silver mashaka. 13G. — 
Sixteen of those mashakas are a silver dharana or purdna, but a copper ledrsha, 
is known to be a pana or harshapana. 137. — Ten dharanas of silver are known 
by the name of a satamdna, and the weight of four suvarnas has also the appella- 
tion of a nishka." These statements may be tabulated thus as the 



2 ratis 

= 1 masha 

32 „ 

= 16 „ 


f 1 dharana, 
\ or purana. 

320 „ 

= 160 „ 



10 „ 

1 satamana. 

5 ratis 

= 1 masha. 

80 „ 

= 16 „ 


1 suvarna. 

320 „ 

= 64 „ 


4 „ 

C 1 pala, or 
^ nishka. 

3200 „ 

= 610 „ 



40 „ 

= 10 „ =1 dharana 

80 ratis 

= 1 kars 



24 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 3, 

do duty in the case, the probability of the use of the 1G0 naturally 
suggests itself in connexion with the theoretical organization of the 
copper coinage. 

In proceeding to test the relations of the minor and subordinate 
currencies, the cardinal point to be determined is, the exchangeable 
value of copper as against silver. It has been affirmed by Cole- 
brooke,* that the ratio stood in Manu's time at 64 to 1 : accepting 
the correctness of this estimate, which has, I believe, remained un- 
challenged, and supposing the rate to have remained practically but 
little affected up to the Muhammadan conquest, the 175 grains of 
silver of Altamsh's new coinage would be equivalent in metallic 
value to 11,200 grains of copper. The ancient copper kdrshdpana 
is recognised and defined as 80 ratis in weight, so that under 
the above conditions, and calculating the rati at 1.75 grains, each 
karshapana was equal to 140 grains, and eighty of these, under the 
same calculations, give a return of 11,200 grains. Without at present 
advancing any more definite proposition, or quoting dubious coincidences 
it may be as well to test these preliminary results by the Numismatic 
data Firuz Shah's Mints have left as an heritage behind him. Among 
the incidents quoted regarding that monarch's monetary innovations 
he is stated to have introduced, for the first time, half and quarter 
Chitals. On the occasion of a very elaborate revision of my mono- 
graph on the Pathan Sultans of Dehli, while residing under the very 
shadow of so many of their memorial edifices, I acquired and described, 
among others, two specimens of the money of this king, which seemed 
to be closely identifiable with his Utopian productions of new and 
infinitesimal subdivisions of the leading copper coinage, in his express- 
ed desire of securing for the poorest of the poor, the fractional change 
they might be entitled to in the most limited purchases. f These 
coins responded singularly in their mutual proportions, and contri- 
buted in the form of once current money, definitive weights in copper 
amounting severally to 34.5 and 17.8 grains, from which a very low 
estimate was deduced of 34.8 and 17.4, as a normal official standard. 

* As. Ees. v. 95. 

f Shams-i-Siraj, in his work entitled the Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi, gives the- 
following incidents regarding Firuz Shah's coinages : — 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 25 

U the 34.8 grain of the first of these be multiplied by 160, it will 
give a return of 5568.0 grains, and accepting 
this trial piece, conditionally, as Firuz's novel /5^\-f-*Kn) 
half-Chital* it will be seen to furnish a general \J52p^is!^ 
total of 11136 grains for the copper equivalent of \ Chital of Firdz. 
the 175 grains of silver contained in the old Tankah, and confirms the 
range of the Chital at 69.6 grains, or only .4 short of the full contents 
tradition would assign it, as the unchanged halfkdrshd'pana of primitive 

c^-^i \at*£& *k"j)j& igy^ 0*** ^ j** ) ^MJl£^ jKi&* 

^aj AS" ^AOyi &\*>j* &»})j& ^UaL* *j^ JbjfcUJ oJIa. ^jI 

The original and unique MS., from which the above passage is extracted, is in 
the possession of the Nawab Zia-ud-din of Loharii, in the Dehli territory. 

* I once supposed these two coins to be whole and half Chitals, instead of the 
half and quarter pieces now adopted. 

f It may be as well to state distinctly that the most complete affirmation of 
the numismatic existence of a Chital of a given weight and value, supported even 
by all anterior written testimony, in no wise detracts from the subsequent and 
independent use of the name for the purposes of account, a confusion which per- 
chance may have arisen from the traditional permanency of the term itself, which 
in either case might eventually have been used to represent higher or lower 
values than that which originally belonged to it. Zia-i-Barni at one moment 
seems to employ the term as a fractional fiftieth of the Tankah, while in other 
parts of the same or similar documents he quotes a total of " sixty Chitals," 
and in his statement of progressive advances of price, mentions the rise from 
twenty Chitals to half a Tankah. Ferishtah following, with but vague know- 
ledge, declares that fifty Chitals constituted the Tankah ; while Abtil Fazl, who 
had real information on these matters as understood in his own day, asserts 
that the dam was divided "in account" into twenty-five Chitals. (See Suppt. 
Pathan Sultans, p. 31 ; N. C. xv. 156 ; Ferishtah, p. 299 ; Gladwin A. A., L, p. 
36.) Then again there seems to have been some direct association between 
Chitals and Kdnis, as General Cunningham has published a coin which he as 
yet has only partially deciphered, bearing the word &Xk*- on the one side, and 
tjty [i/^i] on the other. J. A. S. B., 1862, p. 425. 

" 4 

26 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

ages.f To pass to the opposite extreme for a test of the copper ex- 
change rate, it is found that when Shir Shah reorganised the northern 
coinage of Hindustan, by the lights of his southern experience, and 
swept away all dubious combinations of metals, reducing the copper 
standard to its severe chemical element ; his Mint statistics show 
that the 178 grains of silver, constituting his revised Tankah, ex- 
changed against 40 dams, or double chitals of copper, of an ascertained 
quadrupled weight of 323.5 grains each, producing in all a total of 
12,940 grains of the latter metal, as the equivalent of 178 grains of 
silver, or in the ratio of 72.69 to 1 ; though, even in the altered 
weights and modified proportions, still retaining inherent traces of the 
old scheme of fours, in the half dam of 80, and the quarter dam of 160 
to the new " Rupee." 

It remains to discover upon what principles the new silver coinage of 
Altamsh was based. That copper was the ruling standard by which 
the relative values of the more precious metals were determined, there 
can scarcely be a doubt. The estimate by Panas of the ancient Law- 
giver, the constant reckoning by Chitals of the early Muhammadan 
intruders, down to the revenue assessments of Akbar, all of which 
were calculated in copper coin, sufficiently establish the permanency 
of the local custom, and the intrinsic contents of Altamsh's Sikkah 
or iLaJL)\ of 174 or 175 grains, must primarily have been regulated by 
the silver equivalent of a given number of Chitals. Had the old silver 
Purdna been still in vogue, the new coin might have been supposed 
to have been based upon their weights and values ; three of which 
Puranas would have answered to an approximate total of 96 ratis ; 
but although the weight of the old coin had been preserved in the 
more modern Dehli-wdlas, the metallic value of the current pieces had 
been so reduced, that from 16 to 24 would probably have been re- 
quired to meet the exchange against the original silver Tankah ; on 
the other hand, although the number of 96 ratis does not occur in the 
ancient tables, the combination of the inconvenient number of three 
Puranas into one piece, is by no means opposed to Vedic ideas ; and 
there can be no question but that the traditional 96 ratis, of whatever 
origination, is constant in the modern tolah ; but, as I have said before, 
the question whether the new coin was designed to constitute an even 
one hundred rati -piece, which, in process of time, by wear or inten- 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 27 

tional lowering of standard weights, came to settle down to the 96 rati 
tolah, remains to be proved by the determination of the decimals in 
troy-grains, which ought to be assigned to the normal rati. 

I now proceed to notice the historical bearings of the coins of the 
Bengal series. 

Any general revision of a special subject, coincident with the dis- 
covery of an unusually large amount of new illustrative materials, owes 
a first tribute to previous commentators — whose range of identifica- 
tion may chance to have been circumscribed by more limited archaeo- 
logical data, the application of which may equally have been narrowed 
by the inaccessibility of written history, heretofore confined, as in the 
present instance, to original Oriental MSS., or the partial transcripts 
and translations incidentally made known to the European world. 
At the head of the list of modern contributors must be placed, in 
point of time, M. Reinaud, who, so long ago as 1823, deciphered and 
described several types of the Bengal Mintages, commencing with 
those of Ilias Shah (No. viii. of this series).* Closely following 
appeared Marsden's elaborate work, which, among other novelties, 
displayed a well-sustained sequence of Bengal coins, with correspond- 
ing engravings, still unequalled, though in point of antiquity pro- 
ducing nothing earlier than the issues of the same Ilias Shah, who 
had inaugurated the newly-asserted independence of the southern 
monarchy, with such a wealth of coinages. f Next in order must be 
cited a paper, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, by Mr. 
Laidlay, which added materially to the numismatic records of the 
local sovereigns, though still remaining deficient in the development 
of memorials of the more purely introductory history of the king- 
dom.:]: I myself, in the course of the publication of the Imperial 
Coins of the Pathan Sultans of Dehli,§ had occasion to notice two 
pieces of Bahadur Shah, one of which proved of considerable interest, 
and likewise coins of both Shams-ud-din Firiiz, and Mubarak Shah, 
whose defective marginal legends, however, defeated any conclusive 
assignment to their original producers. 

* Journal Asiatique, Paris, vol. iii., p. 272. 

f Numismata Orientalia, London, 1825, pp. 561-585. 

X Vol. xv. (1846), p. 323. 

§ Wertheimer, London, 1847, pp. 37, 42, 82, and Supplement printed at Delhi 
in 1851, p. 15. See also Numismatic Chronicle, vol. ix., pp, 176, 181 ; vol. x., 
p. 153 j and vol. xv. p. 124, 

28 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1 

The chronicles of a subordinate and, in those days, but little ac- 
cessible country were too often neglected by the national historians 
at the Court of Dehli, even if their means of information as to the 
course of local events had not necessarily been more or less imperfect. 
Two striking exceptions to the ordinary rule fortuitously occur, at 
conjunctions specially bearing upon the present enquiry, in the 
narratives of Minhaj-ul-Siraj, Juzjani, and the " Travels of Ibn Batu- 
tah," the former of whom accompanied Tughan Khan to Lakhnauti, 
in a. h. 640,* where he resided for about two years. The Arab from 
Tangiers,f on his way round to China, as ambassador on the part 
of Muhammad bin Tughlak, found himself in Eastern Bengal at 
the inconvenient moment when Fakhr-ud-din Mubarak was in a 
state of undisguised revolt against the emperor, to whom they jointly 
owed allegiance ; but this did not interfere with his practical spirit of 
enquiry, or his placing on record a most graphic description of the 
existing civilization and politics of the kingdom, and further compiling 
a singularly fresh and independent account (derived clearly from 
viva voce statements) of the immediately preceding dynastio 
changes to which the province had been subjected. So that, 
in effect, Ibn Batutah, with his merely incidental observations, has 
done more for the elucidation of the obscurities of the indigenous 

* The Tabakat^i-Nasiri of Abu Umar Minhaj-ud-dm bin Siraj-ud-din, Juzjani, 
has been printed and published in the Persian series of the Bibliotheca Indica, 
under the auspices of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Calcutta, 1864, pp. 453.) 
The chapters on Indian and Central Asian affairs, with which the author was 
more or less personally conversant, have alone been reproduced. The usual 
Oriental commencement with the history of the world, the rise of Muham* 
madanism, etc., being mere compilations from secondary sources, have been very 
properly excluded from this edition. A full notice of the original work will be 
found in Mr. Morley's Catalogue of the MSS. of the R. A. S., p. 17 (London, 
1854). Several other works of native historians, bearing upon the subject of this 
paper, have also been made accessible to the public in a printed form in the same 
collection, among which may be noted the Tarikh-i^Firuz Shahi (the third king of 
the name in the Dehli list), by Zia-i-Barni (Calcutta, 1862, pp. 602), and the 
Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh of Abd ul Kadir, Buclduni (Calcutta, 1865, pp. 407). 
The editors have unadvisedly, I think, omitted the early portions of the original 
relating to India, and commence the publication with the accession of Akbar. 
An outline of the entire contents of the work will be found in Sir H. Elliot's 
Historians of India (Calcutta, 1849, p. 305). 

f An English version of Ibn Batutah's Travels (taken from an abridged text), 
by Dr. S. Lee, was published in the series of the Oriental Translation Fund in 
1829 (1 vol., 4to , London). A new and very complete edition of his entire 
Arabic Text, with a French Translation, chiefly the work of the late M. C. 
Defremery, has been issued within the last few years by the Societe Asiatique of 
Paris (4 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1853-1858). 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 29 

history of the period represented by the earlier coins of the Kooch 
Bahar hoard, than all the native authors combined, to whose writings 
we at present have access. 

The merits of these authors may or may not appear upon the surface 
in the subsequent pages, as it is only in doubtful or difficult cases that 
their aid may chance to be invoked, but for the obscure series of the 
first Governors of Bengal, the one stands alone ; and for the space of 
time intervening between the provincial obscuration of Nasir-ud-din 
Mahinud, the unambitious son of Balban, to the revival of public in- 
terest in Bengal, consequent upon the subjection and capture of a 
rebel Vassal by Ghias-ud-din Tughlak Shah, the chance traveller 
describes more effectively the political mutations and varying mo- 
narchical successions than the professed historiographers treating ex- 
clusively of the annals of their own land. 

The following list of Local Governors has been compiled, the early 
portion from the precise statements of Minhaj-ul-Siraj, the latter part 
from the casual notices of Bengal, to be found in Ziti-i-Barni, who 
professed to continue the history of India from the latest date reached 
by the former author, or from a.ii. 658 to 753, being a period of 95 
years, covering the reigns of eleven kings. The last-named work was 
finally completed in a.h. 758. 

The arrangement of the names and dates of accession of the chiefs 
will be found to depart occasionally from the details given by Stew- 
art,* in his excellent History of Bengal, but I have designedly sought 
to draw my materials independently from the original authorities, 
whom he was perhaps in a less favourable position for consulting than 
the student of the present day. 

* The History of Bengal, by Charles Stewart. London, 1813. 4to. 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 

[No. 1, 







js^- j^sr? <X*s/° 







L^ tri^l ^ 


iJJUj! ^J^l «-»** 


First Muhammadan conqueror o* 

Bengal, under Kutb-ud-din of Dehli- 

Succeeds to the local government 

after the death of Muhammad 


Nominated to the government by 
Kutb-ud-din, on whose decease in 
a.h. 607, he assumes independ- 
Commandant at Deokdt, establishes 
his power and assumes royal honors. 
He submits to Altamsh in a.h. 622, 
but almost immediately commences 
an active revolt, which is put an 
end to in his capture by Nasir-ud- 
din Mahmud, the eldest son of Al- 
tamsh, in a.h. 624. 
Nasir-ud-din had been appointed by 
his father Governor of Oudh, in 
a.h. 623, from whence he ad- 
vanced against Hisam ud-din in 
624, and recovered the kingdom of 
Bengal, where he remained as sub- 
king till his death early in 626 
After temporary disturbances in the 
province, Altamsh, having restored 
order in a.h. 627, designated Ala- 
ud din Jani to the charge of Ben- 
Nominated to Bengal on the dismissal 
of Ala-ud-din Jani (date not given). 
Dies in 631 a.h. 

* Minhai-ul-Siraj, who treats of the history of his own and immediately pre- 
ceding times, introduces the reigns of the more powerful sovereigns with a full 
list of the Court notabilities, forming a sort of Almanach de Gotha oi Muham- 
madan India These lists embrace the various branches of the Royal Family, 
Ministers, Judges, and Governors of Provinces. The following names of the 
k>U's or military administrators of Bengal, which appear in the official returns, 
may serve to check or confirm the imperfect data obtained from the casual 
notices of local history to be met with in the general narrative of the events of 
the Empire at large. There is this discrimination, however, to be made that 
these imperial nominations were often merely titular, while the effective ex- 
ecutive was in other and independent hands : 

Under Altamsh, a.h. 607-633. 

%*\) )±\j. ^^° u*!*ji y^i vsU * Jy^ ^ 1/o 

Under Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, a.h, 644-664. 

^UrHAfa Jji3o vl^l y j*&\ 



kSJULo ,JU ^U* 

0& ^U. 


^*J| j3U r ;*'J| *siuii 

vaiJLo &yd ^Lk^w ji?^ 

The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 



8. u [kis Jj^° vi**^ 

9. \i)\& J^j^ vi*J\j+> 

10. £k)y„ ^J\ jk 1 ^ 

11. dj*~««> 

12. ^jy v^> vlA^y 

Pledges his allegiance to Riziyh on 
her elevation in a. h. 634; continues 
in the Government till 642 a. ii., 
when he surrenders the kingdom to 
No. 9. (Minhdj-ul-Siraj, the his- 
torian, was at his court at this 
latter period. 

Obtains possession of Lakhnauti on 
the 5th Zul Kaad, a. h. 642 — dies 
in 644. 

Dates uncertain. First appointed 
during the reign of Nasir-ud-dfn 
Mahmtid of Dehlf. He seems to 
have been a powerful ruler and a 
daring commander, and finally met 
his death in his retreat from an 
over-venturesome expedition into 
Kiimrup. He had previously as« 
sumed independence under the title 



,1a. ^lUj! ^h 

15. Jj*±> iy*^l 

16. &*hy*U ^ [fi 

( ^LL^Ixi 


Appointed in a. h. 656. 

subsequently in temporary posses- 

Recognised, on receipt of his tribu- 
taiy presents at head- quarters, in 
the early part of A. H. 657. 

Obtains a momentary advantage over 
No. 12 in his absence from hia 
Capital ; eventually taken prisoner 
and superseded by No. 12. 

Son of No. 12.* On the accession of 
Balban in a. h. 664, he forwards 
elephants and tribute to Dehli. 

Appointed by Balban.f He after- 
wards asserts his independence, 
and assumes the title of 

Balban sends armies against him 
without success, and at last pro- 
ceeds in person to Bengal. Finally, 
Toghral is surprised and killed. 

Second son of Balban, installed with 
royal honors. 


* Zia-i-Barni in one place, page 53, calls him jj'jL 
and again, at page 66. ^tiJoftf ^(^ j& !jj! ^ 
f Zia-i-Barni, pp. 82-92. 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 

[No. 1, 

As I have such frequent occasion to quote the names of the Kings 
of the Imperial Dynasty of Dehli, I annex for facility of reference a 
full list of these Sovereigns. 









Muiz-ud-din Muhammad bin Sam (1st Dynasty.) 



Kutb-ud-din Aibek. 



Aram Shah. 



Shams-ud-dm Altamsh. 



Rukn-ud-din Firuz Shah I. 



Sultan Riziah. 



Muiz-ud-din Bahram Shah. 



Ala-ud-din Masaiid Shah. 



Nasir-ud-dm Mahmud. 



Ghias-ud-dfn Balban. 



Muiz-ud-dm Kaikubad. 



Jalal-ud-din Firtiz Shah II., Khilji (2nd Dynasty). 



Rukn-ud-din Ibrahim. 



Ala-ud-din Muhammad Shah. 



Shahab-ud-din Umar. 



Kutb-ud-dm Mubarak Shah I. 



Nasir-ud-dm Khusru. 



Ghias-ud-din Tughlak Shah (3rd Dynasty). 



Muhammad bin Tughlak. 



Firuz Shall III., bin Salar Rajab. 



Tughlak Shah II. 



Abtibakr Shah. 



Muhammad Shah bin Firtiz Shah. 



Sikandar Shah. 



Mahmud Shah bin Muhammad Shah (Timtir, 800). 



Nusrat Shah, Interregnum, Mahmud restored, 802. 



Daulat Khan Lodi, 



Khizr Khan Syud (4th Dynasty). 



Muiz-ud-din-Mubarak Shah II. 



Muhammad Shah bin Farid Shah. 



'Aalam Shah. 



Bahldl Lodi (5th Dynasty). 



Sikandar bin Bahldl. 



Ibrahim bin Sikandar (Baber, 930 A.H.) 



Muhammad Humayun, Moghul. 



Farid-ud-din Shir Shah, Afghan. 



Islam Shah. 



Muhammad 'Aadil Shah. 



Ibrahim Stir. 



Sikandar Shah (Humayun, 962 A.H.) 

The unenlivened Chronicles of the Local Governors of Bengal enter 
upon a more interesting phase, in the nomination of Nasir-ud-din 

18G7.] Tlie Initial Coinage of Bengal 33 

Mahinud, the son of the Emperor Balban, who subsequently came 
to prefer the easy dignity of Viceroy, in the more even climate of the 
south, in derogation of his birth-right's higher honours, and the 
attendant dangers of Imperialism at Dehli. One of the most touch- 
ing chapters of Indian history is contributed by the incidents of this 
monarch's meeting with his own arrogant son, Muiz-ud-din Kaiku- 
bad, who had succeeded to the superior dignities abjured by the 
father.* They then met as nominal Vassal and Suzerain, but little 
unequal in power, and each occupying independent and preparedly 
hostile camps, on the ordinary route between their respective capitals. 
Oriental etiquette, and more reasonable distrust, for a time delayed 
the interview, in which, at last, nature was destined to re-assert its 
laws, and to reconcile even conflicting royal interests, by subduing, 
for the moment, the coarse vices of the son in the presence of the 
tempered virtues of the father. Repeated amicable conferences, how- 
ever, merely resulted in each returning on his way, with but little 
change in the relative political position of either ; and the compara- 
tively obscure repose of Nasir-ud-din Mahinud remained undisturbed, 
while other successors filled his son's throne at Dehli. The more 
immediate question bearing upon the attribution of the earliest coins 
in the Kooch Bahar treasure, is exactly how long did Nasir-ud-din 
continue to live and reign. Zia-i-Barni,f and those who follow his 
ill-digested history, affirm that he retained his provincial kingship 
till 699 a.h., when he divested himself of all symbols of royalty in 
the mere dread of the confessedly overwhelming power of Ala-ud- 
din Muhammad Shah, to be, however, reinstated by that Sultan ; 
and, finally, it is asserted that Nasir-ud-din was still in existence, 
and once again reinvested with the full insignia of a king, by Tughlak 
Shah, in a.h. 724. 

Ibn Batutah, a higher authority in proximity of time, and obvi- 
ously more intimate with the purely indigenous history, states that 
Nasir-ud-din, on his ruturn from his interview with his son, reigned 
some years (^J^) ,$ an expression which is scarcely compatible with 

* Zia-i-Barni, p. 142 ; Ibn Batutah, iii., p. 178; Lee's Translation, p. 117 ; 
and ui±x~)\&\j3 f Amir Khusru, Dehli vi. 

f Printed edition, p. 451; Budauni MS. ; Ferishtah (Briggs, i. p. 406). 

% French edition, iii., p. 179, and xiii. Dr. Lee's &&**» "two years," p. 118, 
is an error. 


34 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

the idea of a nearly continuous rule of " forty -three solar years," and 
a decease in a.h. 725, as adopted by Stewart :* a prolongation of 
administrative functions indeed altogether inconsistent with the direct 
evidence of the dates on the money of Kai Kails, or the parallel proof 
of Shams-ud-din's exercise of the functions of sovereignty in 702 
a.h., associated as they are with the uncontested historical and nu- 
mismatic demonstration of the succession of one grandson, Shahab-ud- 
dm, whose ejection from his inherited section of the kingdom by his 
more powerful brother, Bahadur, formed so prominent a ground for 
imperial interference in the affairs of Bengal. There facts are each and 
all too well ascertained to leave any doubt that the authors who make 
Nasir-ud-din's reign extend to 725 must be in error ; the source of the 
mistake seems as simple as it is obvious, the mere omission of the son's 
name as preceding that of the father, in Persian MS. writing, or simple 
ignorance of the order of local successions, would account for the whole 
difficulty. And, as is obvious, Ibn Batutah's own personal knowledge, 
and possibly correct autograph version, reproduced independently in 
other lands, have not saved later transcripts of his work from analo- 
gous imperfections.f 

But there are other and more direct internal evidences in the texts 
of the Indian authors, of confusion and imperfect knowledge in the 
relation of the incidents attendant upon the re-settlement of Bengal 
by Ala-ud-din a.h. 699, where it is stated that u a chief, named 
Bahadur Khan," was at this time appointed to " the eastern districts 
of Bengal,"| with the object of dividing the province, and thus 
rendering its rulers " more subservient to the Court of Dehli." It is 
highly improbable, had Nasir-ud-din been living at the epoch in ques- 
tion, that a grandson of his should have been selected for such a 
charge to the supercession of his own father, Shams-ud-din, or in 
priority to the son of that father, Shahab-ud-din, who was the elder 
or perhaps better-born brother of Bahadur, each of whom, Ibn Batutah 

* Stewart's Bengal, p. 80. 

f Ex. gr., Bahadur is made the son of Nasir-ud-din, at p. 179, vol. iii., instead 
of the grandson, which the text at p. 210, vol. iii., and p. 213, vol. iv., affirms him 
to have been. Lee's MS. authorities again, in omitting the intermediate name of 
Nasir-ud-din, skip a generation, and ante-date Shams-ud-din (Firuz) in consti- 
tuting him a son of Ghias-ud-din Balban (p. 128). 

% Ferishtah, Briggs, i., p. 406 ; Stewart, p. 79. 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 


certifies, in turn succeeded to royal honours in the old capital of 

Having completed this simple outline of the historical data, I now 

proceed to describe the coins in their due order ; first on the list in 

priority of time is a piece which I can only doubtfully assign to 

Bengal, and whose individual appropriation, moreover, must remain 

to a certain extent inconclusive. The coin itself will be seen to bear 

the hereditary name of the first Moslem Conqueror of India, Mahmud 

of Ghazni, and the oft-revived title of the founder of the dynasty, 

Nas/'r-ud-dhi Subuktagin, a conjunction of royal designation already 

seen to have been applied to a succession of Pathan princes, whose 

intitulation followed antecedent conventionalisms. 

Ndsir-ud-din. Mahmud Shtih. 

No. 1. 

Silver. Size, viii. Weight, 1G3.1 grs. Unique, British Museum. 

Onv. Hev. 

^.Ml U ULLJ| 

Margin, illegible. 

The incidental details of the legends restrict the assignment of this 
piece to one of two individuals, the eldest or the youngest son of 
Altamsh, the latter of whom was authoritatively designated by the 
like name and title on the decease of his brother, in 626 ah.* The 

Tabakat Nasiri, p. 181 ; S&^t^J \jcy 


^s*° j*#q j~«* Jjj fcjJUj p. 201, 

36 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

citation of the formula, " during the reign of (the Khalif) Al Mos- 
tansir bill ah," on the reverse, limits the final period of the issue of 
the coin, not exactly to the 5th month of the year a.h. 640, when 
that Pontiff died, but with clear precision to a.h. 641, when the 
knowledge of his death was officially declared by the substitution of a 
new name in the Mintages of the capital of Hindustan.* 

This younger son was destined eventually to succeed to the throne 
of his father at Dehli, in 644 a.h., after the intervening reigns of 
Bukn-ud-din Fi'ruz Shah, Riziah, Muiz-ud-din Bahrain Shah, and 
Ala-ud-din Masaud Shah, in all, however, extending only over a 
space of eleven years, posterior to the death of Altamsh. The second 
Mahmud, must, under these conditions, have been but of tender years, 
and though, at this conjuncture, promoted to the titular honours of 
an elder brother, not in any position to exercise authority in his own 
person, and less likely to have had medallic tribute paid to him by his 
father, should such have been the origin of the exceptional specimen 
under review. To the first-born Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, no such 
objections apply ; he was very early invested by his sire with the 
administration of the important government of Hansi, and in 623 
a.h., advanced to the higher charge of the dependencies of Oudh, from 
which quasi frontier, he was called upon to proceed against Hisam- 
ud-din Avaz, (No. 4 in the list of Grovernors, supra), who had already 
achieved a very complete independence in the province of Bengal. 
Here, his arms were fortuitously, but not the less effectually, success- 
ful, so that he had honours thrust upon him even to the Red Um- 
brella, and its attendant dignities, t whatever the exact measure of 
these may have been. Under such triumphant coincidences, it is 
possible that the universal favourite, the still loyal heir- apparent, 
may have placed his own name on the coinage, without designed 
offence, especially as at this time Moslem Mints were only beginning 
to adapt themselves to their early naturalization on Indian soil, and 
when the conqueror's camps carried with them the simple machinery, 
and equally ready adepts, for converting bullion plunder on the instant 
into the official money of a general, or his liege sovereign. Altamsh's 

* Pathan Sultans of Dehli, coin No. 33, p. 22. 

f His title is usually limited by Minhaj-ul-Siraj to i£iJU pp. 177, 181, 201 ; 
but on one occasion ^UaLo crops out incidentally in the Court list where, in 
his place among the sons of the Emperor Altamsh, he is so designated, p. 178. 


1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal 37 

own circulating media were only in process of crude development at 
this period, and had scarcely risen superior to the purely Hindu cur- 
rencies it had served the purpose of his predecessors to leave virtually 
intact : his own strange Tiirki name,* and that of many of his suc- 
cessors, continued to figure in the Ndgari letters of the subject races 
on the surfaces of the mixed silver and copper coins of indigenous 
origin, at times commemorative of imperfectly achieved conquests, 
and the limited ascendancy implied in the retention of the joint names 
of the conqueror and the momentarily subject monarch ;f while the 
Sultan's own trial-pieces, in silver, were indeterminate in their design 
and legends, as w r ell as utterly barbarous in their graphic execution. 

Had the coin under review followed the usual phraseology and 
palaeography of the Imperial Nasir-ud-din Mahmiid's Mint legends, 
it might have been imagined that an ancient and obsolete reverse 
had been, by hazard, associated with a new obverse. But the obverse 
inscription in the present instance differs from the latter Dehli no- 
menclature in the addition of the word Shah after the name of Mah- 
mud,l and contrasts as singularly in the forms of the letters, and the 

* This name I have, as a general rule, retained in the form accepted as the 
conventional English orthography — Altamsh. The correct rendering of the 
original is still an open question, but the more trustworthy authors reproduce the 
designation as ,£.*ijJ| a transcription supported in a measure by the repetition 

of the third letter in the Kufic dies, and made authoritative, in as far as local 
pronunciation is concerned, by the Hindi correlative version of ft*rf?ff?rfflf% 
(Pathan Sultans, Coin No. 14). The inscription on the Kutb Minar, at Dehli, 
has iji+sL) which accords with the Arabic numismatic rendering on the 
reverses of the Hindi Coins now cited. 

See also Taj-ul-Maasir, Alitimish : Wasaf, Alitmish, and at times <£.*ljt 
Badauni, Ailtitimish. 

Elliot's Historians of India, p. 111. 

f See coins of Chahir cleva. 

Obverse. Bull. Legend : ^[^T^tI ^t ^JWTT^rf^fa ' 

Reverse. Horseman. Legend : ^\ ^T^^" ^^' I 
— Pathan Sultans, No. 15 ; Ariana Antiqua, pi. xix. 16. 31, 31 ; Prinsep's Essays, 
i. 333, pi. xxvi. 31; Minhaj-ul-Siraj, pp. 215,240; Tod's Rajasthan, ii. 451 ; 
and J. A. S. Bengal, 1865, p. 126. 

X So,inwrittenhistory, Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, the Emperor, is called byhis own 

special biographer, ^ikoJl ^j t }^+s: /0 ^J^hj Li^l^cO *h*+)\ ^tkL* 

(pp. 9, 177, 178, 201, etc ) which is in contrast to the nominal adjunct so constant 
with his predecessors, Fimz Shah, Bahram Shah, Masaucl Shah. On one occasion 
only does the additional Shah appear in a substituted list of Altamsh'a Court 
(p. 178), where the text gives— 1. Sultan Nasir-ud-din * * 2. Sultan Nasir- 
ud-din Mahmud ; and at the end, after the name of Rukn-ud-dm Firuz Shah, 
comes " Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Shah." 

38 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

insertion of the short vowels with the more deferred issues, as it, on 
the other hand, closely identifies itself in these marked peculiarities 
with the initial dies of Altamsh and the closely sequent coinages of 
Riziah, two of which latter are now known to be the produce of the 
Lakhnauti Mint. 


The earliest coins that can be definitely attributed to a Bengal 
mint, are those of the celebrated Queen Regnant of Muhammadan 
India — Riziah, the daughter of Altamsh. The ministers at her 
father's court were scandalized at the preference it was proposed to 
extend to a daughter, in supercession of the claims of adult male heirs 
to the throne ; but the Sultan justified his selection, alike on account 
of the demerits of his sons, and the gifts and acquirements of his 
daughter, who had been brought up under the unusual advantages of 
freedom from the seclusion enjoined for females by the more severe 
custom of ordinary Moslem households, aided by the advantages in- 
cident to the exalted position occupied by her mother as the leading 
and independently- domiciled wife. After the brief reign of Rukn-ud- 
dm Firuz, extending over less than seven months — who freely ex- 
emplified by his misconduct his father's prophetic reproach — Riziah 
succeeded in establishing her supremacy in the city of Dehli (a. h. 
734), and Eastern eyes witnessed the singular spectacle of an unveiled 
and diademed Queen — the first in India — directing the hosts of Islam, 
under the canopy of the immemorial regal seat on an elephant. 
Riziah's early inauguration was attended with no inconsiderable dan- 
ger and difficulty, arising from the organised military resources of the 
various governors of provinces, who hesitated in conceding their 
allegiance. Eventually, however, to use the expression of Minhaj- 
ul-Siraj, quiet was established throughout the empire, and Riziah's 
sway was acknowledged from " Daibal to Lakhnauti." In a.h. 737, 
the Empress proceeded in person to quell an outbreak on the part of 
Ikhtiar-ud-din Altimiah, Governor of Tiberhind ; but was taken 
captive in the engagement that ensued, and, possibly with scant cere- 
mony, introduced into the harem of the conqueror, who shortly 
afterwards advanced upon Dehli in the hope of recovering the so- 
vereignty, to which he had thus acquired an adventitious claim ; but 

Bengal Coins 



1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal 39 

his army was in turn defeated, and himself and Riziah met their 
deaths near Kaithal in the month of Kabi-al-Awal, a.h. 738. * 

The contemporary biographer in his official lists styles this queen 
^iiJ| <u*3j lylLLJf, a title which she affects on the ordinary copper 
coins, f but on the silver money she adopts the designation of &&*> 

Jalalat-ud-din. Riziah. 

Coin No. 2. 

Laknauti, a.h. ? 

Silver. Size, vii. Weight, 168 grs. Plate I., figure 1. 

Type, Obverse, the whole surface is occupied by the legend. 

Reverse, chculer area, enclosing a double-lined square. 
Narrow margin. 
Obv. Rev. 

Reverse Margin, * * &•* fjtj&l *^iJ| I^a * * 

(See also a similar coin from the Laknauti Mint, Plate i., fig. 
27, page 19. Coins of the Pathan Sultans of Hindustan.:} 

* Tabakat Nasiri, pp. 183, 185, 251. See also Ibn Batutah, iii. pp. 1G7, 1G8. 
t Pathan Sultans, Nos. 28, 29. 

$ It would seem from the orthography adopted in this earliest record of the 
name of Laknauti (.-Jji&J \ that the original Semitic transcription was designed 

to follow the classical derivation of LakshmanavaU (^^mj^fft) which was 
soon, however, adapted to the more colloquial Luchhman (^+$=J\ by the addi- 
tion of an h after the fc, as ^Jj.^SJ ; in which form it appears under the first local 

Sultans (coin No. 3, etc.). Minhaj-ul-Siraj relates its elevation to the rank of the 
capital in supercession of Nuddeah by Muhammad Bakhtiar in the following terms : 

Printed edit. p. 151. The same author, at p. 162, gives a full account of the 
remarkable size, progress, and general topography of the city as existing in 641 
a.h. od the occasion of his own visit. 

It is difficult to say when the name of the city was changed to Gaur, a denomi- 
nation which is never made use of by the older authorities. Abul Fazl says, 

40 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 


The full and satisfactory identification of the king who ruled under 
the designation of Kaus has yet to be accomplished. Rajendralala 
Mitra has suggested a notion that Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, the son of 
Balban, so often mentioned in this article, sought, as local ruler of 
Bengal, " to continue his allegiance to his grandson Kaimurs [momen- 
tarily king of Dehli], even after his deposition, and possibly after his 
death,"* by retaining his name on the public money. I should be 
disposed to seek a less complicated explanation of the numismatic 
evidences. Kai Kaus' date, tested by the examples of his mintages in 
the Kooch Bahar hoard, is limited, in range of time, to five years 
(691-695 a.h.) ;f a latitude might be taken beyond the ascertained 
units, which are somewhat indeterminate in their tracings, and have 
equally suffered from abrasion, on the exposed margins of the coins, 
but the ninety and the six hundred can scarcely be contested. If we 
examine the political state of India at this period, we find that Hin- 
dustan was abnormally quiet under the feeble rule of Jalal-ud-din 
Firuz (687-696 a.h.) : Ala-ud-din's conquests in the Dakhin could 
have but little affected Bengal, so that any changes that may have 
taken place in the latter kingdom were probably due to succes- 
sional or revolutionary causes arising within its own limits. We can 
scarcely build up a theory of an access of vigour and assumption of 

" Formerly it was called Lucknouty, and sometimes Gour" (A. A. ii p. 11) ; while 
Budauni gives a ridiculous version of the origin of the designation as being 
derived from ^y. He writes ^l^j Ls*f ^ *jL*x> jLisi a*sr* ^ 

d,j\& j*b jjS &? jiyoy j.±+*Z cA>y^ *&?• The obvious imperfection 
of the critical philology of the derivation, however, debars its reception, as does 
the caustic alternative of jj=" grave," which the often deserted site, under the 
speedy action of water and a semi-tropical vegetation, may have deservedly earn- 
ed tor it. But it is quite legitimate to infer that as jfre was the ancient name 
for central Bengal (Wilson, Glossary, sub voce; Albiruni, quoted J. E. A. S. i., 
JN. b., p. 471), and so intimately associated with the tribal divisions of the 
indigenous Brahmans, that the designation originated in the popular appli- 
cation of the name of the country to its own metropolis, and that the town 
continued to be called Gam in vernacular speech in spite of the new names 
so frequently bestowed upon it by its alien lords. 

* Jour. As. Soc. Beng., 1864, p 508. 

•f • Rajendra Lala says, "the units one and three are perfectly clear." Col. 
Cruthne s three coins are imperfect in the word for the unit. I observe traces of 
&jowr on two specimens; and I read, with some certainty, 695 on another. 

1807.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 41 

independence by Nasir-ud-din himself ; nov is it probable that, in such 
a case, he would have changed both his title and his name. Besides, 
the array of title on the coins in the triple succession of Sultans is 
altogether inconsistent with his actual origin. Though he was the 
son of one emperor of Dehli, and the father of another, he could 
scarcely ignore the rise of the former from a state of slavery, or 
conceal the fact that Balban himself never pretended to have been the 
offspring of a king. The two alternatives remain, of either supposing 
that Nasir-ud-din died before 691 a.h., a question discussed elsewhere, 
or to conclude that his son Rukn-ud-din Kai Kaiis temporarily as- 
sumed kingship during the lifetime of his father,* and that his 
limited reign and local obscurity saved his memory from the com- 
ments of history. I fully endorse Rajendra Lai's suggestion that Kai 
Kaiis would have been likely to be selected as a name for one of a 
family who took so many of their designations from Persian heroic 
ages, and the elaborate intitulation adopted by that prince, on his 
coins, of the " son and grandson of a Sultan," favours such an identi- 
fication.!- It will be seen that, although the opening terms of his 
obverse legends follow the conventional and unvarying mint phraseo- 

* The following is the genealogical tree, according to Ibn Batutah. See vol. 
Hi., pp. 171-5, 179, 210, 4G2 ; vol. iv., p. 212. 

^=* &*J\ j*x> <io*£Ji ja 

[ wj^x? ? ] c^^u"-*^ ^th* e^l y xx> 

^Irk^lk* j^l$J ^JJ.iidj^c ^jJl^li (^JiXJl^l^ 

t The name of the son of Kai Kobad, who was elevated to the throne of Dehli 
ion the death of his father, is variously given by Oriental writers as Shams-ud-din 

btjAyiS and^jKAr. Budauni and the Mirat-ul-Alm (MS.) give Kai Kaus, 
! but the majority of authors prefer the Kaiomurs. Zi'a-i-Barni does not state the 
iname of the boy, but mentions a son of Altanisb, in the previous generation as 

having been called Kaiomurs (printed ed. p. 126). 


42 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1 ; 

logy in the use of cjlkLJij the (reigning) Sultan, yet after his own 
proper name he styles himself merely cullaJ-w, and seemingly desired 
to strengthen his position by the insertion of the regal titles of his 
father and grandfather ; though there is so far room for questioning 
this supposition in the fact -that the father had fallen short of supreme 
power, and was only doubtfully authorized to call himself Sultan, 
while in strictness the Imperial Balban should have been designated 
the Sultan (past regnant) ; but on the other hand, Nasir-ud-din had 
been so long virtually a king in the south, that the complimentary 
use of the term was quite within heraldic licence ; and it is to be 
remarked, that a similar omission of the supreme prefix occurs in 
Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Shah's coin (No. 1), which, if correctly attri- 
buted, would prove the legitimacy* of the optional use of one or the 
other form. 

These are avowedly mere speculations ; but when it is considered 
how much attention was paid in India, in those days, to every vary- 
ing shade and degree of honorary rank, how much importance was 
attached to even the colours of official umbrellas,! and other, to us, 
minor observances, it cannot but be felt that these subordinate indica- 
tions may chance to prove of material aid in illustrating doubtful 

Kai Kaiis. 

No. 3. 

Lakhnauti, a.h. " 691, 693, "J and 694-695. 

Silver. Size, vii. Weight, 168 grs. Very rare. Plate I. fig. 2. 
Type, as in the previous coins. 

* The Bengal Mints, after the initial uncertainty, soon settle themselves down 
to follow the established Dehli models. In the latter, it will be seen, o T eat care 
was taken by all those sovereigns who could boast of a Royal descent^ to define 
the face upon their coins. Bahrain Shah, Masdud Shah, Nasir-ud-din 'Mahmud 
bin Altamsh, and Ibrahim bin Firuz all entitle themselves ,olkiJLJ| . J Bal- 
ban, Kai Kubad, Jalal-ud-din Firuz, and the great Ala-ud-din Muhammad Shah 
have to be content with their own self-achieved joliaJUJf 

t °^ 3 t^j <-** j ^tittf j^ «*~>j Minhaj ul-Siraj, p, 263 j 
^*>k j*»" _j^j cJj'^ f^'l difc to, p. 181, a.h. 625. 

1867.]' The Initial Coinage of Bengal: 4& 

Obv. Rev. 

lylliU. y^r >a^/l 

r ^| 

Margin, fj U***j ^±*~"!j cr*^ ***■ c$V^ *a>y*-^ A*fliJ|<*A ^^ 

Whatever may have been the actual date of Nasir-ud-din's decease 
or political obscuration, we tread upon more firm ground in the con- 
joint testimony of the coins and the historical reminiscences of Ibn 
Batutah, in the assurance that his son, Shams-ud-din Firuz, was in 
full possession of power in Western Bengal at the time of Muhammad 
bin Tughlak's abortive revolt against his own father, in 722-3 a.h.* 
The African traveller incidentally mentions that to the court of this 
southern monarch fled the nobles who had engaged in the contem- 
plated treason, which originated in the camp of the army of the 
Dakhin, of which the imperial heir was commander. Professedly 
written history is altogether at fault in establishing the existence 
or illustrating the reign of this sovereign ; and even Ibn Batutahf 

* As this passage presents no particular difficulty, beyond the difference of the 
texts from which English and French translators have drawn their inspiration, I 
merely annex the rendering given in the amended Paris edition, voL iii., p. 210. 
" Les autres emirs s'enfnirent pies clu Sultan Chems eddin, fils du sultan Nacir- 
edd in, fils du sultan Ghiyath eddin Balaban, et se fixerent a sa cour. . . Lesemh*3 
fugitiis sejournerent pres du sultan Chems eddin. Dans- la suite, celui-ci 
mourut, leguant le trone a son fils Chiliab eddin. Ce prince succeda a son pere; 
mais son frere cadet, Ghiyath eddin Behadour Bourah (ce dernier mot signifie, 
dans la langue indienne le noir), le vanquit, s'empara du royaume, et tua son 
frere Kothlovi Khan, ainsi que la plupart de ses autres freres. Deux de Geux-ci, 
le sultan Chihab eddin, et Nasir eddin, s'enfuirent pres de Togbluk, qui se mit 
en marche avec eux, afin de combattre le fratricide. Illaissa dans son royaume 
son fils Mohammed en qualite de vice-roi, et s'avanca en hate vers le pays de 
Lacnaouty. II s'en rendit maitre, fit prisonnier soe sultan Ghiyath eddin Beha- 
dour et reprit avec ce captif le chemin de sa capitale." See also Lee's Translation, 
p. 128. 

f Ibn Batutah in the following extract tells us so much about the veal history 
of Bengal at, and previous to his own visit, that I quote the Arabic text in 
extenso ; I feel it is the more necessary to reproduce the original version on this 
occasion, as Dr. Lee's translation is altogether deficient in any reference to the 
passage, which was clearly wanting in the MSS. at his disposal. 

v£o\£ &9y6JUJlj ^f^AJI U5j*fl.&j &jk)\ ^i ^s=. K Jl^'i ^IkL* 

44 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

does little more than place upon record the affiliation, elevation, and 
decease of Shams-ud-dm, whose own coins alone furnish the addition- 
al item of his regal name of Finiz ; and in their marginal records 

UftiJlj &J \S&) *^ii ^U^ vSAUJ, ^jjJ|j.*/o $*Jj ^j c5^'^ A J e^ 

a^i <*jJU v^ e;' C5- 1 ' e^«^l v 1 ^ d ^ L$^* t5^* ^ ^ 

j^dJt d,L^ ^tkl-Jb ^*J| v l«^ ^I~lJ j^J ^Itf i^l &^ 

kfiJUU IJ ±+ZZ* *^l *&&\ *J l;J^f Jj JJ^V ^ij tj*±* &*> 

%'cyit ^JU ^jj &ix* ^S^ &lA'k» &Az ilSu l£*1x> a+^laj ^f ^^ 
v^liil ^ $U ^U l^Lo ^ ^JyLjj^~*.Jf AliA5 A.J |^-o a&Jl 

Jj\ cwK l^ti »U uc 1-p i^j A ^ &J&I o^-^lj «^^4 <-UiUlj 

v ^| ^Jl &Jls# ^JLc gU ^U jU| l^jj ^k/o}/ t JJ\ pbjt o^£ lifj 

Vol. iv. p. 212, Paris edition. <3uj AJj'si) 


C'est le Sultan Fakhr eddin, surnomme Fakreh, qui est un souverain dis- 
tingue, aimant les etrangers, surfcout les fakirs et les soufis. La royaute de ce 
pays a appartenu au Sultan Nassir eddin, fils du Sultan Ghiyath ed din Balban, 
et dont le fils, Mo'izz eddin, fut investi de la souverainete a Dihly. Nassir eddin 
se mit en marche pour combattre ce fils ; ils se rencontrerent sur les bords du 
fleuve, et leur entrevue fut appelee la rencontre des deux astres heureux. Nous 
avons deja raeonte cela, et comment Nassir eddin abandonna 1' empire a son fils 
et retourna dans le Bengale. II y sejourna jusqu'a sa mort, et eut pour succes- 
seur son (autre) fils, Chams eddin, qui, apres son trepas, fut lui-meme remplace 
par son fils, Chihab eddin, lequel fut vaincu par son frere, Ghiyath eddin 
Behadour Bour. Chihab eddin demanda du secours au Sultan Ghiyath eddin 
Toghlok, qui lui en accorda, et fit prisonnier Behadour Bour. Celui-ci fut 
ensuite relache par le fils de Toghlok, Mohammed, apres son avenement, a con- 
dition de partager avec lui la royaate du Bengale ; mais il se revolta contre lui, 
et Mohammad lui fit la guerre jusqu'a ce qu'il le tuat. II nomma alors gouver- 
neur de ce pays un de ses beaux-freres, que les troupes massacrerent. ' Aly Chah, 
qui se trouvait alors dans le pays de Lacnaouty, s' empara de la royaute du 
Bengale. Quand Fakhr eddin vit que la puissance royale etait sortie de la 
famille du Sultan Nassir eddin, dont il etait un des affranchis (ou clients), il se 
revolta a. Sodcawan et dans le Bengale, et se cleclara independant. Une violente 
inimitie survint entre lui et 'Aly Chah. Lorsqu'arrivaient le temps de l'hiver et la 
saison des pluies, Fakhr eddin faisait une incursion sur le pays de Lacnaouty, au 
moyen du fleuve, sur leqnel il etait puissant. Mais quand revenaient les jours ou 
il ne tombe pas de pluie, 'Aly Chah fondait sur le Bengale par la voie de terre, a 
cause de la puissance qu'il avait sur celle-ci. 

1867.] TJic Initial Coinage of Bewjal. 45 

establish the fact of his possession of Lukhnauti during the period 
embraced between the years 702-722, and (at some moment) of 
his ownership the Eastern Province of Bengal represented by the mint 
of Sonargaon. A subordinate incident is developed in the legends 
of the coins, that he felt himself sufficiently firm in his own power to 
discard the supererogatory adjuncts of descent or relationship, and 
relied upon the simple affirmation of his own position as ^UoLJi. 

Shains-ud-din. Firiiz Shah. 

No. 4. 

Lakhnauti, a.ti. 702,* 715, (Col. Bush), 720, 722. 

Silver. Size, vii. Weight, 168.4 grs. Very rare. Plate I., fig. 3. 

Type as above. 

Obv. Rev. 

Margin, [ *-U*a~» ] j \&ij»* &*• J*^& o^^' i>*jJt±A v ^ 

No. 5. 
Sonargaon, a.ii. ? 
Silver. Size, vii. Weight, 168 grs. Unique. 
Type as above. 


Neither history, incidental biography, nor numismatic remains 
avail to do more than prove the elevation, as they seem to indicate 
the brief and uneventful rule, of Shahab-ud-dm, the son of Shams-ud- 
dfn Firtiz, and grandson of the once recognised heir-apparent of 

* See also Pathan Sultans of Hindustan, p. 37, coin dated 702 a.h. This 
com was published by me in 1848. I then read the date as 702 a.h. I was not 
at the time unversed in the decipherment of Arabic numbers, and probably from 
the very difficulty of placing the piece itself, I may the more rely upon the accu- 
racy of my original interpretation. I mention this fact, as I am at present un- 
able to refer to the coin itself. 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 

[No. 1, 

The singularly limited number of the coins of this prince, confined 
— if Calcutta selections be not at fault* — to three examples amid 
the 13,500 accumulated specimens of the currencies of other kings 
of the land over which he temporarily held sway, sufficiently mark 
his status in the general list of the potentates of the century in which 
he lived. No date or place of mintage is preserved on his extant 
money, and the single additional item supplied by their aid is his 
personal or proper name, which 'appears on their surfaces as ***-> ; 
a crude outline which might suggest a doubt as to the conclusiveness 
of the transcription of S^J, now confidently adopted as expressing an 
optional rendering of the grandfather's title of iyti.|^*f,f a name 
which was even further distorted from the Turki original by the 
conversion of the medial j r into the vernacular cerebral ^ or 3 = d. 
For the rest, the pieces themselves, under the mechanical test, in 
their make, the forms of their letters, and the tenor of their legends, 
evidently follow closely upon Shams-ud-din's mintages, and as clearly 
precede the money of the same locality, issued by G-hias-ud-din 
Bahadur Shah who in 724 a. ii. drove this, his own brother, Shahab- 
ud-din to take refuge with Grhias-ud-din Tughlak Shah. Bahadur's 
career has yet to be told in connexion with his own coins ; but to 
dispose of Shahab-ucl-din,J as far as the exercise of his Mint prerog* 
tives are concerned, he seems to have been lost to fame, from the 

* The name of this king does not appear in any of RajendralaTs lists. 

f The ancient name of C^ UL J^-Ui.1, f Bokhara notoriety in 350 A. h. 
(Frashn Recensio Numorum Muhammadanorum, pp. 139, 593, 578), was sub- 
jected to strange mutations on Indian soil. My authority for the substitution of 
the final $ in place of the vowel | is derived from Ibn Batutah, who uniformly 
writes the word with an g (hi. 231, 5, 293.) Ferishtah (text, p. 131) has \yu-, 
whence Stewart's Bagora (p. 74). Dow gave the name as Kera, and Briggs as 
Kurra (i. pp. 265, 270, etc.). 

% Those who delight in interesting coincidences might see, in this name of 
Shahab-ud-dm, a most tempting opportunity for associating him with a really 
important record by the Indigenes themselves, inscribed on a stone slab in the 
fort of Chunar, setting forth their victory over a " Malik" Shahab-ud-din, 
quoted as acting under Muhammad bin Tughlak, in Samvat 1390 (a. h. 734) ; 
but I confess I do not myself encourage the identification. Chunar is certainly 
not out of the range of access from Bengal ; but other men of mark may have 
filled this command, and the name of the fortress itself is never heard of in 
reference to the affairs of the kingdom of Lakhnauti, in those early days, though 
the main road of communication between the two capitals of the north and the 
south took its course through Budaun or Kanauj and Jaunpore. The inscription 
is otherwise well worthy of further examination, in as far as it concerns the 
history of imperial influence upon proximate localities j and as such I transcribe 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal 47 

date when lie was absorbed with an associate fugitive brother (Nasir- 
ud-din) under the icgis of the Emperor of Dehli. 

Shahdb-ud-dm. Bughrah Shah. 
No. 6. 
Mint, ? 
Silver. Size, vii. Weight, 1G8.5 grs. Two coins only, Col, 
Guthrie. Plate I., fig. 4. 

both the text and Dr. Mills' translation of the brief passages which may chance 
to illustrate the general subject. 
Verse 5 : 

IjTTiTT fa[f%m$*TJTHjT tpr^tifq- ^qTfsrfq: It 

"By Muhammad, lord of the hostile Favanas SHAHAB-UD-nfN and the rest, 
though an enemy, was, the treasure of benignity, employed as prime 

Verse 11 : 

u Samvat 1390, in the month of Bhatlra, fifth clay of the waning moon, on 
Thursday, was the kingdom sot free from Malik SHAHAB-UD-DfN, acting under 
the protecting favour of Sairaja Dev.v aforesaid." 
—See Journal As. Soc. Bengal, vol. v., 1836, p. 341). 

A subordinate but still more open inquiry also suggests itself in connexion with 
the mention of Shahab-ud-din in 734 a. H., as to whether, amid the strange con- 
fusion of names and titles, the " Kadr Khan," who is noticed by Ferishtah under 
the original designation of Malik Bidar Khilji, may not, perchance, have been the 
identical Shahab-ud-din Bugh/rah, reinstated as simple governor in Lakhnauti, as 
his brother Bahadur w r as restored to power in Sonargaon. I am aware that this is 
treacherous ground to venture upon ; but such a supposition is not without other 
incidental support, especially iu lbn Batutah's passage (original, iii. 214, quoted 
at p 48), where Kadr Khan is spoken of as if he had been in effect the last scion 
of the family of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Bughrah. 

The original passages in Ferishtah are as follows (i. p. 237) : — 

&& 0^^2X0 ^^A^xJ ^.jl^a. &iZ£ \j ^Is^j^J j Cvjjj ^XJ dJl^ij 

See also Briggs' Translation, i. pp. 412, 423. 

The Tarjkh Mubarak Shahi has the name in manifest mistranscription asBanddr, 

A difficulty necessarily suggests itself in regard to the tribe of Khilji, but the 
use of the name in its non-ethnic sense might readily be explained by the old 
subordination of the Bengal family to the Khilji dynasty of Firuz, or the 
specially Khilji serial succession of the earlier governors of Bengal. 

48 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Type as usual. 

Obv. Rev. 

Margin, (remainder illegible) — h'^^j^ 


The single point in the biography of Bahadur Shah, which remains 
at all obscure, is the date of his first attaining power. Ibn Batutah 
records with sufficient distinctness, that he conquered and set aside 
his regnant brother Shahdb-ud-din, sometime prior to Grhias-ud-din 
Tughlak's reassertion of the ancient suzerainty of Dehli over the 
lightly-held allegiance of Bengal, and his eventual carrying away 
captive the offending Bahadur, who was, however, soon to be released, 
and restored with added honours,* by Muhammad bin Tughlak, 
almost immediately on his own accession. Indian home-authors, who 
so rarely refer to the affairs of the Grangetic delta, give vague intima- 
tions of the first appointment of Bahadur to Eastern Bengal by 'Ala- 
ud-din Muhammad in a. h. 799,f assigning to him an inconceivable 
interval of placid repose until a. h. 717, when he is stated to have 
broken out into the turbulent self-assertion for which he was after- 
wards so celebrated. 

The two statements are certainly at variance, but Ibn Batutah's 
is the most readily reconcilable with probabilities, and the demands 
of the up to this time legible dates on the coins which Bahadur put 
into circulation in Bengal. I might have some doubt as to the 
conclusiveness of the reading of the date 710 on his money in the 
Kooch Bahar trouvaille, but I have none as to the clear expression 
of a.h. 711 and 712, though the singular break occurring between 
712 (or 714) and 720 suggests a suspicion of an originally imperfect 

jj A^| ^ c^aAj jjjj! l^Uj \) tjd£ jli-* jaltf ^(kL. ^a. * 

Tabakafc-i-Akbari. &\& j! ^Uij jd jk£x» d}> *i\yL j± &&* 

See also Zia-i-Barni, printed edit. p. 461. 
t Stewart, p. 75. Ferishtah (Briggs) i. 406. 

l s »'>7.] Tlte Initial Coinage of Bengal. 49 

die-rendering of ihdj^ = 10 for <^>.j^ = 20 ;* which would bring 
the corrected range of Bahadur's dates to 720-724 ; but even these 
figures leave something to be reconciled in reference to their asso- 
ciate place of mintage, for in 720-722, his father, Shams-ud din 
Finlz, was clearly in possession of the already commemorated " Lahh- 
nauti ;" but such an anomaly might be explained by the supposition 
that Bahadur, in the earlier days, used the name of Lakhnauti as a 
geographical expression for a portion of the dominions ordinarily 
administered from that capital. Undoubtedly the first appearance of 
the contrasted designation of the Eastern capital " Sonargaon" occurs on 
a coin of his father ; but even this sign of discrimination of urban 
issues would not be altogether opposed to a continuance by Bahadur 
of the loose usage of Camp Mints, of naming the metropolis as the 
general term for the division at large, or inconsistent with the 
subsidiary legitimate employment of the designation of the province 
on a coinage effected anywhere within its own boundaries, — either 
of which simple causes may have prevailed, and been utilized with 
a new motive, if any covert ulterior meaning might be designed, as 
implying that Bahadur himself had special successional or other 
claims to the metropolitan districts. 

Tughlak Shah's intervention in the affairs of Bengal seems to have 
originated in an appeal on the part of the ejected Shahab-ud-dhi 
against the usurpation of his brother Bahadur. The result of the 
Imperial expedition to the South was the defeat, capture, and 
transport to Dehli of Bahadur Shah ; but among the first acts of the 
new Sultan, Muhammad bin Tughlak, was the release and re-installa- 
tion of the offender, showing clearly that he was something more 
than an ordinary local governor, transferable at will, and that possibly 
the interests of the father and son, in their newly-established dynastic 
rank, and the confessed insubordination of the latter, were indepen- 
dently advocated by the opposing members of the royal line of 
Bengal, whose family tree could show so much more ancient a series 
of regal successions than their parvenu Suzerains, whose elevation 
dated scarce five years back. One of the most interesting illustrations 

* Among more critical Arabic scholars than the Bengal Mint Masters ever 
affected to be, this point would have been easily determined by the insertion 
or omission of the conjunction j vau, which, as a rule, is required to couple the 
imits and the twenties, but is not used with the units and tens. 


50 Tlie Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

of the present series is contributed by coin No. 9, in the legends of 
which Bahadur acknowledges the supremacy of Muhammad bin 
Tughlak over Eastern Bengal during a.h. 628.* The subjection 
seems, however, to have been of brief duration, as sometime in or 
after the year a.h. 730 Bahadur appears to have reverted to an 
independent coinage, in a new capital called after his own title 
Ghidspur (coin No. 8), and in a.h. 733 Muhammad bin Tughlak is 
found issuing his own coin in Bengal, and Bahadur, defeated and put 
to death, contributed an example to insurgent governors in his own 
skin, which was stuffed and paraded through the provinces of the 

iv. Bahadur Shah. 
No. 7. 
Lakhnauti, a. h. 710?, 711, 712, 7-3, 7-4,f break 720, 721, 722. 

Silver. Size, vii. to viii. "Weight, ordinarily, 166 grs. ; one 
example is as high as 167.5 grs. Rare. 

Obv. Rev. 

Margin, ^V* *■**•* *^l ***** (^/h^ ifiy*** a^^I^a ^j*& 

* Ibn Batutala gives the following additional particulars of Bahadur's rein- 
stallation : — " II [Muhammad bin Tughlak] lui fit de nombreux cadeaux en 
argent, chevaux, elephants, et le renvoya dans son royaume. II expedia avec 
lui le fils de son frere, Ibrahim Khan ; il couvint avec Behadour Bourah qu'ils 
possederaient le dit royaume par egales moities ; que leurs noms figureraient 
ensemble sur les monnaies ; que la priere serait faite en leur nom commun, et 
que Ghiyath eddin enverrait son fils Mohammed dit Berbath (is^^), comme 
otage pres du souverain de l'lnde. Ghiyath eddin partit, et observa toutes le3 
promesses qu'il avait faitesj seulement il n'envoya pas son fils, comme il avait 
ete stipule. II pi^etendit que ce dernier s'y etait refuse, et, dans son discours, 
il blessa les convenances. Le souverain de l'lnde fit marcher au secours dn 
fils de son frere, Ibrahim Khan, des troupes dont le commandant etait Doldjf 

altatiry (^ jSSJl^s^^y Elles combattirent Ghiyath eddin et le tuerentj elles 

le depouillerent de sa peau, qu'on rembourra de paille, et qu'on promena ensuite 
dans les provinces." — Vol. iii. p. 316. 

f The dates 7-3, 7-4, may perchance be obliterated records of 723 and 724. 
I have placed them among the lower figures, but I have no sanction for 
retaining them in that position. 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 51 

No. 8. 
Second Mint, {xhiaspur. Date, 730. 
Silver. Size, vii. Weight, 166 and 164.5 gre. Very rare. Two 
coins. Col. Guthrie. Plate I., fig. 5. 

Margin, # &&$& Z*** JJ$ 3 ^ aa-aS aw/i^a # 
IV. Bahadur Shall, 
as Vassal under Muhammad bin Tughlak. 
No. 9. 
Sonargaon, a.ii. 728. 
Silver. Weight, 140 grs. Unique. Dehli Archaeological Society. 
Obverse, && jzltf jiSaJl j*\ jj>JifcJ| y U*All &U* f&M ^UaJLJf 

Reverse, Area, t\^ <^*> <^> <x*a^° dJJb &\j)\j*1} <^j^> 

Margin, &U***j b>ir***J e>^ **-• jjfcjta. i^-a^ a£~Ji 2^a 

Muhammad bin Tughlak Shah, Emperor of Hindustan, 

(in his own name) after the re-conquest of Bengal. 

No. 10. 

Lakhnauti, a.h. 733. 

Silver. Small coins. Size, v. to vj. Weight of well-preserved 

coins, 168.5 grs. Five specimens, Col. Guthrie. Plate I., fig. 6. 

Obv. Rev. 

Reverse, Margin, 

If the place of mintage of these imperial coins had been illegible, 
I should almost have been prepared, on the strength of the pecu- 
liarity of the forms of the letters, to have assigned their execution 
to a Bengal artist. The original model for the type of coinage may 
be seen in fig. 90, page 54, Pathan Sultans. The late Mr. G. Free- 
ling, of the Bengal C.S., has left on record his acquisition of a gold 
piece of the same design (from the Dehli Mint) dated a.h. 725. 

52 The Initial Coinage oj Bengal. [No. 1, 


On the departure of Muhammad bin Tughlak from Bengal, Tatar 
Khan, honorarily entitled Bahram Khan, an adopted son of Ghias- 
ud-din Tughlak, seems to have been left in charge of the provinces 
included in the government of Sonargaon, while the Lakhnauti 
division of the kingdom of Bengal was entrusted to Kadr Khan. 
On the death of Bahram Khan,* which is stated to have taken place 
in 739 — but may probably have to be antedated to 737 — Fakhr-ud- 
din Mubarak, his Sildhddr, took possession of the government, and 
proclaimed his independence. He was in the first instance defeated 
by the troops sent against him from Lakhnauti, but finally succeeded 
in maintaining his authority, and, as the coins prove, in retaining his 
hold on Sonargaon and its dependencies throughout the nine years, 
from 741 to 750 a.h., comparatively undisturbed. The history of 
the period is confused, and the dates given by the native authors 
prove of little value ;f but the coins establish the fact that in 751 
another ruler, designated Ikhtidr-ud-din Ghazi Shah, presided over 
the Mints of Eastern Bengal. 

v. Fakhr-ud-din. Mubarak Shah. 

No. 11. 

Sonargaon, a.h. 737,-741, 742, 743, 744, 745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 


Silver. Size, vi. to vij. Weight, 166.0 grs. Unique. 

Plate I., fig. 7. 

Obv. Rev. 


* Nizam-ud-dm Ahmad says, Mubarak killed Bahram Khan ; while Abul Fazl 
affirms that Mubarak put Kadr Khan to death.— Ayin-i-Akbari, ii. 21. 
f Ferishtah, Briggs, i. pp. 412-413 ; iv. 328. Stewart, pp. 80-83. 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 53 

The above specimen is unique in date, and varies in the opening 
legend of the reverse from the less rare coins of later years, which 
commence with a&^-sh ij^+i* 


'Ali Shah, whom Muhammadan writers, by a strange jumble, have 
endowed with the surname of his adversary Mubarak, and ordinarily 
refer to as " 'Ali Mubarak,"f assumed kingship on the death of 
Kadr Khan, Muhammad Tughlak's representative at Lakhnauti, 
entitling himself 'Ala-ud-din. The more important incidents of his 
reign are confined to his hostilities with his rival, Fakhr-ud-dia 
Mubarak of Sonargaon, who possessed advantages in his maritime 
resources, while the rivers remained navigable for large vessels during 
the rainy season, but which were more than counterbalanced by Ali 
Shah's power on land, which availed him for the greater part of the 
year, and which finally enabled him to establish his undisputed rule 
in the Western provinces. 

His coins exhibit elates ranging from 742 to 746 a.h., and bear 
the impress of the new mint of the metropolis, Firuzabad, an evidence 
of a change in the royal residence, which clearly implies something 
more than a mere removal to a new site proximate to the old Lakh- 
nauti, whose name is henceforth lost sight of, and may be taken to 
indicate a strategetic transfer of the court to the safer and less exposed 
locality of the future capital, Pandua.J 'Ali Shah is stated to have 
been assassinated by his foster brother, Haji Ilfas. § 
1 Ala-ud-din. 'Ali Shah. 
No. 12. 
Firuzabad, 742, 744, 745, 746. 

Silver. Size, vij. Weight, 166.7 grs. Rare. Plate I. fig. 8. 

Type as usual. 

* See also an engraving of his coin (dated 750) Pathan Sultans, fig. 151 and 
page 82. 

f Budauni MS. Ferishtah, iv. 329. Stewart, p. 82. Ayin-i-Akbari, ii. 21. 

j Stewart, speaking of FiruVs advance against Ilfas, says, "the Emperor 
advanced to a place now called Feroseporeabad, where he pitched his camp 
and commenced the operations of the siege of Pundua," p. 84. There is a Mahal 
Firuzpur in Sircar Tandah, noticed in the Ayin-i-Akbari, ii. p. 2. See also 
the note from Shams-i-Siraj, quoted below (p. 61), under the notice of Ilfas 
Shah's reign. 

§ Stewart, p. 83. 

54 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Obv. Rev. 

%\LxU yi3a+i\ \y\ 



At the period of this king's accession to the sovereignty of Sonar- 
gaon in a. h. 750 or 751, we lose the aid of our most trustworthy- 
recorder of the annals of Bengal during his own time. The conclu- 
sion of Ibn Batutah's narrative leaves Fakhr-ud-din Mubarak still 
in power, while the native authorities are clearly at fault in their 
arrangement . of dates and events, and altogether silent as to any 
change in the succession in Eastern Bengal, except in their allusions 
to the more than problematical capture of Fakhr-ud-din and his 
execution by 'Ali Mubarak in 743 a.h., with the final accession of 
Ilias " one year and five months afterwards."* 

The numismatic testimony would seem to show that Mubarak 
was succeeded by his own son, as the Ul Sultan bin Ul Sultan may 
be taken to imply. The immediately consecutive dates, and the 
absolute identity of the fabric of the coins, as well as the retention 
of the style of Right-hand of the Khalifat on the reverse, alike 
connect the two princes ; while the cessation of the issues of Ghazi 
Shah simultaneously with the acquisition of Sonargaon by Ilias, 
in a.h. 753, would seem to point to the gradual spread of the power 
of the latter, which is stated to have been at its zenith just before 
Firuz III. assailed him in his newly consolidated monarchy in 754.f 

* Stewart, p. 83. 

f Shams-i-Siraj, speaking on hearsay, affirms that Shams-ud-dm Ilias captured 
and slew Fakhr-ud-din after Firuz III.'s first expedition into Bengal, 
and that the main object of the latter's second invasion of that province 
was for the purpose of reasserting the rights of Zafar Khan, the son-in-law 
of Fakhr-ud-din (who had fled for protection to Dehli), to the kingdom of 
Eastern Bengal. It is asserted that although Firuz succeeded in obtaining 
this concession from Sikandar, who, in the interval, had succeeded to his 
father's throne, Zafar Khan himself was wise enough to decline the dangerous 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 55 

Ikhtidr-ud-din. Ghazi Shah. 

No. 13. 

Sonargaon, a.h. 751-753. 

Silver. Size, vi. Weight, 166 grs. Very rare indeed. Three 

coins, Col. Guthrie. Plate I. fig. 9. 

Obv. Rev. 

vylkJUJl^j a UaJLJ| 


The modern application of old coins divides itself into two branches 
— the suggestive development of obscure tradition, and the enlarge- 
ment and critical revision of accepted history. The transition point 
"between these archaeological functions, in the present series, declares 
itself in the accession of Ilias Shah, the first recognised and effectively 
independent Moslem Sultan of Bengal, the annals of whose reign 
have been so often imperfectly reproduced in prefatory introductions 
to the relation of the magnificent future his successors were destined 
to achieve as holders of the interests and the commercial prosperity 
of the Delta of the Granges, to whose heritage, indeed, England 
owes its effective ownership of the continent of India at the present 

proximity to so powerful a rival monarch, and to return in the suite of the 
Sultan. The Bengali troops, under Zafar Khan, subsequently distinguished them- 
selves in an opposite quarter of India, near Tattah, and their commander was 
eventually left in charge of Guzrat. — Shams-i-Siraj, book ii. cap. 9, etc. — 
See also Journal Archaeological Society of Dehli (Major Lewis's abstract 
translation), 1849, p. 15. 

The Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi (dedicated to Mubarak II.), the concluding 
date of which is 838 a.h., also declares that Haji Ilias killed Fakhr-ud-dm in 
741 a.h. This last date is a manifest error ; as is also, probably, the omission, 
by both authors, of the words son of before the name of Fakhr>ud-din. 

56 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

The compiler of the English version of the early history of 
Bengal* adopts the conclusion that Haji Ilias first obtained power 
on the assassination of " 'Ali Mubarak" in 745-6, but the previous 
rectification of the independent personality and status of the two 
individuals thus singularly absorbed into one, will prepare the reader 
for the corrections involved, though not, perhaps, for the apparent 
anomalies the coins disclose. Medallic testimony would seem to 
indicate a long waging of hostile interests between the real 'Ali 
Shah and Haji Ilias, before the latter attained his final local 
triumph ; for although Ilias is seen to have coined money in Fimzabad 
in 740 a.h., the chance seems to have been denied him in 741 ; 
and in 742 his adversary, 'Ali Shah, is found in full possession 
of the mint in question. The Kooch Bahar hoard reveals no coin of 
either party dated 743, but in 744 the two again compete for owner- 
ship, which 'Ali Shah for the time being continues through 745 into 
746, when the annual series is taken up and carried on successively 
for an uninterrupted twelve years by his more favoured opponent. It 
is needless to speculate on the varying course of these individual 
triumphs ; suffice it to say, that the increasing power of the ruler of 
Pandua, in 754, excited the Emperor Firuz III, to proceed against 
him in all the pomp and following of an Oriental suzerain, resulting 
only in the confession of weakness, conveniently attributed to 
the periodical flooding of the countryf — which effectively laid 

* Stewart, p. 83. 

f Stewart felt a difficulty about the right position of Akddlali, the real point 
of attack, and a place of considerable importance in the local history of Bengal. 
The following is Zia-i-B ami's description of the place, taken from the concluding 
chapters of his history on the occasion of Firtiz Shah's (III.) invasion of Bengal 
in 754 a.h:— 5 

P. 588, printed edit, ^j 3j\&$\ ^ <fcd j ^ \j \j 

Eennell gives another Akdallah north of Dacca. " Map of Hindoostan." 
In the following passage Shams-i-Siraj desires to make it appear that Firuz 
III. gave his own name to the city of Pandua ; but, as we have seen that the 
designation was applied to the new capital either in 740 or 742 — that is, long 
before Firuz became king of Dehli, it will be preferable to conclude that the 
name was originally bestowed in honour of the Shams-ud-dm Firuz of Bengal, of 
the present series. The quotation is otherwise of value, as it establishes, beyond 
a doubt, the true position of the new metropolis : — 

1867.] Tlte Initial Coinage of Bengal. 57 

the foundation of the ultimate independence of Bengal. A monarchy 
which was destined so to grow in power and material wealth as to be 
competent, indirectly, in the person of Shir Shah, to recover for the 
old Muhainmadan interest the cherished capitals of the north, and to 
eject from Hindustan the Moghuls who too hastily boasted of an easily- 
achieved conquest of the country " from Bhira to Bahar." 
Shams-ud-dln. Ilias Shah. 
No. 14. 
Firdzabad, a. n. 740, 744, 746, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751, 754, 755, 

756, 757, 758. 
Silver. Size, vii. Weight, selected specimens, lGS.Ogrs. ; ordinary 
weights, 166.0 grs. 
Type No. 1. The old Dehli pattern. 
Obverse, Square area. 
Reverse, Square area, within a circle. 
Obv. Rev. 


Type No. 1. Variety A. Silver. Size, vii. Weight, 166 grs. 
Obverse, Lettered surface. 
Reverse, Small circle, area. 
No. 15. 
Firuzabad, A. H. 758. 
Type No. 2. Broad coin. Size, ix. Weight of the best and selected 
specimens, 166.0 grs. only. 
Obverse, Plain lettered surface. 
Reverse, Circular area, with narrow margin. 

\) &Ji**l zU>)jjV ^IkL*. ^a. aJalfi ^bf jjj*» j$£ ^j jJaif^ 
jrf*tf (hence) * • t • ^1 }jj¥ \j h^H J*" J *J* f G Jji orf 

From the original MS. in the possession of Zia ud-din Khan of Loharu. 

58 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Legends, both obverse and reverse as in No. 1 type. 
Marginal legend, 
AjU*x* j, &****> J o l *$ **~ ^Ij^ £/*** ^ *'** V>* 
The Kooch Bahar trove must have been rich in this type of coin, 
and of the particular year a. h. 758, as out of 109 specimens in Col. 
Guthrie's collection, there is no single example of any other date. 

No. 16. 
Sonargaon, a. h. 753, 754, 755, 756, 757, 758. 
Type No. 3. Size, vii. Present weight, 166 grs. after the obvious 
reduction by boring out. Plate II., fig. 10. 
Obverse, Square area. 

Reverse, Circular area, with broad margin. 
Obv. Rev. 

&iHsJ\ ^♦j 



This king — the second only in the still incomplete assertion of 
local independence of allegiance to the throne of Dehli — exhibits in 
the material wealth of his national coinage the striking progress 
incident to comparative freedom and identity of home interests, which 
may be achieved, almost on the instant, by the denizens of a commer- 
cial centre so favoured by nature as the Delta of the Granges. 

Tried by such a test, few statistical returns could present more 
effectively the contrast disclosed in the Kooch Bahar treasure between 
the accumulated produce of the Bengal Mints, representing a century 
and a quarter's limited activity, attended with all the advantages 
of a diffused circulation, but under a subordinate government, as 
compared with the overwhelming array of coins bearing the impress 
of a single unfettered monarch, whose money was, in effect, new 
from the dies. To numismatists the enhanced proportion will be 

Bengal Coins 

18G7.] TJie Initial Coinage of Bengal 59 

more significantly shown by a reference to the additional number 
of Mint-cities, the singular variety of new types produced, and above 
all, by the sustained series and corroborating repetitions of annual 
dates. It is under the latter aspect alone that I have now to com- 
ment on the history of a reign already sufficiently told in other pages. 
Sikandar Shah placidly succeeded his father towards the end of 759 
A.n., and the coins of the period sufficiently support the date of such 
a transfer of power, in the final year 758 recorded on the issues of the 
father, though proof of the accession of the son is less marked, as 
the seeming anomaly obtained— under the conjoint efforts of father 
and son to achieve release from thraldom to a distant suzerain — of a 
concession to the son of much independent power, and, coincidently, 
the right to coin money in his own name, whether in his own camps 
or in his father's royal cities. Though some of the earlier designed 
coins give evidence of due humility in titular phraseology, the same 
simplicity is adhered to, in continuous mintages, long after the 
removal of any possible impediments or restrictions to the adoption 
of comparatively exalted titles ; though in the more independent 
governmental mintages of 758 A.n. (No. 21) thc^fexJi e>Ua.l~J| is affect- 
ed even during the life-time of the father, and, after his own accession, 
higher assumptions, and a more definite approach towards personal 
hierarchical honors, are discovered in the metropolitan issues of 76#- 
780 (No. 22), while special service against the infidels seems to be 
implied in the novel intitulation of *JJ| 1^-c^I^aIaJi " The conqueror of 
the enemies of God," on the Fin'izabad money of 769 a.h. (No. 23). 

But the most interesting details furnished by Sikandar's coins are 
those which illustrate the geographical distribution of the chief seats 
of government. Unlike the Northern Moslems, who, in the difficulty 
of moving the Eastern hosts — conventionally deemed essential to an 
Imperial progress — over the imperfect highways of Hindustan, con- 
fined themselves ordinarily to one fixed metropolis, the kings of 
Bengal enjoyed facilities of river communication almost unprecedented : 
their various capitals, situated within easy distance of one another, 
were at all times accessible by water, — a differently constructed 
State barge secured at any season free approach to the seaboard 
cities of the Great Ganges or the towns on the narrow channels of 
the western streams. These frequent regal visitations are incidentally 

60 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

recorded on the coinage of the day, by the insertion of the prefix 
of ciJ^aa. to the name of the selected residence, which term colloquial- 
ly marked the presence of royalty within the limits of the favoured 
fiscal, division. 

Sikandar's mint cities were five in number — No. 2, Firuzdbdd ; 3, 
Sdtgaon ; and 4, Shahr Nau, in Western Bengal ; with 5, Sondrgaon ; 
and 6, Muazamdbdd, in the Eastern division of the province. 

2. The first-named mint, in addition to the preferential Hazrat* 
is styled variously Baldat and JL»jfjss^\ S^ij " fortified city," a speci- 
fication which probably refers to the separate though closely proxi- 
mate citadel of AJcddlah, so celebrated in the military annals of the 
time (coin No. 26). 

3. Satgaon is distinguished by the prefix of &+°j* (Atrium) a term 
which, in India, came to be conventionally used for a tract or geogra- 
phical division of country,! a sense which would well accord with its 
application to Satgaon, as the third circle of government of Bengal 
proper.]; In the subsequent reign of Aazam the mint specification 
is more directly brought into association with the town itself in the 

seemingly more definite localization involved in the word <u*a-Ȥ 

4. Shahr Nau, I suppose to have been the intitulation of the new 
city founded near the site of the old Lakhnauti :|| it is variously 
denominated as the simple 'Arsat or Xj£+*+J\ &»°jC (populous, richly 

* %j*as* " Prgesentia, Majestas ; urbs, in qua est regis sedes." 

t e>£°3 ***** in P ersian > means " surface of the earth." Sir Henry Elliot 
remarks, " The words used before Akbar's time to represent tracts of country 
larger than a Pergunnah were J^w f AJa^ } Aa^c 5 jUj> } o^j, and -Uai| 
— Glossary of Indian Terms, sub voc " Circar." 

X Zia-i-Barni, in introducing his narrative of Tughlak Shah's expedition to 
Bengal (a. h. 724), speaks of that province as consisting of the three divisions 
" Lakhnauti, Sunargaon, and Satgaon" (p. 450, printed edit.). 

The Ayin-i-Akbari, in the xvi. cent. a. d. thus refers to Satgaon, " There are 
two emporiums a mile distant from each other ; one called Satgaon, and the 
other Hoogly with its dependencies ; both of which are in the possession of 
the Europeans." — Gladwin, ii. p. 15. See also Rennell, p. 57. Stewart's 
Bengal, pp. 186, 240, 243, 330. 

§ From t_^2J! " amputavit :" hence Ax*aJJ " oppidum, vel potior, pra?cipua 
pars oppidorum." 

|| The decipherment of the name of this mint (as Col. Yule reminds me) 
determines for mediasval geography the contested site of Nicolo Conti's 
C&rnove. The Venetian traveller in the East in the early part of the fifteenth 

18G7.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 61 

cultivated).* This progressively less appropriate name may be sup- 
posed to have merged into the official Jannatabad, which follows in 
Mint sequence. 

5. Sandrgaon, as a rule, retains its ancient discriminative designa- 
tion of d^» J*/^=>", a title which it eventually had to cede to its rival 

6. Muazamabad. There is no definite authority for the determi- 
nation of the site of this city, which, however, seems to have been 
founded by Sikandar about 758-759 a. ii., when his own coins record 
that he himself assumed the title of f&-*+J\, without trenching upon 
the superlative *&-£$] usually reserved for the reigning monarch. 

1 1 conclude that there was a gradual migration from the ancient Sonar- 
gaon to the new city, which grew in importance from the govern- 
mental centre implied in the &b\fjLxjOpA2\ (No. 19) of 7G0 a. ii., to 
the *bUoMJaxJ\ sjJb, " the great city of Muazamabad" (No. 18) of 
about 780 a. u., till, on the disappearance of the name of Sonargaon 

century is recorded to have said that " ho entered the month of the river Ganges, 
and, sailing up it, at the end of fifteen days he came to a large and wealthy 

city called Cernovo On both banks of the stream there arc most charming 

villas and plantations and gardens Having departed hence, he sailed up 

the river Ganges for the spaco of three months, leaving behind him four 
very famous cities, and landed at an extremely powerful city called Maarazia . 
... . having spent thirteen days ' on an expedition to some mountains to the 
eastward, in search of carbuncles' . . he , returned to the city of Cernove, 
and thence proceeded to BufFetania." — The travels of Nicolo Conti, Hakluyt 
Society, London, pp. 10, 11. 

See also Purchas, vol. v. p. 508; and Murray's Travels in Asia, ii. 11. 

There are also many interesting details regarding the geography of Bengal, 
and a very full and lucid summary of the history of the period, to be found in 
li Da Asia de Joao de Barros" (Lisbon, 1777, vol. iv. [viii.], p. 4G5 et seg.). At 
the period of the treaty of Alfonso de Mcllo with, " El Rey Maraud de Bcngala" 
(the king whom Shir Shah eventually overcame) the name of Shahr Nau had 
merged into the old provincial designation of Gaur, which is described as " a 
principal Cidade deste Reino he chamada Gouro, situada nas correntes do Gau- 
ge, e dizem ter de comprido tres leguas, das nossas, e duzentos mil vizinhos," 
(p. 458). Satigam makes a prominent figure on the map, and Sornagam is 
located on a large island within the Delta, the main stream dividing it from 
Daca, which is placed on the opposite or left bank of the estuary. 

More modern accounts of the old city may be found in Purchas, i. 579 ; 
Churchill, viii. 54 ; also Rennell, Memoir of a Map of Hindoostan, London, 
1788, p. 55 ; Stewart, p. 44, and in a special work entitled " The Buins of 
Gour," illustrated with maps, plans, and engravings of the numerous Muham- 
madan edifices extant in 1817, by H. Creighton, 4to„ London, Black, Parbury 
and Allen. See also Elliot's Glossary of Indian Terms, sub voce, Gour Brahmin. 

* The adjective (derived from «-*»£, Coluit) will admit of other meanings, and 
if understood as applying to a town, might signify " well built, " locally Palika. 

62 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

from the marginal records of the general currency, the new metropolis 
appropriates to itself the immemorial J^ ^A^ of Eastern Bengal 
(No. 32 A.) 

With a view to keep these brief geographical notices under one 
heading, I advert for the moment to No, 7, Ghiasjmr, of which locality 
I have been able to discover no trace ; and likewise anticipate the due 
order of the examination of Aazem Shah's mint cities in referring to 
the sole remaining name of Jannatdbdd, an epithet which is erroneous- 
ly stated to have been given by Humayun to the re-edified Lakhnauti,* 
but which is here seen to have been in use a century and a half be- 
fore the Moghuls made their way into Bengal. 

The single item remaining to be mentioned in regard to Aazam's 
mints is the substitution of the word &**** in lieu of %*kf as the prefix 
to Firiizabad (No. 35), in parallel progress towards centralization with 
the Mint phraseology adopted in the case of Satgaon. 

Sikandar Shah bin Ilias Shah. 

No. 17. 
Firuzabad, a. h. 750, 751, 752, 753, 754, 758, 759, 760. 
Type No. 1. Ordinary simple obverse, with reverse circular are 
a and margin. 

Obv. Bev. 


* Ayin-i-Akbari, ii. p. 11 ; Stewart's Bengal, 124. Bengal itself was called 

a3U| Axa., "The Paradise of Regions." Ibn Batutah, iv. p. 210, says the 
Persians called Bengal «£*ju^j p-Jj^j " ce qui signifie," en arabe, "un enfer 
rempli de biens." Marsden, Num. Orient, p. 578, gives a coin of 'Ala-ud-din 
Husain Shah, of a. h. 917, purporting to have been struck at " Jannatabad." 
f «xb " regio ;" also " oppidum. " The plurals are said to vary, in correspond- 

ence with the independent meanings, as ^ib and e;|oJb 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal '. 


No. 18. 
Sonargaon, a. h. 756, 757, 759, 760, 763. 
Type No. 2. The usual lettered obverse with circular area and 
margin reverse. 

Obv. Rev. 

.3 aaLs*A 



No. 19. 

Muazamabad, a. n. 760, 761, 763, 761. Plate II. fig. 12. 
Variety A. 


j ^jX*j ^5*^1 <***» ^J /•&** /*jJ^I «^w 'l Z&& ^j<*> 

No. 20. 
Firuzabad, a. h. 761. 

Variety B. 



No. 21. 

Sonargaon, a. h. 758, 759. 
Type No. 3. As usual. 

Obv. Rev. 

Margin, as usual. 

No. 22. 
Firuzabad, a.h. 765, 766, 770, 771, 772, 773, 776, 779, 780. 
Type No. 4. Coarse coins, badly formed letters, Obverse, simple 
lettered surface. Reverse, circular area. 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 
Obv. Rev. 

[No. 1, 


&31&. &JLL| ^ii. 

Margin, &U*a.«» j ^*a*» *.U> aty jj^-j^ ci^.^^ *CJ| *<>A 

No. 23. 
Firuzabad, a. h. 769. 
Silver. Size, vii. Weight, 166 grs. Very rare. Plate II. fig. 11 
Type No. 5. Similar design to type 1. 

Obv. Rev. 


No. 24. 

Satgaon, a.h. 780, 781, 782, 783, 784, 788. Plate II. fig. 13. 

Type No. 6. Obverse, a quadrated scalloped shield, with open 
bosses on the margin containing the names of the " four friends," the 
intermediate spaces being filled in partially with the king's titles. 

JReverse } hexagonal star-shaped lozenge, with exterior marginal 

* The pattern legend of this mint-die seems to have been taken from oral 

data, as it is engraved as *1J| as 5/ Jb&J\ instead of the more critical &U\ |«Xs| 
&U|^.AliU|The increased facilities of intercourse by sea probably aided ^thecol- 
loquial knowledge of Arabic in the estuaries of Bengal j while the learned of Dehli 
had to rely more upon books and occasional teachers. Ibn Batutah tells us, that 
Muhammad bin Tughlak, though pretending to speak Arabic, did not distinguish 
himself in the act, while Hdji Ilias must himself have performed the pilgrimage 
to Mecca. 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal, 





dU t ti>Lk ^X/0,4.i| 


Oh verse Margin, 

^1* u,u1p ^ j.%jt AAtsr^r^l J^UJi ^UJ| ^USfi 

Reverse Margin, 

No. 25. 
Shahr Nau, a. ii. 781, 782, 783, 784, 785, 786 Plate II. fig. 14. 
Type No. 7. Ohvcrsc, a simple octagon, with four circlets in the 
margin containing the names of the four friends of the Prophet, the 
rest of the exergue being filled in with the king's own titles. 

Reverse, a diamond-shaped area with the crossed lines prolonged 
to the edge of the piece ; the lines are slightly scalloped outwards 
to form an ornamental field. 

Obv. Rev. 



,j*IjJ| <^j| 



CJ"i AA i? 

V/C»4.Jf r AX3l t ^U <xlJ| 


aj&L aJLi 

.lp jyU^X! j+C j&ji\ 

Oh verse Margin, 

Reverse Margin, 

The name of the mint is imperfectly expressed on even the best 
specimens, and great latitude has been permitted in the omission or 
insertion of entire words in the reverse marginal legend. 

Variety A. differs merely in the pattern of the reverse area, which 
is ornamented with double instead of single scallops. 

No. 26. 
Firuzubad, a. n. 780, 781, 782, 783, 784, 785, 786, 787, 788, 789, 

790, 791, 792. 
Type No. 8. Obverse, circular area, with a board margin divided 

66 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

by circlets enclosing the names of the four friends of the Prophet, 
the intermediate spaces being rilled in with their titles. 

Reverse, octagonal rose scalloped lozenge, with narrow margin. 



No. 27. 

Satgaon, a. h. 780. 
Variety A. Reverse Margin, 

etc. y&U x,j+*+)\ A*,? ^i A^UJl «Ui jjoa u/8 
No. 28. 
Muazamabad (the great city), a.h.? 
Variety B. Mint, aty ^*x> ^iWl goJj 

No. 29. 
Shahr Nau, a. h. 781. 
Variety C. Mint, o^Uj j «xa>| <xi.*»y ^* Zjj+*J\ ^^ 

No. 30. 
Col. Gluthrie has a gold piece of type No. 8, size vii. and a half, 
weighing 158 grains. The coin is inferior in execution to the ordinary 
silver money. The letters are badly formed, and the marginal legend 
ig altogether obliterated.! 

No. 31. 
Fimzabad, a. h. 781, 782, 783, 784, 785, 786, 787. 
Type No. 9. Obverse, circular area, with a broad margin, broken 

* M. Reinaud interpreted the word as ^jS> Defensor (Journal Asiatique, 1823, 
p. 272), in which he is followed by Marsde^ (ii. p. 567). Sayud Ahmad again, in 
his transcript of 'Ala-ud-din's Inscription of 710 a. h., reproduces the title as 
^jJUo+Jl • 3L«^I &y £ '. which, in effect, carries a nearly identical meaning 
(Asar-ul-sunadid, p. 58). 

f The only other Bengal gold coins I am at present able to refer to are a well- 
preserved piece of Jdldl-ud din Fatah Shah bin Mahmud (dated a. h. 890), now 
in the possession of Colonel Guthrie, weighing 161.4 grains, and a coin in the B.M. 
assigned to 'Ala-ud-din Husain (a. h. 905-927) which weighs 159.5 grains. 

1867.] The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 67 

by small shields containing the names of the four companions of the 
Prophet ; the intermediate spaces are filled in with titles which 
occasionally pertain to the king, but at times exclusively belong to 
the Imams.* 

Reverse, hexagonal field ; narrow margin. 

Obv. Rev. 

&&J~± ^x+i 

Obverse' Margin, 

( </* ) \&*t>*\ * x J [ij ( iyUk ) JJ'Vl (j*? ) f^i (j^y\ ) ^Mf 
Be verse Margin, 


The accession of Ghias-ucl-din Aazam Shah was disgraced by rebellion 
against his own father and coincident open war, in the course of which 
Sikandar fell in a general action between his own and his son's troops. 
Native historians are more than ordinarily obscure in the narration of 
these incidents, and the dates relied upon are singularly untrust- 
worthy, when brought to the test of numismatic facts. Aazam's initial 
revolt is admitted to have gained force chiefly in Eastern Bengal, where 
his coinage substantially proves his administrative supremacy, whether 
as nominally subordinate or covertly resistant to paternal authority, 
dating from 772 a. h., — an increase of power seems to be associated 
with the mint record of a hold over Satgaon in 790 a. h., and a real 
or pretended occupancy of a portion of the territory of Pandua in 
791, though the final eclipse of the royal titles of the father is delayed 
till 792 a. H.f 

# tPL^' in man y instances is replaced by &Jl>l±'\ji]j } while *la**J| follows 

the name of c^U-J^ . 

t Stewart supposes that Sikandar met his death in 769 a. h (p. 89) ; and an 
even more patent error places the decease of A'azam in 775 A. h. (p. 93). The 
Tabakat-i-Akbari, which devotes a special section to the history of Bengal, implies 
an amiable and undisturbed succession in this instance. 

68 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

Ghias-ud-din Aazam Shah, bin Stkandar Shah. 
No. 32. 
Muazamabacl, a. ii. 772, 775, 776. 
Silver. Size, viiij. Weight, 166 grs. Plate II. fig. 16. 
Type No. 1. Obverse, square area occupying nearly the whole 
surface of the coin, as in the old Dehli pattern. 

Reverse, scalloped lozenge, forming an eight-pointed hut contracted 

Obv. Rev. 

Obverse Margin : On the upper edge, j&yj ; on the leit,j4* ; in 
consecutive reading at the foot, idUj^ ; and on the right, ^-^ 

Reverse Margin, 
&U*a«» j &****» j c/-*J **•«» AbUt*o &^1j ^i a^LJi a£~Ji b<S.a 

Variety A. In one instance d&*> o^s^ supplies the place of 

There is a doubt about the reading of the word &*? " being humble ;" 
the ^J^ " Oculus" of Marsden would certainly be preferable in point 
of sense, but the forms of the letters of the word scarcely justify such a 
rendering, unless we admit of an unusual degree of even Bengali im- 
perfection in the fashioning these dies. 

On two examples of this mintage in silver, the marginal legend bears 
the words j^^l 8<>A in clearly cut letters ; but I imagine this seem- 
ing anomaly to have arisen from a fortuitous use of the dies for gold 
coins, which, in device, were identical with those employed for the 
silver money. 

No. 33. 

Jannatabad, A. h. 790. 

Variety A. Similar obverse with circular reverse. 
Mint. j (^-j^wJ *J^« lib Uua. 



The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 
Rev. Obv. 


No. 34. 
Type No. 2. There is a subordinate class of coins, following tlio 
devices of Type No. 1 (in size vii. and upwards), struck from less 
expanded dies, and generally of very inferior execution in the outlin- 
ing of the letters. These are also from the mint of Muazamabad, and 
are dated in bungled and almost illegible word*>»** j*l+*j AjUauo >*->~>, 
l*j UJ' j *a.| , Uj Lj , — which may be designed to stand for 770 odd, 
778, 780, and 781 respectively. 

No. 35. 
Firuzabad, a. h. 791, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, 798, 799. 
Type No. 3. Size, viii. to viiij. Weight, 166 grs. Plate II. fig. 15, 
Obverse, scalloped diamond field ; broad margin. 
Reverse, circular area. 



UjoJ| d>Uc 

»A>Of yAcii 

jfikj\ y\\ ^dJjj 

^5U^/| &JC Ui^jJl 




<SxLc dJlcL 

Obverse Margin, &+*jh iSXiJ] AjJUj &iy)\ Ja^i oUaOi 
Reverse Margin, 

The Reverse marginal records vary in the prefix to the name of the 
mint from the Kasbah above given, \y&*± ^l and &5jUj| iyOA ^ 
being occasionally used. 

No. 36. 
Satgaon, a. h. 795, 798. 
Variety A. 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 

[No. 1, 

No. 37. 
Satgaon, a. h. 790, 795, 796. 
Type No. 4. Obverse, area, a square, with a looped semicircle at 
each of the sides, forming a kind of amalgamation of the margin with 
the central device. 

Beverse, area, a four-pointed star-shaped lozenge ; the outside spaces 
being filled in with the marginal legend. 

Obv. Rev. 

j f3L#i j*>tf 




L^"i^ c^- 4, * ' 

jyUaJLjf jjU 



Reverse Margin, 

&J l+*A .«, ^ ^.X*^3 <Xi*o 




# « &.£*») \ jsA *r!/*^ 

No. 38. 
Type No. 5. Size, v. Weight, 166 grains. 
Obverse, lettered surface. 
Beverse, circular area ; narrow margin. 
Obv. Rev. 

&iJ Jd «XJLJ| Ala. 


Margin? • *^l <**•"• a^Ula** 

The singular orthography adopted in the rendering of the term 
Abdallah, and the substitution of an initial I alif in lieu of the gram- 
matical a ain, affords another instance of the ignorance of the local 
mint officials, and their tendency to reproduce the approximate sounds 
of words, without regard to the true powers of the letters employed. 

A vacant space in the final setting up of this article invites me to 
extend it so far as to notice a limited series of coins which have hitherto 


The Initial Coinage of Bengal. 


been erroneously associated with the mintages of Bengal proper, — I 
allude to the money of Taj -ud -din Firiiz, whose date has, in like 
manner, been misapprehended by Marsden (p. 575), and by Mr. 
Laidlay, who follows his interpretation (J. A. S. B. xv. p. 330). The 
subjoined examples will show that the supposed date of 897 a. h. should 
be 807 ; and the consecutive numbers on the different coins now cited 
establish the fact that the potentate whose name they bear reigned at 
least from 804 to 823, having a capital entitled Hdjidbud, which may with 
sufficient reason be identified with the Hdjipur of modern nomenclature. 
The introductory piece A. seems to have been issued by Taj-ud-din's 
predecessor, and their several mintages alike depart from the ordinary 
style of Bengal coinages in the phraseology and finished execution of 
the Arabic legends, as well as in the weights of their currencies, which 
approximate closely to the full Dehli standard, in contrast to the re- 
duced southern range of 16G grains. 
A. Silver. Size, viij. Weight, 165 grs. Unique. A. H. 797. 




./cLs^i ^J 


Mi JaKi 


V1 / 

B. Silver. Size from vij to viiij. Weight, 168 grs., the full and 
sustained weight of several specimens. 



Ljjjf ,13 


Obverse, lettered surface. 
Reverse, square area, with imperfect marginal records, usually con- 
sisting of ^Ij Ij^U. o^^ ^yi with the figured dates at the foot, rang- 

72 The Initial Coinage of Bengal. [No. 1, 

ing onwards from 804 to 807 [Marsden], 810, 813, 814, 818, 819, 820, 
822, and 823 a. h. 

These coins are chiefly from the collection of the late Sir R. Jenkins, 
but have now passed into Colonel Guthrie's possession. 

Among other rare and unpublished coins, having more or less con- 
nexion with the progress of events in Bengal, I may call attention to 
the subjoined piece of Shir Shah (C), which seems to mark his final 
triumph over Humaytin in 946 a. h. and his own assumption of imperial 
honours in Hindustan. The gold coin (D.) is of interest, as exhibiting 
the model from whence Akbar derived one of his types of money, which 
Oriental authors would have us believe were altogether of his special 
origination, even as they attribute so many of Shir Shah's other ad- 
mirable fiscal and revenue organizations to his Moghul successor. In 
coin E. we follow the spread of Shir Shah's power northwards to the 
ancient capital of the Pathans, and. the piece F. illustrates the reten- 
tion of the family sway oyer the other extreme of the old dominion. 

C. Silver. Size, vij. Weight, 163 grs. A. H. 946. Well executed 

Western characters. 
Obverse, ^d\ j l ^^l Ag/ v+^jh ***& *ij+)\ J^l iyUal-J| 
Reverse, qM, aJUal-*^ aCLo «xlJl O.LL ^IkUs %lm ^xL jS$x+}\ y\ 

D. Gold. Square coin. Weight, 168J grs Unique. (R. J. 

Brassey, Esq.). 
Obverse, the Kalimah. 
Reverse, &>Jl/° A ^l *^ y/laLw ${&jx& 
At the foot, ^\§x m^. 

E. Silver. Size, vii. Weight, 168 grs. Dehli. A. H. 948. 
Obverse, Square area. A ^l Jy^j &+=** &U\)}\ &J\ ^ 

Margin, the names and titles of the four Imams. 
Reverse, Square area. &&xj aUioJU* zl»jx£ ^lkLJ| <jpA 
At the foot, Wtftft ^ri^ 
Margin, ^W ^^si ^^ # # # 

F. Silver. Size, viii. Weight, ? Satgaon, a. h. 951 (from the col- 

lection of the late G. H. Freeling, Bengal C. S.) 
Circular area; ; j <**U <xif| *lL ^[LU &L2, ^ J( $[£ ^, 



Tlic Initial Coinage of Bengal. 










| | 





co a 

• s 

co 3 





1 1 





















g 00 


§ -m : 









E i- - 






e •» 












U5 vc3 



To. ' 








s g : 

















; ; 








T? ^ 







j ; 























co IP 































: 5 








• r> 

















<N CO 








• > 





> O 











■ Jfe 


I V 

: ^g 


: .§ 

'. 'rS 



2 M 

' ^ 

: ^ 


: & 



1 J 

3 £ 

! t 


! S 

i - 

1 3 

i » 

j i 

! s 


5 i= 

i ! 

h b 

i i 

2 < 

1 .1 



5 & . 




; i 

3 : 

4 t- 



74 Notes on the Jumma Masjid. [No. 1, 

Notes on the Jumma Masjid of Etaivah. — By C. Horne, Esq. 
[Received 5th April, 1866.] 

Proceeding south from Humeganj at Etawali through the cutting 
leading to the Jumna, one observes on one's right hand (i. e. east), 
crowning an isolated mound, an old mosque. By those accustomed 
to the originally converted mosques of an early period, and as seen 
at Jaunpur and Benares, this may be at once recognized to have been 
altered from an ancient Hindu or a Buddhist structure by the process 
so well described by Fergusson in his Handbook of Architecture 
p. 81, vol. 1. — The style of the screen before the dome is the same 
as that at Jaunpur,* whilst the round buttresses at the back, and 
the coeval ornamentation, fix the period of its conversion. 

On enquiring from some of the more intelligent, I found the age 
of the temple to be popularly reported to be coeval with that of 
Etawali city. Thus «)G|-5x6xlX 400 X 1 = 413 which 
being deducted from 1282 Hijra (new expiring) leaves 809, which 
deducted from 1866 A. D. leaves 997 A. D. which may very pro- 
bably represent the real date of the Hindu erection. 

As is often the case, there may have been a former temple, but 
-the material, black kunkur, does not shew age well ; whilst the granite- 
pillars have been altered and partially carved at different periods. 

Mr. Hume of Etawah tells me he is about to publish a complete 
description of it with engravings; I therefore submit these notes 
merely as the means of drawing attention to the building, which, taken 
in connection with other ancient remains, is worthy of a visit. 

The main portion of the building is of black kunkur ; although 
there are fragments of blue granite boulders in the walls, and portions 
of at -least 10 granite columns of varying lengths. The average 
length of them is 5-6 with a thickness of 8 inches ; but one at the 
gate, where it is used as an architrave, exceeds 7 feet. There are also 
plain pillars of red and light coloured sandstone. 

I could not, in my short visit, ascertain whence the granite columns 
had been brought. They have, many of them, been cut in half, so that 
they now stand about 8 '-3" in height ; whilst one from which the carving 

* Atallah, Jumma Masjid and other mosques. 

.lul'HN M. AS SOC- XXXV P I. 




1867.] Notes on the Jumma fllasjid. 75 

has been chiselled is used as an architrave in a rude chapel. Others 
are doubtless plaistered over in the walls. 

The screen is 47 feet in height and a little less in width. The 
general depth of the building, of which a plan to scale is appended, 
(vide Plate III.) is 20 feet interiorly, the centre portion, on which the 
Mussulman dome is built, being a few feet more. The block of granite, 
perhaps 5 feet by 1 J, let into the front of the screen — -and figured by 
me — is very curious. It is undoubtedly of great antiquity, and bears 
the usual Buddhist character of ornamentation as found in this neigh- 
bourhood. It at once attracts attention by being altogether out of place. 
Only one of the " Kangura" or pimlacles remains in the building, 
but they doubtless extended across to the screen, the small portions 
of wall where the plaister has fallen, shew the well known scroll 
denticulated pattern. 

Over the south chapel, right across the centre, has been constructed 
an arched chamber, 20 feet by 20, and perhaps 18 feet high. The roof 
of this has been moulded with pieces of nodular kunkur set in lime, 
which alone appears to keep it together. The effect is most singular ; 
facing as it does to the East, it would seem that originally there had 
been a cloister, the four rude chapels consisting of 10 pillars each, with 
a larger chapel in the centre for the image. As, however, the whole 
was rebuilt by the Mussulmans some 430 to 450 years since, the only 
archceologcial interest which attaches to the spot is, that it was un- 
doubtedly once a Buddhist site. 

In the court-yard, now enclosed by a mean brick wall, is a small 
chaitya, 9 feet square, covering a Mussulman tomb, where four plain 
pillars support a flat roof with eave-stones of red sandstone projecting 
2 feet on each side. The stones composing this evidently came from 
Agra from the same quarries* which furnished the Raja's Secundra 
gardens. I have drawn one of the capitals which is of the old pattern, 
somewhat altered. 

On the road between Etawah and Mynpoorie, several villages built 
on high " kheras" or mounds attracted my notice. I hope to explore 
them and send you the results, if any there be. 

* Tautpur Village, Saliender Pergunnali, Agra Zillah, 

76 Translation of an Inscription [No. 1 

Translation of an Inscription copied in the temple of Nahhon Vat 
or the City of Monasteries^ near the capital of ancient Kamoodia. 
— By Dr. A. Bastian. 

[Received 16th January, 1867.] 

The magnificent monuments of Kambodia give testimony of a by- 
gone civilisation, whose origin remains shrouded in mystery. Their 
history will be read by the stone-sculptures which cover the walls 
and portray the nations anciently inhabiting the country, their 
costumes, manners and customs. There is, besides, scattered over the 
ruins, a not inconsiderable number of inscriptions to be found, 
which are written in an antiquated kind of Pali character, and, when 
deciphered, may assist to obtain the right clue. The following 
inscription is a more modern one in Kambodian letters, and was 
copied inside the great temple at Nakhon Vat. 

Sapphamasadu : Glory to the holy ones. In the year, which 
counts 1623 in the era, the year of the dragon, the third month, on 
a Thursday, in concordance with the Gratha, which are written in 
Pali, in the metrum of Phrohma-Kit, on the Phra-Phuttha Rub (the 
statue of Buddha,) I humbly offer up flowers to Bhagavat, who sits in 
meditation to observe the precepts (Sila), in the reflecting posture and 
undisturbed by the attacks of man (Mara or Satan), on the handsome 
seat of the Lotus (Phuttang). I offer up to the Pharabat (the holy 
footstep) of highest excellence. I bend down and raise hands in 
supplication at the feet of the Lord. I worship in my mind the three 
jewels (Ratana-trai), laying down flowers and areca on the throne-seat 
(banlang), which, elegantly ornamented by sculptures, is overhung in 
fourteen folds with the Baldachin of four kinds of clothes, beautiful 
all over in perfection, and the whole shining in brilliant splendour, 
as a cover of Phra-Photisat (the holy Boclhisatwa), who sits motionless 
in the posture of continual meditation. I present offerings to Sakhya- 
Muni, the Lord of glory, who has preached the true law for guiding 
all beings on the heavenly road. I do homage under the holy 
footstep. I worship and adore, raising the hands in supplication before 
the Lords of religion, the five Buddhas, the three gems : in humble 
piety I invoke them, devoutly I pray. I offer myself in holy love, 
never forgetting. I fix my mind, the whole of my mind and soul, on 

1867.] copied in the temple of Nalchon Vat. 77 

the Phra-Chedi (the holy Chaitya or Pagoda) Chulamani* (the 
precious diadem of hair) in Traidungsa (Daodungsa or the heaven of 
setting stars), encircled by the shephada (Devada), whom I reveren- 
tially bear on my head. I offer up and bow down before (the figure 
of) Phra-Patima in his golden abode, the Lord of the three praises, 
the refuge of all beings. I present offerings to the Phra-Phuttha 
Rub in the Phra-Sathub (Dagoba) of the Phra-Chedi (Pagoda), the 
Prasat (palace) of the Vihan (monastery). I present myself in 
offerings of humble service, — I present myself wholly and entirely. 

Having done worshipping, having finished the offerings, I pray to 
become perfect in wisdom, to know all kinds of sciences without error 
and mistake, after having been born in the next existence for seven 
years. When I shall have accomplished all knowledge of letters, 
I pray that I may become well versed in the Trai-Pidok, that I may 
be able to answer every one's questions, to solve all riddles proposed, 
that I may know the Trai-Phet (three Vedas) and the Sinlaprasta 
(the magic of the stones). May I be blessed to meet Pra Sijahn 
(Sri-Ariya or Arimathiya, the future Buddha) in the next existence. 
May I be surrounded by numberless attendants ; if 11,110 follow, it 
will be enough. May I be so shiningly beautiful, as to move all 
hearts, like those women, who having taken holy orders, shall be 
reborn relucent of radiant beauty, in recompense for their pious deeds, 
and by virtue thereof. May I become great and mighty, of such 
power, that even Phra-Phrohm (Brahma) could never put any 
obstacles in my way. And when the circle of transmigrations leads 
me to be reborn again in a new existence, I pray, that I may become 
Buddha, and attain the holy law, pervading all existence, — that I may 
become equal to the perfected ones in the world. 

Now in regard to these people here, who are called respectively 
Ming, Behn, Sok by their surnames, they desire to become handsome 
and delicate in figure, of such a shape, as it makes women beloved. 
This prayer I put in, on behalf of the aforesaid persons of the village 
Tabungkram. And two of them, Ming and Behn, have still another 
wish in their heart, namely : to become rich in honours and dignities, 
beautiful like painted pictures. May they, on leaving the present 
existence, which is an imperfect and unsatisfactory one to them, may 
* Built by Indra over Gautama's hair, which he cut off with his sword, 

78 Translation of an Inscription [No. 1, 

they hereafter be reborn as brothers, and may the sinful consequences 
which have separated them, be exhausted, so that they will remain 
together and united always, and that ultimate death shall take them 
away simultaneously at one and the same day with their wives. 
May there be no grief, no sorrow then, as now oppresses them, now 
in the present existence, when the bones of mother and child are 
buried under a Phra-Chedi, which is erected above them, as a meri- 
torious work. May mother and child remain united in the next 

And furthermore, there is a person here, called Im, who has restored 
a venerable Phra (idol), which had fallen in ruins, and lay there all 
cut to pieces. It had broken its neck ; its hands and feet were lost. 
He built it up anew, he mended it, he made it handsome and pretty. 
It was covered with gold, it was surrounded by other Phra, 137 in 
number. All these figures, great and small, were clothed in a twofold 
set of garments ; they had their praises written upon them. And 
after that, meritorious works were performed in the Phra-Chedi, 
which also had been rebuilt and embellished. For five ordinations 
the expenses were paid, and a Phra of gold was placed in remembrance. 
A great deal of money has been expended, the monks have been 
loaded with presents, a Vihan and a preaching-hall have been 
adorned, a priest was helped on in his consecrations, a slave was 
liberated, and all the other works of merits cannot be counted : they 
are too numerous. How often alms have been given is beyond 
recollection ; times innumerable presents were brought to the priests. 
And these priests, after having received their presents, have vouchsafed 
pardon for all faults committed, have promised indemnity from all 
misfortunes. I pray to the Lord, that happiness may be in store for 
me, and that in the coming existence I may enjoy my blissful state, 
without being pestered by people who are envious of it. May I go 
through the future existences, free of calamities, full of wisdom and 
knowledge. May no sickness befall me. May I happily live, joined 
to my wife and my children, and attain a high and serene age, not 
knowing mishaps. May the evil consequences of former sins not 
reach me, may I never be oppressed by poverty. May I remain 
liberated from hell for ever. May my thoughts, now small and narrow, 
expand in the next existence, that I may understand the precepts 

1867.] copied in the temple of Nakhon Vat. 79 

(sila) well and thoroughly, that I may never break them, nor commit 
trespasses. May wisdom be with me always. May I never be* in want 
of relations ; nay, may I be blessed with many of them. May I possess 
plenty of servants. May no slanders pollute me. May I never do a 
stupid thing. May I speak kindly and softly to every one I chance 
to meet. May I be preserved from dealings with fools. May I never 
be born poor and indigent, but only in rich and noble families. May I 
well understand my business. May my memory be a good one. 
May nothing frightful happen to me. May nobody hate me. May 
the punishments, awaiting for sinful deeds of former vices, not hurt 
me. In speaking to nobles and monks, may my words be right and 
proper. Should animals be killed unknowingly, may I be pardoned. 
May there be an end of grief and sorrow. May I depart life, 
surrounded by my friends, not abandoned and alone. May the sins 
I might have committed in the present existence, not call for retribu- 
tion in the next one. May I never be tempted to treat great men 
and learned teachers in an insolent and impudent manner. I beg 
pardon for all errors I might be guilty against the holy priesthood, 
Phra-Phuttha, Phra-Thamr (Dhamma). I beg pardon for all my 
faults. I beg pardon for any breach of the precepts. I beg pardon 
for rudeness and roughness of mind. I beg pardon, if ever I have 
fostered revenge. I beg pardon for lies I have spoken. May I be 
prosperous in every existence, and always meet with people of rank 
and dignity. I beg pardon for all errors, committed in words or in 
acts. May I be secured against evil and misfortunes in my next 
existences. May there be no terror, no fear and trembling. May 
never aristocratic tyrants bully me. May I never be threatened by 
enemies in any of the existences to come. May I not suffer 
complaints in the next existence, neither baldness nor elephantiasis. 
May no sores or ulcers disfigure my body. May I not be ugly. I beg 
pardon, if I have allowed to be tempted by bad inclinations. May 
evil never come upon me, neither now nor in future. May I always 
enjoy handsome women. May nothing bad cross my way. When 
this existence shall be finished, may there never be any more sorrow, 
may I roll in undisturbed bliss. May the sinful consequences of former 
deeds, may the torments threatening therefrom, be delayed and put 
off. May I be re-born handsome and fine. May I never be imprisoned 3 

80 Translation of an inscription [No. 1, 

never be bound nor fettered. As it is said in the verses of Phromakut 

" Hao kha ti di," and in the Pali, raising my hands, I pray for 

wisdom. I, a person, to whom they have given the name Xai, I 

pray, that all evils of old and of the past may be finished, that I may 

be renewed to preach the words of the Lord in the next existence, to 

lead all beings on the road to Niphan. May I enjoy blessedness 

countless numbers of years in the existences to come, and then, 

performing works of merit with virtuous mind, may I attain to Phra- 

Sian-Metray (Arimathia). May I be pervaded by benevolence all 

over, may I show a charitable disposition continually, till the beating 

of the heart shall cease. As long as blood and eyes remain, may I 

accomplish good works. May I always be of a joyful mind, resembling 

Phra-Vixa-Thon* (Chea-tor) and always give alms to the Pret 

(Pretas), feeding them with blood and flesh. May the Shephada 

Kowand keep account of all the alms I give. May Phrohm likewise 

see them and be attentive to keep account. May I receive plenty of 

joy and felicity, in recompense for these alms. May it please one of 

the Shephadas to throw down a heavenly sword, because T ardently 

wish to cut my flesh and skin, to give it in alms piecemeal, to feed 

the Pret, that they may be satiated and get enough of it. May 

Phra-Phakava (Bhagavat) and Phra Thamr also know about all these 

virtuous deeds. May I become like Phra Siahn. I present flowers to 

Bhagavat and worship in offering them. May I know thoroughly all 

rules and precepts, like the Upaxa (the ordainer of novices). May 

I become guide to the beings, my contemporaries ; may I be a leader 

to them in the Lord's religion, during my future existence. The 

present existence is an imperfect one, my frailties cause me to deviate 

from the road of truth ; I pray for greater perfection in the next 

existence ; I pray for wisdom, so as to penetrate all things, so as to 

surpass all other men ; I pray for wisdom sufficient to solve all 

difficulties, for wisdom, equal to that of Neakkhasen (Nagasena or 

Nagarjuna), who with ease and without hesitation explained the 

questions and riddles put to him by Krom-Malin (Milinda). May 

the good works of former existences help me on to be re-born in a 

lucky state. May the Shephada come to my assistance and favour me. 

May I become benevolent, good-natured and liberal, free of avarice, 

* Alchymists adore him, as the possessor of the magic stone, consisting of 
solid mercury, which is supposed to convert base metals into gold. 

1867.] copied in the temple of Nahhon Vat. 81 

may I feci disposed to give alms, to do virtuous and meritorious 
works incessantly. And furthermore I pray particularly to possess 
that special wisdom vouchsafed to Taminsheah when still in the 
state of man, that wisdom which enabled him to solve all the 
problems invented by Nonthea-Sack in Nirupai, when, overcome by 
the prince of meritorious glory, he was made his slave and inspired 
by fear, and followed him as his servant. Thus he became the prince 
Apangtirat ; and then a prince called on the Lord Viroxar, who at com- 
mand received the name of Manang-Taek, because he used coarse and 
repulsive words, and did not know to speak properly by reason of his 
having beeu a garrulous and talkative fellow in one of his former 
existences. May I obtain a virtuous mind like Phra-Demiah (Temi),* 
who patiently bore all the trials his father put him to. I pray to 
obtain wisdom equal to that of Phra-Kala when born as Mahosot, 
whose wisdom, surpassing the wisdom of everybody else, being 
equalled by none, overcame Phra-Chulani. May I give alms, rich 
alms and freely, in the same spirit as Phra-Mund, as Phra Vetsandon 
and his lady (Nang) Matsi who faithfully followed him, equal to 
Nang Nontha, being born of the same mothers, children of the same 
parents in the course of different existences. And with great beauty 
were they gifted, and boundless knowledge was their share, till they 
entered heaven, in which I also pray to be received. Separated from 
my beloved ones in this sad existence, I hopefully wish to remain 
united to them, when reborn in my next existence, whether as animal 
or as man. May I always be surrounded by truthful friends. May 
I always possess my children and relations. May I always see before 
me those good women, Nang Pas and Nang Behn, and then these 
men here, Sues and Pho and Im and Png. I wish in my prayers to 
he endowed with mighty power and authority, to be learned in magic 
arts, well versed in them like unto Phra Isor, who called back to 

* The Buddhists distinguish the lesser existences, 550 in number, from the 
greater ones, of which they count 50. The former contain the framework of 
those fables, which in various compilations have travelled far and wide through 
western nations. Of the greater existences, in which the Bodhisatwa has taken 
human form, the ten of the Thosse-Xat are especially venerated and the most 
holy one is the last Tataka, that of Phra Vetsandon, as immediately preceding 
the incarnation of the Buddha. These ten existences begin with the history 
of Temi, a pious child, who, when still in the cradle, imposed on himself 
ascetic penances. 


$2 Translation of an Inscription [No. I, 

life Nang Phakavadi, reviving her (by the ceremony of Xub).* May 
my fame spread about in eminent renown like that of Phra Noray 
(Narayana or Vishnu), who, coming down from heaven (ravan), was 
born in the state of man as Phra-Ram (Rama) and subjected the 
Sack (RakshasaJ) of Langka, walking through the air like Phra Tsun 
in Kailasa. And then I wish to become a king and to get crowned, 
and to have nine handsome ladies as queens on my side, and to reign 
one hundred thousand years. And furthermore I pray for great 
strength and for beauty like that possessed by Phra Chan (Chandra or 
the moon) in times of old. May I possess prowess and a valiant heart, 
like Phra-Ram, the celestial one. I pray for wisdom to understand 
the Sinlaprasat, to know the whole of the military arts and warlike 
exercises like the exalted Phra-Ram, to be expert like him in 
archery. When this existence will be finished, may I be re-born the 
son of a king. May I ascend to heaven like Phra Ketsamalea,f May 
I be favoured by Phra-Ta (Tadra). May he give orders to Phra- 
Phutsakam (Visvakarma) to build for me also a royal residence of 
unparalleled splendour on the edges of the forest. May my voice be a 
melodious one like that of .the bird Karavek. May my wisdom 
expand. May I know all things and everything. May I become rich 
in silver and gold, in gems and precious stones. May I have abundance 
in clothes, in carpets, in pillows and dresses. May my retinue be 
formed by handsome ladies, graceful in figure and soft and delicate of 
colour, with legs of the shape of the Talaket flower. May I understand 
the whole sense of the Trai-Pidock.J May I, always revelling in favour- 
able breezes, in the twinkling of the eye, hit the right to be safe. 
May I never lose my knowledge, should even my body shuddering 
tremble in fear. May my friends be one hundred one thousand in 

* The magic art of Xub, which revives by sprinkling with, enchanted 
water, is taught in the high academy of Takkasila (Taxasila) ; and it is an, 
always recurring trait in the Indo-chinese romances, that young princes or the' 
sons of wealthy Sethi travel to that famous city, to pass there some years as 
students. Another, but more dangerous method, in which fire takes the place 
of water, is known to the Rasi or Rischi, the hermits of the forest. The last 
king of Nokhon Tom, whom they offered to cure of leprosy, lost his life during 
the process. 

f Phra-Ketsamalea (the head crowned with garlands) is the reputed founder 
of the splendid temple of Nakhon Vat. The legend makes him to be a son of 
Indra, and relates that his heavenly father sent Visacarma, the architect of the 
gods, to build on earth a palace after the model of that in which the angels 
pass their joyful lives. 

% The Buddhistic Scriptures are contained in the three parts of the Pitaka, 
the Abhidhamma, the Vinava and the Sutra. - - 

1867.] copied in tlie temple of Nalclion Vat. 88 

number. May I remain undisturbed in unceasing bliss. May youths, 
male and female, of handsome appearance, attend on me, 100,000 in 
number, singing melodiously in sweet voices. May I possess wealth 
in elephants, horses, buffaloes and oxen of the best kind, elegant 
carriages and swift boats, to use them in going abroad. I would 
be pleased if each of my followers carried a glittering sword, and, 
when they close up in procession, they should solemnly walk like 
Putpala. Thus it is becoming. May 1 be favoured with magnificent 
palaces, nine of them, all covered with gold. Let them have high 
towering spires* rising above, glittering with jewels ; let them be 
surrounded by colonnades, winding in three circles ; let them be 
engraved everywhere with sculptures. On each gate have placed the 
Dragon king (Phaya Nokh), — place him on each step of the stairs to 
guard them. There must be adjoined three dwelling-houses, hand- 
somely and finely got up. The roof must ascend in three terraces, 
above each other, and all embellished with splendid ornaments. The 
round houses also may shine in splendid ornaments. A stable for 
elephants has to be built, nice and clean. Let there be halls on both 
sides of the lake, one at the right, the other one at the left, and have 
them decorated with garlands of the Champa-flowers, exhaling a 
sweet perfume, like the scented powder of Kracheh. That is all. 

Literary Intelligence. 

Professor J. Gr. Biihler of the Elphinstone College, Bombay, and R. 
West, Esq. C. S. Acting Judge of Canara, have just brought out the 
First Book of "a Digest of Hindu Law," from the replies of the Qastris 
in the several courts of the Bombay Presidency. The volume before 
us contains a large mass of responsa prudentum in a variety of practical 
cases regarding the Hindu Law of inheritance as current in Bombay. 
It has been published under the auspices of the Bombay Government, and 
will prove a useful book of reference to lawyers. In the Introduction 
the editors have given an interesting account of the ancient Smritis. 

The Government of Bombay has sanctioned the publication of an 
edition of the Apastamba Dharma Sutra with the Tika of Hara 
Datta. The work will be carried through the press under the 
editorship of Dr. G-. Biihler. 

* The description of the wished for palace is taken from the example of that 
one in which the inscription was hung up, viz. the temple of Nakhon Vat. 

84 Literary Intelligence. 

A new translation of the Sakuntala of Kalidasa, by Professor Foucaux 
of the French Academy, has just been published in Paris. The work 
has been got up in imitation of Professor Williams's excellent edition 
of the same work, and is intended to popularise among French readers 
that master-piece of the Indian Drama. 

The publication of the Taittiriya Sanhita of the Black Yajur 
Veda has once again been brought to a stop. Dr. Roer, who first 
undertook this work, left India on account of ill-health after publish- 
ing only five fasciculi. On his return to this country, press of 
official duties prevented his resuming the task, and it was therefore 
made over to Mr. E. B. Co well. That gentleman succeeded in 
the course of three years to publish fourteen hundred pages, when 
ill health obliged him to retire from India. Pandita Ramanarayana 
Vidyaratna, who succeeded him and brought out the first fasci- 
culus of the 3rd volume, died in May last, after a protracted 
illness of six months. He was a Sanskrit scholar of a high 
order, and was earnestly devoted to the ancient literature of his 
country. He published several Bengali books, and edited, for the 
Bibliotheca Indica, the Vedanta Sutras with the Commentary of 
Sarikara, and the Srauta Stiira of A'swalayana. 

We have to record the death of another Sanskrit scholar of great 
eminence; Pandita Premachandra Tarkavagica died at Benares on the 
14th of April last. He was Professor of Rhetoric in the Sanskrit College 
of Calcutta for over thirty years, and was esteemed as the most pro- 
found scholar of his time. He was the only Bengali Pandita who had 
made the Prakrita language a subject of critical study. Among his 
works may be noticed the commentary on the great epic of Kaviraja 
the Rdgliava joandaviya, every verse of which had to be explained so as 
to form once a history of the race of Raghu and once that of the Pan- 
davas. His commentaries on the first half of the Naishada CJiarita, and 
those on the Sakuntala, the Uttararama Charita, the Anarghar&ghava , 
the ChatupushpanjaU, the Muhunda-muktdvali, the Saptasati-sdra, 
and the 8th chapter of the Kumdrasambhava are well known. For 
the Bibliotheca Indica he edited 'the Kdvyddarca of £!ri Dandin with 
an original commentary. He has left unpublished a Sanskrit Dictionary, 
and four Cantps of a poetical life of Salivahana, from whom dates the 
£aka era of India. 




No. II.— 18G7. 

Notes on Sirdjuddaulah and the town of Murshiddhnd, taken from 
a Persian Manuscript of the Tdrikh i Mancuri. — By II. Blochmann, 
Esq., M. A. 

[Received 21st December, 1866.] 

About two months ago, a copy of the above work was forwarded to 
me for examination by the Philological Committee of our Society. 
The book had only lately been handed over to the Rev. James Long 
by the Nawab Nazir Sayyidi Diirab 'Ali Khan Bahadur of Murshidabad, 
for transmission to the Asiatic Society in London. The author is 
a Shi 'ah of the name of Say y id 'Ali, a friend of the Nawab Nazir, and 
evidently a man of erudition. He seems also to have received some 
support and encouragement from Major G-. Hall Macgrigor, C. B., 
political agent at Murshidabad in 1842. 

The book is dedicated to the Nawab Sayyid Mancur 'All Khan 
Bahadur Nucrat Jang with the following remark : 

*y ^s^ (s^i CLm- 1 Jf K uWjjf & i** d$* y *^ J* 3 *' &* A c*!l j 

* ^'y &j lj\ <±£ ^JUa1«jj ^f^ ^/a lU^j o-p'^ <£Uj 

"... ...... >» ° 

fr^J* V 1 ^ e^J * dy°^l *^\*J «k**^l ^ J* 9 Jj-^f lSj&s d>j£* ejti 


86 Notes on Sir djuddaulah and the town of Murshiddbdd. [No. 2, 

" Although this contemptible gift resembles the present of the ant 
that brought the leg of a locust to Sulaiman (blessings be upon him !), 
or the drop of water which a cloud carried towards the ocean of 
'Oman — yet insignificant people in their heart's anguish have hoped, 
and hope still, that it will find a place of acceptance with those who 
shed their lustre over sceptre and crown. 

It's but a locust's leg which I can bring", 
act like Sulaiman, most noble king ! 
My only object and my highest aim 
Is that this gift may your acceptance claim. 

I have given to this book the title of Tdrikh i Manguri" 

The book itself is a compilation made from Farishtah, the Siyar i 
Mutaakharin, the Biyasz ussalatin, &c, but it contains also some 
original matter obtained from the inhabitants of Murshidabad. I have 
extracted the greater part, at least the more important items, of that 
which is new, and have added some extracts regarding the celebration 
of the Muharram in Murshidabad and a short description of the raft 
of Khiszr. 

As the author has used Vansittart's memoirs for the events after 
the death of Sirajuddaulah, it would be useless to give extracts. Nor 
are the other chapters of the book of much interest. The author 
commences with Noah and the kings of the descendants of Ham, 
from whom the Hindoos originated, and then gives a short account 
of the kings of Delhi. A short geographical sketch of Bengal, 
Bahar and Orissa follows, as also a chronicle of Murshidabad. After 
mentioning the Hindoo princes who reigned in Bengal, he gives 
a brief history of the Governors and Nawabs of Bengal up to 
Sirajuddaulah. The last chapters contain a list of the Nawab Nazinis 
from Mir Muhammad Ja'far to the present time, and of their children 
and servants ; a description of their palace and the houses which 
they built, and of those which are now in ruins from want of 
repairs ; and also some notes regarding their genealogy which is 
traced to Husain — subjects of interest for the Nawabs only. 

Those who feel a particular interest in the following extracts, 
may compare them with Orme's History of the Military Transac- 
tions of the British, Vol. II, p. 139, Mill's British India (3rd edit.) 
Yol. Ill, p. 160, and Thornton's British India, Vol. I, p. 218. 

1807.] Notes on Sirdjuddaulah and the town of Murshiddbdd. 87 

In the beginning of 1757, Colonel Clive wrote a letter to Siraj- 
uddaulah complaining of the Nawab's duplicity in still favouring 
the French, intimating at the same time his design of attacking 
Chandernagore. On the 10th March, Sirajuddaulah sent an answer, 
stating that he was sorry to hear complaints. Without alluding 
to Clive's intention of attacking Chandernagore, he advised him 
to do whatever he thought best. The author says : 

^■^ sa>\s d*y &$jxjo i^jjz &a.j%\ j # 2>jf j&J y^ &**** i^'^y. 

zj*j*. ixiyj* *^t^ & +tf ****** l^jI j**^ cir^* nfcf *j& ^^bs^i' c$-^ 

fc^fJ ^tijj-jy ^UcjG C^^j CU-if^ ojlkjjj ^^.yii ^JlL v^ *^-c 
5/i j *■£ g^-«> c^l>4r^' _/&«^ ^"O J I d^ il u | Aft* ^s-J j^a. *ju'y 
•5>* a^iii^w ja oi*^j jJL^^Aftif [; <Jul.T J^y AA*fl.j» i^M^^t^j* 
£>ij ^Ix^j^&jt ^)yc j^* A cjk°3 c/f 6 <^!>y j t jl^'i (^toJbfji <*r 

y~<o ji ^^aIJs t^U^t y ^ximj ^j AJuOj.*, jij ^ji {j^° A.T yH^y 
&i£\±t ay* pj3 *JUx^uj <jA«J (J'*' LT^iJ *i*J* U*b^ J&&*^-yjjf 5^| 

|>-j|j J^3i b *-M f t^y^ o.^U a(ff ji; ^jjl j eJ, LaaAT JUjy j,j 

L5L?- *«>y ^"°^ ^ ^3 3' (£}#? **3*> d^^ j#S jj+S &\yj&\ ^jJLb^H^ 
• aU*y ^ji^ j ^j j^if ji J( >i jj^i ^^ftj cil^b^^j ^U cu^a.^ 

Notes on Sirdjuddaulah and the town of Murshiddbdd. [No. 2 

# o^.U ci'^A a^ t&L. \j tjA. *$ *£ pi** # oSsib e)ij.JjT ijftljp&djt 

* *£**»l afj£i& i^*-^ j cu*«y^ ij^i,j A tr^ii j *^-*»j^ 

" Col. Clive, taking this as a permission to attack the French, 
moved his land- army to Chandernagore, while Admiral Watson 
sailed with his ships to the same place. Col. Clive shewed great energy. 
But as the French Governor saw that the complete subjugation of 
the place would depend upon the operations of the navy, he caused 
a number of ships to be sunk in the river, with the view of impeding 
the progress of the Admiral, leaving a small passage only unobstructed. 
With the exception of a few French officers, no one knew that 
such a passage existed. But as the star of the English was in 
the ascendant, and the unavailing fortunes of the French were 
beginning to set, the complicated knot unravelled itself in the hands 
of the English. But if Fortune had not favoured the English, not 
even exertions such as had never been witnessed as yet in India, 
would have enabled Col. Clive to take possession of Chander 
nagore. A French officer, of the name of Terraneau, who knew th 
secret of the passage left in the river, was for some reasons dissatisfie 
with M. Renault, the then Governor of Chandernagore. Forgettin 
the obligations under which he lay to his own nation, he went to 
Col. Clive and informed him of the existence of the passage 
Col. Clive and Admiral Watson were thus* enabled to bring the 
ships safely before Chandernagore, and took it after a bombardment 
of nine days. 

* This would materially alter the eulogium of the following passage taken 
from Sir John Malcolm's Life of Clive, Vol. I, p. 192, " Few naval engagements 
have excited more admiration, and even at the present time, when the rive* is 
so much better known, the success with which the largest vessels of this fleet 
were navigated to Chandernagore, and laid alongside the batteries of that 
settlement, is a subject of wonder." 

1867.] Notes on Sirdjuddaidah and the town of Murshiddbdd. 89 

" The French factory in Qasiinbazar was, immediately after, taken 
and plundered. 

" Mr. Tenaneau, who in consequence of this treachery became 
infamous and ' blackfaced,' received from the English a large sum 
as a reward for his ingratitude. He sent a part of the money home 
to his old and infirm father, who however returned it, when he heard 
the disgraceful behaviour of his son. Mr. Terraneau felt much 
mortified at this. Shame ' seized the hem of his garment,' he shut 
himself up ; after a few days his body was found hanging, at the gate 
of his house, suspended by means of a towel. It was plain that he 
had committed suicide, 

" The French being driven away from Chandernagore, took refuge 
in Murshidabad. Monsieur Las,* their leader, became an attendant 
at the Court of the Nawab, for whom he fitted out a detachment 
known by the name of Telinga, To this the English objected, 
declaring that according to his agreement, the Nawab was to consider 
their enemies as his." 

A long correspondence ensued, as the Nawab maintained, that 
there was no breach of faith in employing a few fugitives as attendants. 
At last some of the enemies of M. Las gained the day, and the 
Nawab advised him to go to 'Azimabad and hold himself ready 
there, should he want him. M. Las objected to this, trying to 
convince the Nawab, that after his departure certain false courtiers 
would call in the English ; but in vain. The Nawab again promised 
to call him in case of need, hoping that he would be ready to come 
at his call. M. Las considering a future meeting impossible, went 
at last of his own free will to 'Azimabad. " Col. Clive was thus 
successful in this affair also." 

It was at this time, says the author, that Col. Clive urged 
the Nawab, to permit the English to build a Fort and to establish 
a mint, projects which they had desired to carry out for the last 
sixty years. Without recording a formal permission, he states, that 
the present Fort William was commenced by Clive in the course 
of the same year (1757), and that 20 millions of rupees were 
expended in its construction. The author says — 

* In all English histories of India known to me, his name is misspelt Mr. 
Law. The transliteration of Monsieur, ,x£j.aj Moosheer, is characteristic. 

90 Notes on Sirajuddaulah and the town of Murshiddbdd. [No. 2, 
A> ' j!>* >>!>* ^--i? C.^ «Jr* a - J «*J**£ir* ^^j 8^j ^^aa j yy* ^Sj 

" Clive built Fort William in such a manner that, according to the 
opinion of the English, it would be impossible to take it, even if 
the whole of Hindustan united should light against it." Regarding 
the mint, he says — 


<^dj O^^J 


JfL&alJ ^l\J 

&£^ ^J| ^f(j * ^ 2?^ CAA j Jfts^J 


J<i <^i^j # 


t c^!>i>^ J ' jl 

c$;fotj v^j-J cjT ^y jl AjA* cj -J= 


iS^bf J^° A ^*^ l&jf 

.[jj (-^li &j&l ^ U*o) ^.xA ^.'jj. V kaM>a ! >> 

iJMi CJ l^ -prfj 

ayx gU^U &£*• J/U.J ^^A-J v^> (*^l li'^US *i 


jfc ^Ju 31 

" The first English coin was struck on the 19th August, 1757. 
Although the coins were struck in the name of the Emperor of Hindu- 
stan, a new method of preparing them, by means of a mould, reminded 
people of the English. It may be that the coins were at first struck 
without a mould, according to the custom of the land,* but a change took 
place in the course of time. Now they have struck coins with the 
likeness of their own King, William IY. But coins continued long 
to be issued at their mint in the name of Shah 'Alam, the Indian 
Emperor ' without hand and foot.' " 

The events before and after the battle of Plassey are described 
as follows : 

A few letters written by Sirajuddaulah to M. Bussy, in the Dekhan, 
had been intercepted by the English, and Sirajuddaulah was openly 
accused of breach of faith. " The wrath of the Nawab at the 
crooked dealings and slow but steady advance of these foreigners 
increased daily." Mr. Watts, the English resident at Murshidabad, 
was threatened. The Nawab went so far, as to tear up before him 

* V. Ain i Akbarf, the 8tli Ain. 

1867.] Notes on Sirajuddaulah and the town of Murshiddbdd, 91 

a letter, which Col. Clive had written to him. Soon after, however, 
from fear of his false courtiers and want of confidence in his own 
army, he tried to pacify Mr. Watts by a khil'at, and wrote an excuse 
to Clive. But the Colonel had already determined to commence hosti- 
lities, and readily joined a conspiracy headed by Mir Muhammad 
Ja'far to dethrone Sirajuddaulah. According to the author, the 
conspiracy was planned by Mir Muhammad Ja'far, Amin Cliaud 
Raura* and Khwajah Vazier, but according to the Siyar ul Mutaa- 
kharin by Mir Muhammad Ja'far, Rajah Diilabh Ram and Jagat 
Seth, who had each their representatives in Calcutta, Amin Chand 
being merely Ja'far's vakeel. Khethi Begum, a daughter of Mahabat 
Jang likewise assisted Mir Muhammad Ja'far. Clive treated with 
the conspirators through Mr. Watts. 

The author then gives a description of Clive's double-dealings with 
Amin Chand, as given in all histories of Bengal. 

Early in June 1757 Clive left Calcutta, reached on the 17th the 
small town of Katwa, south of Plassey, and took possession of the 
fort of that place. But neither did Mir Muhammad Ja'far join him, 
as he expected, nor did Clive receive even a line from the conspirators. 
Doubtful what to do, he wrote to the Council at Calcutta, who 
advised him to return. But Clive preferred to march on. On the 
21st June, 4 o'clock p. M. he left Katwa, crossed the Hooghly and 
pitched his tents, on the morning of the 23rd, in the fields of Plassey. 
The Nawab's army was now in sight. Mir Muhammad Ja'far still 
remained silent. A cannonade commenced. The English attacked 
the tents of Sirajuddaulah, but were vigorously opposed by Mir 
Madan,f one of the Nawab's faithful amirs. About 12 o'clock Mir 
Madan was struck by a cannon ball and carried to Sirajuddaulah 's 
tent, where he died. The fighting was however continued, Jarneli| 
Mohun Lai having taken Mir Madan's place. But nothing decisive 
was clone. Afraid of a conspiracy, Sirajuddaulah sent for Ja'far, who 
had not taken any part in the" fight. After the most earnest solici- 
tations on the part of the Nawab, Ja'far promised to fight the next 

* Generally called Omichund. 

t Called Moodeem Khan in Thornton, Yol. I. p. 24-0 and Moodeen Khan at 
p. 242. 

% Jarneli (i. e. general) was a name given to him. 

92 Notes on Sirajuddaulah and the town of Murshidabad. [No. 2, 

day, on condition that Mohun Lai should be at once ordered to with- 
draw from the fight. Sirajuddaulah agreed, and Mohun Lai returned 
to his tents. But no sooner did the troops see that their general had 
left the field, than they became hopeless and began to flee. Before 
evening the army of the Nawab had dispersed. " This is the battle, 
in which India was lost for the Islam." Before the battle commenced, 
Amin Chand appears to have informed Clive, that there would be 
a show of resistance merely. Hence, when Clive saw the determined 
fighting under Mir Madan and Mohun Lai, he was annoyed and 
accused Amin Chand of treachery, but had to accept the excuse, that 
.neither Mir Madan nor Mohun Lai belonged to the conspiracy. 

Sirajuddaulah seeing his army dispersed, mounted a swift camel (BjU-a.), 
and after travelling the whole night, accompanied by 2000 horsemen, 
reached Murshidabad at 8 o'clock a. m. the next morning (24th 
June, 1757). He called his chief officers, but all refused to come, 
even his father-in-law. The state of things being altered, he did not 
think it advisable to remain in Murshidabad. Having placed a few 
faithful servants on carriages, he collected as much gold and as many 
jewels as he could, and left Murshidabad at 3 o'clock a. m. At 
Bhagwangola he took boats and sailed up the river towards Rajmahal, 
where he was to meet M. Las. The meeting was, however, not to 
take place, for M. Las had been delayed through a want of punc- 
tuality on the part of his native servants, " a misfortune frequently 
experienced in Hindustan." 

ds^-^j jt aaA 4Jl^) Ijja 3UJ <U^ c/j-% j\ 4^«*J| g\j» &y±. A^aiUf 

* •» ■ • 

alilj ^i. *«£[; ^jji ^j.j ^i>jj^j aJjoJ/ ^.^ (JiiOji <jU^ ^&*^ j^sc' ^xo 

18G7.] Notes on Sirdjuddaulah and the toion of Mursliiddbdd. 93 

y ,*iU j(j ^iji ^aj alia ^£lj <xr ^U^* >^** <j <*Jj*>Ji ^U-w j « ±*rf j$ 
* •* "' "• ( i ) i 

ilf^^j Aij^ \jy j # ^.^ <Ju ^sym Lo| |*^ jjl/f ^ir-t? AS* <Mj*& 
^JOJ ^rH^ u>^ j Ax ^ i***** ji* j~*t c 1 ^ cs* £ <3^ «-ir* 5 eJLrfr* * ^^jf 

*^ j*** 5 ;*' liH^ ^ ! ^l w-$ jt" * <M^ jl d^i" cj 1a ^ «^ C5 1 ^J J' J 
3^j <i>? (j£^ «-£"^> o*j1^x> e^*j Ij^IH <5 ^ c5 *^ i ' w ' /» l J *-£*' ^^s^^f 

$*>.£ £AA.&^X>f ^jlj JOti«.A3 Cl)J^-i JU^JI Oj^^l)^ ^^j-AXj (^^ V*** 

**A.I«iJ| ^Ui I^a^j |jji ^xj ^j,^ *Cs^ Jii' t>jtJ * c^LL* ^U^ (jw,^ 
*s^jj X^f ^.Jj>tj Ij A^^i| -l^*« j^jAi j±\ji ^[^ ^Ic L5 A t /0 U/» /0 

<£ When Sirajiuldaulah had reached Eajmahal, he left the ship, as 
his wife and children were starving. With the view of procuring food, 
he entered the hut of a faqeer and asked him for assistance. It 
happened that Sirdjuddaulah had inflicted some time ago a punish- 
ment upon this very dervish on account of some crime, and had 
besides disgraced him by having given the order to shave off his 
beard and mustachios. The dervish hated him still, and having 
recognized the Nawab by his manners, feigned compassion and tried 
to soothe him. After making preparations to cook some khichari 

(l) This should be cia^I^-w>. The writer wished, however, to have a rhyme 
for -*Xs) . The meaning of O.^U-w in Hind., is adulation, humiliation. — The 
j phrase J\ ^y &&* in the next sentence is not Persian either. 


94 Notes on Sirdjiiddaulah and the toiun of Murshidabad, [No. 2, 

for him, the dervish ran to the Governor of Rajmahal and gave 
information. In the mean time Mir Muhammad Qasim Khan, a 
relation of Mir Muhammad Ja'far, had arrived in search of Sirajud- 
daulah, and having obtained the desired information, seized with the 
aid of his men the boats of the fugitive and captured Sirajuddaulah 
with his companions. All the jewels and the money fell into his 
hands. Thus was Sirajuddaulah in the power of men, to whom, 
a week ago, he might have refused admission. He conjured them to 
take all he had, but to spare his life and let him escape. But in vain. 
On his arrival as a prisoner in Murshidabad, Miran, known as Sadiq 
'All Khan, the son of Mir Muharnrnad Ja'far, gave orders, that he 
should be brought before him, and confined him in a dark and narrow 
room of the palace. Miran desired his companions to kill him, but no 
one came forward to do the black deed. At last a man was found of the 
name of Muhammadi Beg, who had been under obligations to Mahabat 
Jang, the Nawab's grandfather, and had married a woman, whom 
either the grandmother or the mother of Sirajuddaulah had brought 
up. In consequence of this marriage he held an honorable position. 
When this man came to Sirajuddaulah 's room, the wretched prisoner 
made all sorts of excuses, and reminded him of the obligations under 
which he lay. But the cruel wretch, the second Yazid, would not 
listen, struck him with the sword and killed him." 

" By Miran's order the body was thrown on an elephant and earned 
about openly throughout the whole town, but was afterwards buried 
in the grave of Mahabat Jang in Khushbagh, west of the palace of 
Murshidabad, near the river. Some time afterwards Mahdi Ali Khan, 
Sirajuddaulak's younger brother, was captured and tortured to death. 
He lies buried by the side of his brother. 

" Sirajuddaulah had reigned for one year and four months, and was 
killed in the end of the month of Shawwal 1170 A. H." 

Regarding the installation of Mir Ja'far the author says — 

dj+> otJ'3U y*-*^ o+ss^jt* L> x<yi±jf jjsolio j jsJcuc oul/ Ju^y j 

4£m»Lj ^kUl jjx& tytjf,>j*o &U^. &*$*») &j\*[ j*^. J&*.** Z+^jXKj 

1867.] Notes on Sirdjuddaulah and the town of Murshiddbdd. 95 

** ' • • y 

jj&>) * uMij)/3&y *$J iSJ#* *%>JJ i/j~*jfr ***JJ £**ss*#*tfy 

^ft*^. O^s^^juc (yf AS" £yj lA|j*i Jar* j& j&b <JL>^ ^J| ^Ijj A^ o**»| 

o^-i o**2..& j| i^Jfj AJUj ^jtj^ AT ^j^ v^J **$■ {♦'; ^Lr^ «-£**»^ yj^i? j\ 
djf cy aJUU/o ^| JU jj^ji ^aj &S & '\t\ , *tj *ii*b j^i jI^aLo jluuj 

• f&j+> o^*> 4>^ j^ c^* ojLaaj ,^ aajj. «®U dj aujji; 

• ^ • *•' ■*' 

" After the victory Col. Clive met with Mir Muhammad 
Ja'i'ar. They congratulated each other and went together to Mur- 
shidabad. On their arrival at the palace, the nobles of the city and 
the Government officials were called to a darbar. Col. Clive took 
Mir Ja'far's hand and led him to the Masnad. At the same time 
salutes were fired to indicate the transfer of the siibahs of Bengal, 
Bahar, and Orissa, to Mir Ja'i'ar. After the darbar, the new Nawab, 
Col. Clive with a few Englishmen, the Diwan Bam Chand, and 
Nab Kishn, the Colonel's munshi, inspected the treasury, where 
a sum of more than 20 millions of rupees, in silver and gold, was 

"It is also well known that besides this treasury there existed 
another in the Harem, which fact Mir Muhammad Ja'far concealed 
from Col. Clive, at the instigation of the diwan and Clive's munshi. 
The value of the gold and silver articles and of the jewels found 
there was not less than 80 millions of rupees. The whole was divided 
among Mir Ja'far, Bam Chand, Amir Beg and Nab Kishn. This 
transaction is indeed very probable, as Bam Chand left a fortune of 
12 J millions of rupees at his death, ten years later; whilst Nab 
Kishn could afford to pay 900,000 rupees on the occasion of the death 

96 Notes on Sirdjuddaulah and the town of Murshiddbdd. [No. 2, 

of his mother. Yet both men were in receipt of only 60 rupees per 
month at the time of the division." 

Then follows an account of the money paid to the Company and 
the troops, as also of the " consideration" paid to the civil authorities 
and to Col. Clive. The author gives also the agreement made 
between the English and Mir Muhammad Ja'far, which he confesses 
to have taken from the memoirs of Nawab Shams uddanlah, Anglice 
Mr. Vansittart. The agreement* is the same as given in " The 
Treatises, Engagements, Sunnuds. Calcutta 1862, Vol. I, p. 11." 

Notes on Mursliiddbdd, &c. 
The description given of the town of Murshidabad contains nothing 
new or interesting. The short history which the author gives, 
may be found in the Araish i Mahfil (ed. Lees, p. 114) and in 
Thornton's Gazetteer of India. But the following extracts are perhaps 
of interest. 

c^l t *> i*j& lsW <J>* LS*V D-Ht* l*j ^^ ****** & 1 *- ^^' U^^l ufJ 
v.yf J j e*&^ jj^Ux ca*»*j ^ viyjjD jy j # ****w <j*>z *y*j 

• dJjjH itjji* H£ ^ [ ^ LS XXJ « ^ ^ (:L J' **/;&*> i^*) jOT *i ^J 

* Articles 6 and 7 mention compensations payable to Hindoos and * Muham- 
madans.' The " Treatises, Engagements, Sunnuds, Calcutta 1862" has instead the 
reading " Gentoos and Musulmans." It appears that the English in India at the 
time of Sirajuddaulah, used the terms " Moors and Gentoos for Muhammadans 
and Hindus." Even Orme uses these terms, although he objects to them, on 
the score of their incorrectness, recommending Musulmans for Moors. Gentoos 
Is Portuguese and the same as Gentiles, heathens. Perhaps it may be of interest 
to mention here a few other differences in usage. Thus the word Sub ah was 
employed for Subahdar. The word Himalaya was unknown and Indian Caucasus 
used instead of it. Peon had the meaning of irregular infantry. Murshidabad 
was spelt and pronounced Muxadavdd (the vulgar still pronounce it Mukshidabad 
or Muksidabad) ; we find also Orixa for Orissa, Morattoes for Mahrattas, 
Titan for Pathan, phirmaund for firman, Schah for Shah, Jehanguir for 
Jehangir, Industdn for Hindustan, Helebds for Ilahbas, now called Allahabad, 
&c. &c. I do not know, whether the word Muxadavad is a corruption of 
Mahhgucdbdd, the old name of Murshidabad. 

1867.] Notes on Sirdjuddaidali and the town of Mursliiddldd. 97 

' • 'k 

j Js^ib e;Vb ^ A j<b f^'l &&£& jl^ • CU&fa "J" {£$}+> «-*^ <j5^>U 

I5^bjdj ♦ l>^a> u^ 5 ./*>> cr^'j 1 ^-lr- y&fy*J &i ^ J j^jltf* 

.. ( r ) ^ * « 

L^U^J J l*-^ J ^H^*-£ lA«yoj ail&jj*' i^moj Ijh j ^^ iSj*£> 
f ** ij^i ^^-^ j 8**» w*£J l*j**» cif^-Ll j& v^Cp J ^J"*^ V^** J&^/o 

« CUwf <SUa*3 ^(j^ ^A ^.^J 

" Among the old buildings was the Imanibarah built by Sirajud- 
daulah, the grandson of 'Ali Vardi Khan. It had been built with 
care and reverence, Muhammadan workmen alone having been employed 
in the work, and Hindoos excluded. The Nawab laid the first brick 
with his own hand and put lime over it, after which the workmen 
commenced. In the midst of the Imanibarah, a piece of ground, 
called MadinaJi, was dug, to the depth of a man, which was filled 
with holy earth i. e. earth from Karbala. The author of the Riyasz 

* An adjective of ^.AJ Thus of ^4^ &x>y^ &c. the adjectives are written 
1^4^ &sOj»» Vullers (Pers. Diet. I. p. 605) spells l-g.^ without a hamzah, 
&s he does not understand the words of the Bahar i ' Ajam. 

f The word is &*+) and the is the ei>*>.2»} ^b. Johnson gives a word 

{£&}+> namudi which Vullers adopts, p. 1352 of his Dictionary. There is, 
however, no such word. A similar mistake is the word ^Juk/o given by 
Vullers, p. 1183. He says the ^ is suffix, but it is the o<>a.j ^i as in 
^jaxj and ^aAju ±.y and /*-=^«J 

$ The dictionaries give only ^Aa^s^xj, 

08 Notes on Sirdjuddaulah and the town of Mursliiddbkl. [No. 2, 

ussalatin and others have written encomiums on the beauty of 
this building. On all four sides were rooms. On the east were 
vestibules lying within other vestibules facing towards the west, 
with a pulpit, and a place set aside for an assembly room [wherein 
the elegies on Husain are read]. There were similar vestibules facing 
towards the east in the western part of the building, in which were 
nearly a hundred flags and the sacred coffins made of silver, gold, glass 
and wood. During the Muharram the Qoran was here chaunted 
day and night, and at fixed times during the other months. North 
and south of the building were vestibules of the same kind containing 
out-offices for the illuminations &c, where hundreds of workmen kept 
themselves in readiness [during the Muharram] to illuminate the 
place. The verandahs of the second story contained screens of mica, 
behind which the lamps hung. On the screens themselves were 
pictures of men and animals and flowers which looked wonderful 
when illuminated. All kinds of chandeliers, in large numbers, were 
in the vestibules, as also diwargfrs, lalahs and mardangis.* The 
whole building was illuminated. In the northern and southern 
vestibules were two representations of the Buraq [the horse on which 
the prophet ascended to heaven], each with a human face and a 
peacock's tail. The length of the tails reached to the roof of the 
house. Well polished shields and china or silver plates were fitted 
into the feathers of the tail, to represent the round spots in the 
feathers of a peacock. Polished swords, Karaulis [a kind of short 
swords] and daggers were placed round these shields wonderfully 
arranged, and hundreds of wax candles gave the whole a striking 

This old Imambarah was burnt to the ground in 1253 A. H. during 
a grand display of fireworks, " in the twinkling of an eye." A new 
one was built up, according to the plan of the former and at a cost 
of six lakhs of rupees, by the Nawab Mancur 'All. Its date (1264 
A. H.) was expressed by the letters of the words &*^ ti^jj (the grove 
of Karbala). Whilst the edifice was building, the workmen received 

* Our Hindustani Dictionaries do not give these words. DiwaVgfr or 
Diwalgir is a lamp resembling our carriage lamps, three sides being made of 
glass, one of metal. Lai ah (pr. tulip) is a lamp with one or more round shades, 
MardUngi is the Hindustani word for our Argand lamps. 

1867.] Notes on Sirdjuddaulah and the town of Murshidabad, 99 

their food in addition to their wages, and also, when the building was 
finished, a present of a double shawl and a handkerchief. " At that 
time you could see shawls in every lane of Murshidabad." 
Regarding the Muharram festivities the author says : — 


(*<iy° <iri* /0 * fi *^rtj * -vu£x* k^ULmjI <u*jjf Us A*- j^ j lA; plr^ *■*» j^ 
* A iji}\ v->-»| jj->a/o fc r A__L0^| j * lyXjUJuuo jjSuo ^a ^A. <U-^ i&jja a? 

^l^£_AAlaAj &\^&Vj &]j*'A*0jj g } &ljB**$*/° Jj*' *^ *& li *- M, l «^(3 t^C° 
• • 

# fcVi| ^j_U ^^i «**[, j 

" As in Murshidabad the Shi'ahs are, by the blessing of God, the 
reigning sect, the mourning for Husain and the making of ta'ziahs 
form a most important part of the divine worship. No house is 
destitute of this spiritual blessing. If a man is poor, he will put 
a few lamps in a separate part of his hut, called the place of vows, 
and put up some flags. At a fixed time the women and children 
of the house chaunt a few couplets of elegies and mourning hymns, 
say a prayer and then perform the Shewan [i. e. they weep for 
Husain and beat their heads and breasts]. 

" If a man is of the middle class, he joins with two or three of his 
neighbours. They perform the ta'ziah in common. If a man is well 
to do, the mourning ceremonies are performed on a grander scale, and 
a few " reciters" are appointed. Very rich people go still further 
and distribute sweetmeats, sherbat, coffee berries and roasted coriander- 
seeds. So in every quarter of the town. Night and day people are 

100 Notes on Sirdjuddaidah and the town of Murshiddbdd, [No 2/ 

engaged in these works of charity. At the st thresholds" of the 
Nazim and his relations, there is something more. They have among 
their attendants reciters of elegies, describers of the grave of Husain, 
couplet singers, Khutbah readers and historians." 

The imambarah presents a grand spectacle during the Muharram. 
Food is daily distributed to the believers. In the evening there are 
fireworks and illuminations. On one day the Nawab also comes. After 
alighting from his palki at the southern gate, he is conducted inside, 
and takes his seat on a black carpet, over which a white embroidered 
coverlet is spread ; for a black carpet is used on this particular 
occasion instead of a bolster. Elegies are again recited, after which 
sherbat and spices are handed round. Thousands of people are 
admitted, but only such as come with either a turban or a pagri.* 

c3>-^ <3>*- M^' -> ^[^""'J^V ^ ls } ^. e^l^ *i&» t^#J fy&e , 
iyUAL~ u-^ j V U^| ^U ^U^j 5 J^il;f * *^ <y° && Ij^^l ja j 

Aa3j.x> ^A/o^il/o Ij^^a^j # «i.^(J ^xj (j^JjJ <j*«*J *Uj cilKJo a>bl>^ *-^y> 
Ajbj ^^ IjIj ^Uj *lad> ^Uj _j # ay ^xj c-ftj^Aj 81^+a *,>y<y c**U*» 

* la the original j^-*0 ^ ^/oU* 

f So according to the MS. But the author means the Hindustani ^.^U/o 
I may remark here that the Arabic ^-.tyo [the name of the 12th imam] is 
pronounced ^^ix* all overBengal ; especially in proper nouns as ^^^c j*ilc &c. 

IS 07.] Notes on Sirdjuddaulah and the town of Murshiddbdd. 101 
j # oJutl/Oji ^-o o«.jti^ jljj ^ ^ jj (JHr^ A «v-JJ kfcjjj-* oU^Jtf &T a^^a/o 

j «^J^ 8fj /*Lr^'j Jl> £ fj <^° tJ 5 cs^ (•**' *lr* A *^ 1 ^ J **i?i ^ 

JJJXvjj ls J (;^ j (Xijl/O^iUX) C*xU-w dU^Oj tiJy^/0 \JojjLj J*]jAj *X* 8^+A 
9J|4 ^o £*&. ^o lAji^A JS^le) jAjjjj vljd • «^T (**(&" J jf& *•"» 
JUxj <Jtf o««| j^j ^la. ^Ic ^j& {j±i~» j&k w'> 1^U il ^ ^> 

" Elegiac verses are also sung in Bengali by singers called BlmthiydL 
They sit in the Imambarah and round about the building, arranged in 
troops of 15 or 20. One of them who can read, has in his hand an 
elegy written in Bengali characters. He reads out a verse, which 
the others repeat with him in chorus. At the end of each verse they 
exclaim Hy ! strike their chests with both hands and then the thighs, 
Some strike also the ground with their feet at the same moment, 
the sound of which motion produces a most saddening effect. 

" For the harem of the Begums likewise some reciters are appointed 
and the chaunting continues here also to the 10 th day of the Muhar- 
ram. Couplets are sung and flags carried about in procession. 

" On the 6th day of the Muharram, i. e. the 7th night [as the 
Muhammadans like the Jews commence the day at 6 o'clock p. M.J 
the Mehndi of Haszrat Qasim* (blessings be upon him !) is brought 
from the Nizam's palace and carried in procession to the imambarah 

* The day before a marriage a plate full of mehndi or hena is carried in 
procession from the house of the bride to the house of the bridegroom wha 
stains his hands with it. The carrying about of this red dye is called in 
Hind, mehndi utlidnd and in Persian Uindbandi. The Shi'ahs perform this 
ceremony during the Muharram also, in remembrance of Qasim, who the day 
after his marriage [i. e. when the mehndi procession had been performed] was 
slain at Karbala with his father Husain. 


102 Notes on Sirdjuddaidah and the town of Murshiddbad. [No. 2, 

with great pomp and illuminations. A body of infantry and cavalry 
march in procession before the mehndi, the Nawab and attendants 
follow, and elegies are chaunted. 

" On the 7th day the Imambarah is turned into a harem and the 
Begums attend. They put fetters on the Nawab, according to custom, 
and a chain round his neck. Hundreds of women, high and low, 
receive presents 6n this occasion, as the Begums distribute thousands 
of rupees, in order to fulfil certain vows. 

" On the 8th day the flags are carried from the palace. The Nawab 
accompanies them, barefooted and walking slowly, with pensive mien 
and great dignity, whilst tears unceasingly flow from his august eye. 

" On the 10th day, called 'Ashura, before sunrise, the flags and 
the coffins are carried to Amaniganj, a place about 2 kos from the 
palace, where the coffins are buried. The Nawab again walks bare- 
footed in the procession, and, having arrived at the burial-place, 
orders elegies to be chaunted. The prayer appointed for this day is 
then read. About noon the Nawab returns to his palace. The others 
do not return before the evening. The gathering of the people in 
Amaniganj is very great ; for all kinds of food are distributed there 
to the poor and the inhabitants in general. Besides there is in 
Amaniganj a place resembling Kerbala, laid out, from pious motives, 
by the Nawab Nazir Sayyidi Darab 'Ali. A meeting is held there on 
the 2nd Thursday of every month. 

" As the relatives of a dead person prepare a dinner 40 days after 
his death, a large public dinner is also prepared in the Imambarah, 40 
days after the end of the Muharram festivities, i. e. on the 20th day 
of the month of £afar." 

I may remark that the above ceremonies are purely Shi'ah. Edu- 
cated Sunnis abhor them, but low Sunnis take a part both in the 
Shi'ah, and also in Hindoo festivities, all over India. The Shi'ahs in 
Calcutta have a house near Manicktollah, where they celebrate the 
10th day of the Muharram by carrying flags about. Elegies are also 
sung and the shewan is performed. The house, which is called 
Karbala, is let during the year, but the tenants have to leave it 
during the Muharram. 

I take this opportunity to correct a prevalent error, which even 
many of our lexicographers have made, viz. that the ta'ziahs are 

1867.] Notes on Sirdjuddaulak and the town of Murshiddodd, 103 

carried about in remembrance of the death of Hasan and Husain. 
But it is in commemoration of the death in battle of Husain and his 
family only. Hasan had died a year before Husain of poison. Nor 
do the Shi'ahs exclaim in their lamentations " Hasan Husain !" but 
f Husain, Husain !" or " yd Husain! merely. 

As a custom peculiar to Murshidabad, the author mentions a grand 
annual display of fireworks and a feast given by the Nawab on the 
last Thursday of the month of Bhadon, to which the English gentry 
of Berhampore are generally invited. 

A large raft of 100 cubits square is made of plantain trees and 
bamboos and covered with mud. In the midst of the raft a small 
fortress is built, to the walls of which all kinds of fireworks are 
attached. At the order of the Nawab, the raft is launched (bhasan&) 
and steered to the other side of the river, when the fireworks are let 
off. The whole is done to the honour and glory of Haszrat Khwajah 
Khiszr, (may blessings be upon him). 

Smaller rafts (hind, bcra) are put on the tanks by Muhammadans 
of the lower classes all over Bengal on every Thursday during the 
month of Bhadon. The simplest ones consist of joined pieces of 
bamboos or plantain trees, with a few sweetmeats and a small lamp 
placed on them. They are made in order to discharge vows. 

I do not know the origin of this custom, nor the area over which 
it extends. It is in all probability of Hindoo origin. But it reminds 
me of an attribute of Khiszr as the guide of wanderers, who loose 
their way in the darkness of the night. Indeed one must have seen 
the darkness of a night in Bengal during the month of Bhadon, to 
know what darkness really is. 

Notes on the style of the hook. 

The writer succeeds in expressing his ideas clearly ; awkward 
: sentences occur seldom. 

The style of the book is Hindustani-Persian, i. e. Persian words 

arranged according to the genius of the Hindustani language, The 

! general failings of all Indian writers in Persian, from Abulfaszl down- 

1 wards, appear also here. A preference is given to long periods with 

I participial constructions corresponding to Hindustani forms as,^^ 

104 Notes on Sirdjiiddaulah and the town of Murshiddodd. [No. 2, 

Jj$ &c. The apodosis (^jj-^) is generally introduced by words like 
^i^xj ^j^jj &\j*j&, *&>9j{&&& &c, which corresponds to Hindustani 
correlative adverbs as v^ and v-S >^ and_p &c. Many phrases are 
purely Hindustani, e. g. j>j!.> eJAjaJ <jJ-*3 *^ *&*»\ vir^ J V^f^ ^ 
" the building is remarkable, so that it has a connection with seeing," i. e. 
" you must see the building to comprehend its beauty," or as one would 
say in Hindustani ^Ixtfj *■»&? d» ^-%H* you must see it, in order to 
judge. ii>«*J|>£. jLJ for the Persian u^jUJ is the Hindustani tA^JJjUJ. 
The phrase i^£&|«3jJ c5 , H-4 /0 f° r t^H ^ is Hindustani for li^J| ^^.x/o. 
The phrase ^^ o^ o^* &>%<> is Hind, for JjciLoJo^^o c^j^o. The 
author uses also many Hindustani words quite needlessly, e. g. 
&\j~±&xiyQjj^. &*tj± for «Jl>^ *-J^^° CaAaAwj,*. I was astonished to find 
the following monstrosity in the chapter on Murshidabad Jj**/o^jJ j 

" It was also the custom of the former Nawabs to send in the 
month of August for those government boats which were at Dacca." 
The most learned Persian scholar, unacquainted with Hindustani,] 
would -not know what to make of the &Z before LS ±&$ '. It is very] 
good Hindustani* and stands for j^. l& ^xLf is Indian usage fori 
Ifl-xx&f. Hindustani authors also insist upon writing iU^b for 8L&.}L»,| 
as ^b has an obscene meaning (V. Bahar i 'Ajam). ^\y\ is a curious! 
Arabic plural of the Persian ^y, " The phrase" tijjxso ^5^1 " plun-l 
dered things" is a serious blunder. It looks as if the author had made] 
a participle of the noun v^jU mistaking the o for a radical. 

The handwriting of the MS. is a bad Shikastah. 

* <?\ \a%& &$* *^ A 3 &m*&fjj$ v#o J^>o &j±^. 


Notes on Buddhist Remains. 


Notes on Buddhist Remains near Mynpoorie. — By C. Horne, Esq. 

b. a s. 

[Eeceived, October 30th, 1866.] 

At a distance of from 10 to 25 miles to the south of Mynpoorie 
extends of line of high Kheras, distant 3 or 4 miles apart. 

On each of these, in ancient time, was some large building, but owing 
to their general transformation, some hundred years since, at a time 
of anarchy, into square mud forts, traces of these ancient buildings are 
hard to find. 

In my former notes relative to Kerouli, Maloun and Kanemganj, 
I recorded evident traces of Buddhist buildings of probably the 3rd 
or 4th century A. D., but in the mounds recently visited, I have not 
been so successful. 

Leaving Bujaniganj canal station, opposite to which is a village 
perched on a high mound with its usual jheel around, created by the 
excavation of earth to form the said mound which I could not visit, 
I proceeded to Tukrow (canal station), nearly west for 6J miles. 
Three miles from there, still going west, I arrived at Bhawanti, a 
village similar to that just spoken of and probably worthy of a visit — 
but the sun forbad my examining it, and I pushed on to Kurhat — 
which is a mound of great extent, with a very large jheel almost 
enclosing it. 

Here the fort arrangement had been carried out, as shewn in Fig. 1 ; 
but I was fortunate in finding some very ancient solid brick blocks 
cut into ornamental patterns with a tool. (Fig. 2.) This block 
was burnt in one piece and was of very fine texture. 

Fig. 1. 


Buddhist Remains near Mynpoorie. 

[No. 2, 


Fig. 4. 


7|" thick. 

The next illustration was a finial 
corner ornament. (Fig. 3.) The cutting 
was very sharply done, and I found 
fragments of many other such bricks. 

Fine kunkur blocks are rare here, and stone 
is quite unknown, hence the use of brick. 
There was, however, one small column shaft in 
fine kunkur (Fig. 4) which shewed the trace of 
a small building, probably early Hindoo. 

There were also heaps of fragments of small 
kinriaros or cherubs, such as are seen around 
later statues of Buddha, as well as 2 pairs of 
feet, with one or two round faces with very 
large ear-rings, so that I think that this village 
would repay a careful search. 

From Khurrah to Soj is only 2 or 3 miles. Soj is a mound of vast 
extent with a very large square mud fort rising 40 feet on its crest, 
and an immense jheel stretching away from its base. Near the jheel 
is an arrangement of old kunkur blocks 16' X 10'— being 5 courses 
4' — 9" i n height, with many blocks lying around, amongst which I 
identified the centre block of a Jain ceiling as per fig. 5 in the margin. 
2'-8" This from its size would indicate a 

building of small size ; but kunkur is j 
a formation which does not readily 
indicate age. 

I also noticed, set up as a sacred post, 
a kunkur ornament r \ being a large 
finial, the same as L-\ found at Ma- 
loun. A portion of a statue of 

Buddha, being from the waist to the 
feet, also occurred, but I was much 
disappointed at finding so little that 
Fig. 5. was really ancient. 

joojrtiax a.< soc: XXXVI. P I. 



'i'Ih*i(frarphuL ae they ffcy. f Schorl o-fi Art Caloutia' by 

T BiaJc SrrA- ZUhrs. Co/-: 

.fOUlVKAl AS: soc XXXVi PI 


Carvnu>s on. Rail Posts at OudsDuj Gujuol 

op orncLnifriiQ . 


Ul W 




Utf /"^'"'YYnH'W'^'Vs 


«diJL . ^- 

Z)r<rHW on'S0ni ,W /*- frVr ' Xjtco'i of Art laltu'U. htf ttmmMtt, Outrun g*»ti Xttuimi 

joUWWai, as soc XXXVT. PL 


Ccu't'UTxjs ort Tful posts <tf Bxa/idJt/j ■< G-CUfOL 

vfe^ r " 

\fuUUe> crruwn&njs 

. If,', '-/.I., ; , !Ut ! I '. tlt(X 

v "^^ 



'top ornaments 


IE!'.'*. 8rC1, 7.L'kvj,,y,/...-j Coil 


18G7.] Buddhist Carvings at Budh Gayd. 107 

Saman is about 2J miles west of Soj, on a mound, with a jheel, 
and is entirely built in the said mound. It is the residence of 
Kullyan Sing, agent for the Eajah of Mynpoorie, and might repay 
a visit. 

Proceeding still further west, we came to Kishni, on the metalled 
road from Futtyghur to Etawah. Here was one large mound covered 
with buildings in occupation, and so nearly inaccessible archseo- 
*pgically ; and a smaller mound from which I was told large square 
bricks were excavated. I found here a heap of broken Hindoo 
deities, but not a trace of Buddhist remains. 

. Near Kurhul I also saw a round mound from which they said 
large bricks were taken, but neither at Kishni nor at Kiirhal did I see 
an ancient brick cither lying about or built into any structure. 

The oldest coins I could get were some copper ones of the Delhi 
kings, but I have no doubt but that Hindoo punch coins are some- 
times found. This line of country is worth carefully exploring, and 
as a road from Kurhal to Kishni is in course of construction, others 
will find it an easier matter than I did. 

Notes on the Carvings on the Buddhist Rail-posts at Budh Gayd, 
By C. Horne, Esq. C. S. 

In submitting to the S ociety the accompanying drawings of the 
more remarkable of the carvings on the Buddhist rail-posts at Budh 
Gaya, some irom the court-yard of the mahant, but chiefly from the 
little temple by the tower, I would beg to draw attention to some 
of them — 

Plate, No. IV. Firstly. — The boat scene, almost identical with 
the one figured by Cunningham in the Bhilsa Topes. 

Secondly. — The rest of the upper portion is of the same sheet, all 
of them copies, doubtless of Buddhist rails, pillars, and buildings. 
Here we find the round and pointed arch, but this argues nothing, 
when we remember that there were imitations of wood work and of 
thatch and bamboos as in the cave of the rock temples of Barabur 
close by. 

108 Buddhist Carvings at Budh Gay a. [No. 2, 

Thirdly. — The central compartments are curious, but need little 
remark. At first I took them for astronomical emblems as signs of 
the zodiac, but I do not think they are. 

Fourthly. — The lower ornament is nearly the same in all. 

Memo. — Although drawn one over the other — it does not follow 
that the identical three were upon one and the same rail-post. 

Plate No. V. — The figure shewn as No. 2, to the left, is rather 
unusual. It wants all the refinement of Buddha, and does not, I think, 
represent him. — There is another such figure let into the wall, as you 
enter the lower room in the great tower on the right hand, inside the 
doorway. The fifth sketch puzzled me. It is perhaps intended to 
represent a good trick. To the extreme left is, what I believe to 
be, the only remnant yet found in Benares of a Buddhist rail. It is 
much defaced, and obliterated with dirt and ghee, and stands nearly 
opposite to the door of the golden temple on the left hand of the 

The demon face to the extreme left of the centre one much resem- 
bles the Sarnath demon face ; whilst the cornice is very bold, free, 
and handsome. The single demon face inside the brick tower, left, 
above the floor of the highest chamber, must have been built in, when 
the tower was built, and I should not assign any great age to it. 

The portion of the Singhasan or idol shrine drawn nearly to scale, 
and which shews the holes into which were set the fastenings of the 
metal covering, is very curious. It exactly corresponds in style to 
the whole of the exterior plaistering of the great tower, and in the 
event of the arches having been declared to be coeval with the tower, 
I must amend my former opinion, and would hold that tlie tower was 
rebuilt, interiorly arched, and wholly plaistered at or about 500 A. D. — 
the date of Amara Sinha, when the original Buddhist railing included 
both the Bo tree and the tower. 

In conclusion, I may remark, that although my drawings are very 
defective, yet the original carvings are very rude^ and clearly betoken 
their early execution. 

18G7.] Tlie Pegu Pagoda. 109 

Tlie Pegu Pagoda. — By Capt. H. A. Browne, Deputy Commissioner 

of Rangoon. 
[Received Nov. 28th, 1866. Bead 5th Dec. 1866.] 

Every ancient Pagoda in Burmah has its Thamaing or " sacred 
chronicle," giving an account of the relics or quasi-relics which it was 
built to enshrine, the names of the kings, rulers or other distinguished 
personages by whom it was erected or has since been repaired or 
embellished, in short its history from its foundation down to a recent 
time.. The commencement of those chronicles is of a more or less 
mythical character; the founding of each particular pagoda being 
connected, if possible, by its historian with some event in the life of 
G-audama, who is fabled to have visited these regions after he became 
a Buddha. Some gleams of real history may be detected even in the 
mythical portions of the narratives, but later on the chronicles are 
truthful contributions to the history of the period. To disunite some 
of these from the obscurity of the Hpoongyce's book-chests, and give 
a compendious description of their contents, will not be an uninterest- 
ing task, and the results may be useful to the author who will some 
day write " The History of Burmah," as well as interesting to the 
general reader. 

One of the most ancient and famous among the Pagodas of Burmah 

is the graceful structure known as the Shwe Hmawdaw Q QQQjQOOD 

at the town called, by Europeans, Pegu, and by Burmans, Pago OOOS 

or Paigoo doos' , but formerly known as Hanthawadie OOQDOOcB 

which, since the decline of Thatoon COCQ twelve centuries ago, 
has been the capital of the Talaing nationality. 

Hanthawadie is derived from the " Hantha" (Groose or Brahminee 
Duck), the national bird of the Talaings. Concerning the manner in 
which this bird came to be selected by the Talaings as their emblem, 

* The name " Pago" appears to be of Burmese not Talaing derivation. It is 

said to be a corruption of" Paikho" QCS or Beau-thief, from some old legend 

connected with the place. 

The name of the pagoda " Hmawdaw" is a corruption of the Talaing 
Hpot-daw which is interpreted in Burmese as " Bhoorabyan," a '* winged" or 
flying Bhoora. 


110 TJie Pegu Pagoda. [No. 2, 

the following fable is narrated. When Graudama, in the eighth year 
after he became a Buddha, was on a preaching tour in these parts, he 
passed by the hill on which Hanthawadie was afterwards built, and 
there seeing two " Hanthas," which with joined wings paid him 
obeisance, he foretold that 1116 years after his death, there would be 
built on -that spot a town which would become the capital of a race 
of monarchs and an important city. As he foretold, so it came to 
pass. On this site, which is just outside the eastern wall of the 
present town, the original founders of the Talaing kingdom of Pegu, 
Thamala and Wiemala, built the old city of Hanthawadie, about 573 
A. D. The district, which took its name from the capital town, 
contained at its most floursihing period 32 cities or townships, and 
included the eastern half of the present district of Rangoon, with 
parts of Toungoo and Shwegyeen. The following are the names of 
the thirty-two cities. 

1. Dengmai; 2. Zarayboon.; 3. Hmawbyo ; 4. Lagwonbyeng; 
5. Akharaing; 6. Ma-oo; 7. Ramanago; 8. Ramawatie ; 9. Hmaw- 
bee ; 10. Hlaing ; 11. Hpoungleng ; 12. Htandawgyee ; 13. 
Deedwot; 14. .Zeta; 15. Zoungdoo ; 16. Hpa-aing ; 17. Merengzaya 
18. Tagnabhoung ; 19. Meng-raihla ; 20. Kawlieya ; 21. Zaingana- 

The whole of these twenty-one townships are within the limits 
of the present district of Rangoon, and the names may all, with the 
exception of Nos. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 16, 18 and 19, be found in 
the Map of Pegu. Those which are not now traceable among the 
existing towns or divisions of the district, were situated as follows : 
No. 1. Dengmai, on the bank of the Sittang river, south east from 
Pegu. No. 2. Zarayboon, now known as Zwaiboon, in the same 
neighbourhood. No. 3. Hmawbyo, doubtful. No. 6. Ma-oo, part \ 
of Akharaing. No. 7. Ramanago, the present town of Rangoon. 
No. 8. Ramawatie, the country round the present town of Rangoon. 1 ! 
No. 13, Deedwot, north of Pegu. No. 14, Zeta, north of Pegu.).' 
No 16, Hpa-aing, on the bank of the Irrawady, opposite to Danoobyoo.| 
This division existed up to the annexation of Pegu, when the circle 1 
of Hpa-aing was amalgamated with that of Tagay. No. 18, Tagna-j 
bhoung, between Hmawbee and Hlaing. No. 19, Mengrai-hla, next, 
to Tagnabhoung. 


TJie Pegu Pagoda. 


The following are the cities which lie within the limits of the 
present district of Shwegyeen. No. 22, Koukmaw ; No. 23, Ban-myo ; 
No. 24, Doontsaran ; No. 25, Kyeekya ; No. 26, Tsittoung (Sit- 
tang) ; No. 27, Atha ; No. 28, Ywongzaleng ; and the remainder 
which are in the district of Toungoo, are — No. 29, Toonkhan, No. 30, 
Eainwari, No. 31, Baingta, No. 32, Wenghpyaing. 

Below is a table shewing the names of the kings by whom these 
towns were founded and the dates assigned to the reigns of the kings. 

Name of City. 

Name of King, 


if Reign. 


A. D. 







































H maw bee. 












Deed wot 
















112 The Pegu Pcujoda. [No. 2, 










Queen Beenya daw San 
Shang tsaw-boo. 








Thoo-sheng-taga Riwot p 



The dates in the above table are those given in the " Thamaing" 
of the Shwe Hmawdaw, but it is clear that in this particular, i. e. as 
regards dates, the chronicle is altogether wrong. The year 1116 of 
the religious era, in which year Pegu is said to have been founded, 
corresponds with the year 493 of king Thamoondarie's Era (573 A. D.) 
but the chronicle gives the year 514 of the present secular era as the 
date of this occurrence A. D. 1152. This makes a difference of 579 
years in the date of Thamala's reign. 

The Shwe-Hmawdaw, like many other pagodas, is said to have been 
built in order to enshrine two of Gaudama's hairs. The legend 
relates that in the sixth year after G-audama had obtained omniscience 

* There are five different eras known in Burmese Chronology. They are as 
follows : — 

1st. — The Kawza era which, after lasting 8650 years, was abolished by Bhodaw 
Eentsana, grandfather of Gaudama, in B. C. 691. 

2nd. — Bhodaw Eentsana's era, which lasted 148 years only, until Gaudama's 
death, B G. 543. 

3rd — King Ayatathat's or the Beligious era. This lasted 624 years, until 
A. D.. 82. 

4th — King Thamoondarie's era. In 82 A. D. Thamoondarie, king of Prome, 
superseded the Religious era, as far as secular purposes were concerned, by his 
own era which he established from the 622nd year of the Religious era, A. D. 
80. This era lasted 562 years, until 643 A. D. 

5th. — Pagantsaw Rahan's or Pooppatsaw Rahan's era. In 642 A. D. this 
king of Pegu abolished the Prome era and established his own, making it 
commence from the year 560 of the former era. This era has now reached its 
1228th year. 

Another era, but little used, known as Gnyoung Mangtara's era, which lasted 
198 years, was synchronous with a portion of the present era. 

According to Burmese computation, therefore, the following number of years 
have elapsed since the death of Gaudama : — 

Ayatathat's Era, years •. 622 

Thoomoondarie's Era, 560 

Pooppatsaw Rahan's Era, 1227 

Total 2,109 

Which fixes the date of that occurrence, viz. the death of Gaudama, in 543 

1867] The Pegu Pagoda. 113 

(about 582 B. C.) whilst he was tarrying in the Makkoola Hill near 
the source of the Thalwon (Gwon-zaleng) river, he was visited by two 
pilgrims from Zoungdoo* named Mahathala and Tsoolathala, the sons 
of Pientaka, a wealthy merchant of that town. The brothers made 
many offerings. Gaudama, being desirous of requiting them, and at 
the same time of establishing his religion in their country, shook his 
head, and presented to the brothers two hairs which adhered to his 
hands, directing them to enshrine the same on the Thoodathana- 
Myeng-theeta Hill which lay to the west of the Hanthawadie Hill. 
The two brothers being ignorant of the locality of these hills, Gaudama 
described them as surrounded by the sea, from which they had but 
lately emerged, and promised that they should be pointed out by the 
Nats and Brahmas. Gaudama then prophesied that in the 1116th year 
of his religion, and the year 514 of the secular era, two brothers, named 
Thamala and Wiemala, would found the city of Hanthawadie to the east 
of the Thoodathana-Myeng-theeta Hill, and that his religion would 
flourish there. 

The two brothers, Mahathala and Tsoolathala, then took ship and 
conveyed the sacred relics, enclosed in a casket provided for the 
purpose by the Thagya king of their native town, where they were 
received with great rejoicing. After holding high festival for seven 
months and seven days, they proceeded to obey the instructions they 
i had received, by enshrining the relics on the Thoodathana Hill. 
Guided by the miraculous power of the Nats and Brahmas, they speedily 
arrived at the spot, and then they prayed that an omen might be given 
if that was indeed the very place. In answer to their prayers, the 
great earth shook. This not only supplied the desired information, 
but called down a host of Nats and Brahmas from the upper regions 
to take part in the enshrinement of the relics. By them the shrine 
was thus prepared. At the bottom of a pit ten cubits square was 
laid a slab of pearly white marble, set with diamonds. A similar slab, 
set with emeralds, was prepared to cover the mouth of the pit. In 
the centre of the bottom slab the Thagya king placed a golden 
cradle, round which were ranged images of the chief disciples of 
Gaudama, each holding a golden bouquet. These disciples were 
Thaicapootra, Mawgalan, Theeree Maha Maya, Theeree Thoodaw- 
# A place which still exists upon the Pegu river, about 20 miles above Pegu. 

114 The Pegu Pagoda. [No. 2 

dana, G-athawdara, Kheraa, Oopawon, Rahoola and Ananda. The 
sacred relics were then conducted with great pomp from Zoungdoo 
to the Hill, the distance, two Yooyanas (24 miles), being travelled 
in fourteen days. The casket containing the hairs was then placed 
on the cradle, and high festival was held around the shrine. Besides 
the images of the chief disciples, those of the following persons 
also were placed in the shine ; Mahathala and Tsoolathala, the disciples 
Anooroodha, Mahakathapa, Ooroowelakathapa, Oopalie-pagnya, Isa- 
weggie, the king of the Brahmas and his four wives. The several 
positions occupied by these images are all carefully described in the 
legend. Countless offerings were then made, the Thagya king giving 
ten billions of gold, each of his four queens forty thousand of silver, 
Pientaka one thousand of gold, Mahathala and Tsoolathala one 
thousand and eighty of silver, and so on. The Thagya king then 
placed certain Nats to guard the shrine, and a structure of stone and 
brick, 50 cubits high and 250 cubits in circumference, was erected over 
it. This took place in the year 119, Bhodaw Eentsana'a era, 572 
B. C, on Saturday the 1st of the waxing of the month of Tagoo. 

Then follows a list of the people dedicated by the Rulers of Zoungdoo, 
Thamandaraya and his queen Thoobhattadewee, to the service of the 
Shwe Hmawdaw, and the extent of the land which was declared to 
belong to the shrine. The land was as follows, — to a distance of 100 
" Tas" (1,050 feet) to the east of the Pagoda, 100 " Tas" to the 
north, 100 " Tas" to the west, and 50 " Tas" to the south. This 
would comprise an area of about 310 acres. 

Here ends the first chapter of the mythical portion of the legend, 
from which no real information can be gleaned, except perhaps that 
there was a town at Zoungdoo before Hanthawadie was founded. 

We have not yet, however, got out of the mythical period. Our 
chronicler next attempts to connect the Pagoda with the celebrated 
revival of religion which took place in the reign of the great Athawka 
of Patalipoot in the commencement of the 3rd century of the Christian 
era. The legend states that in the 218th year of the religious and 
the 327th of the secular era* there was not a single worshipper 
of Pagodas or relics in the country. Cities had declined from their 

* Another mistake in chronology. There is no secular era known, the 327th 
year of which corresponds with 218 of the religious era. 

1867.] The Pegu Pagoda. 115 

former greatness, and the temples had fallen into ruins, when the 
king of the great country of Patalipoot named Athawka Dhamma 
Raja invited the Rahandas Mawgaliopootta, Fictha and Oobhara to 
the third council, and under their guidance searched for sacred relics 
wherever they were to be found. The Rahandas pointed out the 
places where the holy hairs and other relics were reposing in the 
country of Hanthawadie ; seven Tsedees were cleared of the trees and 
weeds, with which they were overgrown, and were ornamented with 
golden Htees by the piously disposed monarch. These Tsedees were 
the Dagoon, the Kyaik-dewa, the Kyaik-thamwonhan, the Shwe 
Hmawdaw, the Makaw, the Kyaik-Khouk and the Kyaik-tanoo. All 
these, with the exception of the Shwe Dagoon (Rangoon), are in 
the neighbourhood of the town of Pegu. 

A number of persons were also devoted by king Athawka to be the 
attendants or servitors of these Pagodas. 

A complete list of them is given — ninety men were assigned to the 
Shwe Hmavvdaw and twenty-five to the Shwe Dagoon. Altogether five 
hundred men were devoted to the seven Pagodas. Of these two 
hundred were from the west of the Sittang river, and the remainder 
were Mogoung Shens. Lands also were dedicated to the use of these 

The extent of the lands is carefully described in the legend. The 
land which was assigned to the Shwe Hmawdaw was the same which 
had been given before by king Thamandaraza of Zoungdoo. The lands 
assigned to the Shwe Dagoon were more extensive. Their boundaries 
are thus described. On the east the Thabyoo Khyoung, on the 
north the Zoung- Khyoung, on the west the Myoung Mya Pagoda, 
on the south the river. 

King Athawka then returned to Patalipoot.* After the episode of 
king Athawka, there is a hiatus of nearly 900 years in the chronicle, 
and we arrive then at the historical period. 

* The first introduction of Buddhism into India extra Gangem dates from 
the time of Athawka. After the 3rd council had completed their labors and 
reduced Buddhism to its present form by the compilation of the Beetagat or 
scriptures, missionaries were deputed to all the neighbouring countries to 
spread the knowledge of the faith. Two of them, Potera and Thawna, arrived 
in the Talaing country of Thatoon, whence their religion spread over Burmah. 
It is doubtful whether, at the time of their arrival, the Talaings had yet 
occupied the country to the west of the Sittang* Eiver. 

116 The Pegu Pagoda. [No. 2, 

In the year 1116 of the religions and 514 of the 3rd era* the 
Thagya king established the brothers Thamala and Wiemala as rulers 
over the country of Hanthawadie. They found the Shwe Hmawdaw 
still in existence. In 523 king Thamala, perceiving that the " Htee" 
(chatta or canopy) of the Pagoda was bent and inclining towards the 
south-west, was filled with religious fear, and raised the Pagoda from 
its original height of 50 to 54 cubits, crowned it with a new golden 
Htee, and dedicated 25 families of Engdaret to its service. 

In 526 Thamala died, and his brother Wiemala Koomma reigned 
alone. He added 5 cubits to the height of Shwe Hmawdaw, making 
it 59 cubits in all, gilded it, and gave it a new golden Htee. He also 
erected nine others Tsedees, the names of which are given, and 
dedicated five families of Tadaugyan to the perpetual service of the 
Shwe Hmawdaw. 

Wiemala reigned alone 17 years and died in 543. He was succeeded by 
his nephew, Thamala's son, named Athakoomrna. He also was a pious 
prince, and being desirous of surpassing the meritorious works performed 
by his uncle, added 6 cubits more to the height of the Shwe Hmaw- 
daw, and built seven other Tsedees, the names of which are given, 
all of which he gilded, and crowned with golden Htees. After reign- 
ing seven years, he died in 550. 

He was succeeded by his son Ariendaraza or Arienda koomma. 
Seven months after this prince came to the throne, he observed that 
the Htee of the Shwe Hmawdaw was inclining towards the north- 
west. On this he ordered his chief noble Thoorathiedie at once 
to repair and embellish the holy structure. This was done, and seven 
more cubits were added to the height of the Pagoda, making it 73 
cubits high. Thoorathiedhia's son erected another Pagoda, also 73 
cubits high, to the north of the Shwe Hmawdaw, which Pagoda is 
still known by the name of the " Nobleman's Son's Pagoda." Arien- 
daraza, who was well versed in the laws of kings and replete with 
the eighteen kinds of knowledge, was desirous of emulating the 

* By the 3rd era the writer means the 3rd era after Gaudama. i. e. the present 
one. As before remarked, there is no secular era of which the 514th year cor- 
responds with the 1 1 16th year.of the religious era. As far as the chronicle shews, 
therefore, it is doubtful whether Pegu was founded by Thamala and Wiemala 
in 573, A D. or in 1152, A. D. In the text, to avoid confusion, the dates only 
of the secular era mentioned by the chronicler, will be given. 

18C7.] The Pegu Pagoda. 117 

meritorious works of his predecessors, and therefore having associated 
with himself his queen Kethanee and his chief noble and ministers, 
erected the Pagoda called Kyaik-depazan, to the service of which 
they dedicated Gua Tsaukha and seven families. The king also 
dedicated forty-seven families to the service of the Shwe Hmaw- 

Ariendaraza reigned seven years, and died in 557. His son Hientha- 
raza or Mahiengtharaza succeeded him. During his reign a particular 
storm occurred, which blew off the Htee of Shwe Hmawdaw, as well 
as the upper portion of the Pagoda itself. All were seized with 
fear. The king had the damages repaired and a new jewelled Htee 
constructed. The Pagoda was raised three cubits % more, making its 
height 75 cubits. Four families of Htwonkalaing were dedicated to 
the Pagoda, and the village of Htwonkalaing given to them for their 

Hientharaza reigned 17 years, and died in 573. On his death there 
was an interregnum of 17 days, during which time the chief 
Hpoongyee managed the temporal affairs of the kingdom, until 
Giendraza ascended the throne. The chronicle does not state what 
relation this king bore to his predecessors. Three months after his 
accession to the throne, he repaired the west face surrounding wall of 
the Shwe Hmawdaw. This king was wise and powerful, well versed 
in the ten laws of kings, was possessed of the three kinds of strength, 
knew the four stratagems, and was full of the four laws of charity. 
He erected the Kyaikpadaing Pagoda, an elegant structure on the top 
of an eminence about 8 miles south of Pegu. Concerning the erec- 
tion of this Pagoda the chronicle relates that when the king was 
making a progress through the country, he learnt from ancient records 
that three holy hairs had been deposited by the Hermit Gandawadee 
in the Thoowonna Hill, and a cairn of stones was placed over them. 
Finding a heap of stones on the south-west extremity of this Hill, he 
concluded that this must be the very spot where the three hairs had 
been deposited, and accordingly he erected over it a Tsedee 87 cubits 
high, gilded the structure, and crowned it with a golden Htee. He 
appointed nine families of Htwonmai to be its servitors, and dedicated 
to it the land immediately around, within the following limits : on 
the east 400 " Tas," on the north 200 " Tas," on the west 300 

118 The Pegu Pagoda. [No. 2, 

" Tas," on the south 400 " Tas." After this the king raised the 
Shwe Hmawdaw 5 cubits more, making it 80 cubits high, and dedi- 
cated to it three more famalies of Moonetkarie. The Pagodas, monas- 
teries and other religious works erected by this monarch are innumer- 
able, and all men are exhorted to follow his example. 

In this style the chronicler goes on, giving a minute history of the 
additions to the repairs and embellishments of the Shwe Hmawdaw 
under each succeeding monarch, down to Badoon Meng, the Burman 
king who built the city of Amarapoora, 1143 B. E.=1781 A. I). 
He gives, likewise, a complete list of the other meritorious works, 
building of Pagodas, monasteries, &c. by which the reigns of these 
kings were distinguished. 

As the recital of these works, however veracious it may be, is 
somewhat tedious and uninteresting, except to a pious Boodhist, it will 
be omitted in the present narrative. The names of the kings with the 
dates of their accession will be given in a tabular form, and the more 
remarkable events only, which are mentioned in the Thamaing, will 
be noticed in the text. 

The ninth monarch, Kawarieka, is said to have been a more powerful 
monarch than his predecessors, and to have received on this account 
tribute, which may be interpreted presents, from the kings of Siam, 
Thatoon, Ceylon, China and Pagaw. The same is related of his son 
Pecutsalaraza. This king, Pecutsalaraza, established the Karanee 
monastery, about two miles west of Pegu, where there is still a 
" Thein" or Buddhist consistory built of masonry, some wooden 
monasteries, and a small stone-henge, an interesting relic of the original 
establishment. This consists of a number of granite pillars about 
eight feet high, planted on the ground, and covered with inscriptions 
in the square Pali character. Many of them, thick and massive as 
they are, have been broken and thrown down, and the inscription 
partially effaced. The copy of what remains, fills a small closely 
written volume, the contents of which I have not yet been able to go 
through. The 12th king, Anooramaraza, signalized his reign by 
procuring a holy tooth-relic from Theeree-dhamma-thawka, the prince 
of Thatoon. This he enshrined in the Shwe Hmawdaw. 

The 17th king, Tietha, is notorious in Taking history as having 
|or a time abjured the Buddhist faith, and made great havoc among 

1867.] The Pegu Pagoda. 119 

its temples. The pious chronicler, however, says nothing about this, 
but enumerates the good works which he performed after his recon- 

With this king, the chronicle states, " the race of Hanthawadie kings 
became extinct, and the king of Pagan appointed Akhamamwon to rule 
over Pegu. Three months after his arrival at Pegu, this Viceroy 
attempted to shake off the yoke of the Pagan king, and a general 
named Narapadie was sent to subdue him. In this he succeeded, and 
Akhamamwon was killed. Lekhaya was then appointed Governor of 
Pegu, but was recalled three months after his arrival. Talabya was 
appointed to succeed him. A month after his arrival in Pegu this 
Governor also revolted, and sent to ask assistance from Warooree, the 
powerful king of Martaban. Warooree came to assist him with an 
army of 40,000 men. The Pagan king sent down a General named 
Theehapade with an army of 50,000 men, 1,000 war boats, 1,000 
elephants and 5,000 horses. A great battle was fought at Ma-oo 
in which the Pagan army was worsted, and fled back to Pagan. 
Talabya professed the utmost gratitude to his ally, but was secretly 
jealous of, and laid a plan to destroy, him. He invited Warooree to 
tarry for a few days at Pegu. Warooree's army dispersed to seek their 
subsistence in the neighbourhood, and Talabya was proceeding to carry 
out his nefarious design, when Warooree became acquainted with the 
danger of his position. Having prayed that the ten modes of punish- 
ment might fall on the head of the violator of the ten laws of friend- 
ship, Warooree mounted his elephant, and with 20 followers prepared 
to meet Talabya. The two monarchs attacked each other on their 
elephants. Warooree ran his spear throngh Talabya, who fell dead from 
his seat. Thus Hanthawadie became a conquered province of Martaban, 
and paid tribute to Warooree.* 

* In the A. S. Journal No. 76, April, 1838, I find a copy of an inscription 
on a bell found at Arakan (the translation by the way which is given in the 
Journal is very incorrect) which inscription appears to relate to the story of 
Warooree and Talabya, though their names are not mentioned. In this the 
date of Warooree's victory over the Pagan king is given as 1913 of the religious 
era,=1370 A. D., i. e. 16 years later than the date given in the Shwe Hmawdaw 
Thamaing. The translator in the Journal has cut off the first figure in the date, 
adding " we suppose the 1 to be an accidental stroke," and has taken it to 
mean 913 of the present era A. D. 1615, which is a mistake. The inscription 
states that this bell was cast in 984 of the present era A. D. 1622, long after 
Warooree's time. The bell was probably cast in Arakan, and not brotight thi- 
ther from Pegu. 

120 Tie Pegu Pagoda. [No. 2, 

Warooree was succeeded by Pagnya-Oo, who transferred the seat of 
government from Martaban to Pegu. The chronicler has here again 
been guilty of a chronological mistake. He states that Pagnya-Oo 
reigned 16 years in Martaban and 19 in Pegu, altogether 35 years, and 
yet he makes the date of his accession 731 and of his death 743 ; thus 
allowing a period of 12 years only for his reign. This king appears 
to have done more to extend his dominions than any of his predecessors 
on the throne of Hanthawadie — vide the list of cities founded, already 

Pagnya-Oo was succeeded by his son Razadhicrit who was one of 
the most powerful monarchs who ever reigned in Pegu ; Arakan and 
China are said to have paid him tribute, and the chronicle gives an 
interesting account of his relations with Ceylon. 

Pandooya,* the king of that island, sent him his daughter Thamoot- 
tadewee, with a fleet of seven ships and a holy tooth-relic. This was 
enshrined in the Shwe Hmawdaw. 

King Razadhicrit reigned 40 years. 

In the reign of Byeenya-rau-khaik, who flourished A. D. 1427 
about, the Shwe Dagoon Pagoda of Rangoon is mentioned for the first 
time in the historical period by the chronicler of the Shwe Hmawdaw. 
It is said that having been damaged by a storm, the Pagoda was 

* This name cannot be identified with any of the names of the kings of Ceylon 
as given in Tumour's Mahawanso. The only name at all like it is that of the 
139th king, Pandita Prakrama, who flourished about 1319 A. D. In Tumour's 
Epitome, the following instances of communication between Burmah and Ceylon 
are mentioned. A. D. 1071, Anurudha, king of Arakan, sent learned priests to 
Ceylon. A. D. 1592, Wemala Dharm, king of Ceylon, brought learned priests 
from Arakan. In 1153 A. D. the Ceylon king is said to have sent an expedition 
to " Arramana" to chastise the king of that country for having committed acts 
of violence on Singhalese subjects, and having intercepted ships conveying some 
princesses from Ceylon to the continent. In 1186 also a Pali letter was written 
to the king of Arramana soliciting him to send learned priests to Ceylon. Is 
not this Arramana the same as Ramagnya, the Pali name of a portion of Pegu ? 
In Tennent's Ceylon it is stated that when the Holy Tooth Relic of Ceylon was 
seized by the Portuguese, in 1560, " the sovereign of Pegu, who had previously 
" dispatched annual embassies to offer homage at its shi'ine, sent in anxious 
" haste to redeem it by exchange of treasures and political services," an offer 
which, through the influence of the priests, was declined. Again in 1 566, the 
kin" 1 of Pegu having been told by the astronomers that he was to wed a Singhalese 
princess, sent to demand her. The king unfortunately happened to have no 
daughter, but the daughter of one of his ministers was palmed off upon the 
Pegu monarch as a princess, and at the same time a counterfeit tooth was sent 
to Pegu as the genuine tooth- relic, which had in fact been destroyed by the 

1867] The Pagn Pagoda. 121 

repaired by king Byeenya-rau-khaik. This king reigned 30 years.* 

His son and successor Byeenya-kharo is said to have been a very 
just monarch, and several instances are given of the inflexibly strict 
manner in which he administered justice. In A. D. 1388 a female 
sovereign, queen Beengnya-daw or Byeengnya-daw Shengtsawboo 
reigned in Pegu. She was 58 years old when she came to the throne. 
After residing seven years in Hanthawadie, she left her son in charge 
of that town, and removed her court to Dagoon (Rangoon). She built 
a place to the south-west of the Shwe Tshaudaw (Shwe Dagoon), and 
dedicated lands within the following limits to the service of the Pagoda. 
On the east Kyaik-kanet, on the south Kyaik-kanoot, on the west 
Kyaik-myoungmya, and on the north Kyaik-mo-rap.f 

The queen was succeeded by her son-in-law Dhamma-tsedee who 
built another capital to the west of the original town of Hanthawadie. 
This king received a present of 100,000 paving-stones from Ceylon. 
With half of these he paved the court of the Shwe Dagoon, and used 
■the other half for a similar purpose at the Shwe Hmawdaw. 

The twelfth king of the Martaban dynasty was conquered by the great 
Toungnoo king Tabeng-shwe-htee, of whom the chronicler records 
nothing, except that he kept the Shwe Hmawdaw in good order, and 
performed other meritorious works. 

He was succeeded by Thamaing-daw-rwot-kalie whose lineage is 
not specified, but he was probably a descendant of the Martaban race 
of kings. His reign is memorable, from his having been the last 
monarch who added to the height of the Shwe Hmawdaw. Subsequent 
monarchs repaired it and gave new Htees, but none of them added to 
the building itself. Thamangdaw raised it six cubits, making its 
height altogether 205 cubits=324 feet about. At this height it has 
remained ever since, being a few feet higher than the Shwe Dagoon of 

Thamangdaw was dethroned by another celebrated Toungnoo 
monarch, known as Tsheng-hbyoo-mya-sheng (Lord of many white 
elephants) . This king removed his capital to Pegu, and built the 

* In the A. S. Journal No. 5 of 1859, Col. A. P. Phayre, in his account of the 
Shwe Dagoon Pagoda, states : " It was not until the reign af Ban-gya-rau, in 
808, that anything was done to restore the Shwe Dagoon." " Ban-gya" should 
have been written Bangya or Bangnya, pronouueed " Beenga." 

f Kyaik is the Burmanized form of a Talaing word " kyat," meaning-a 

122 The Pegu Pagoda. [No. 2, 

present walled city of Pegu, to the west of the former town of Hantha- 
wadie, and nearer the river. The power of this king was great. Ceylon 
paid him tribute and Siam sent princesses. He built the Maha-tsedee 
Pagoda, a huge pile of brick and laterite, about two miles to the west 
of Pegu, near the Karanee monastery. This, if completed, would have 
rivalled the Shwe Hmawdaw in size, but it appears never to have been 
finished, though the king dedicated 31 families from Twante in Dalian 
to its service. This is the first occasion on which the Dallah division 
of the present .Rangoon district, which lies to the west of the Rangoon 
river, is mentioned by the chronicler. 

This part of the country appears to have been colonised by an 
independent race of Takings, and not to have formed part of the 
original country of Hanthawaclie. 

After the death of Nau-kya-bhooreng, in A. D. 1624, a " KoolaPathee 
kappeetan" (literally a western foreigner Musalman captain) ruled 
Pegu from Thanlyeng or Syriam. He, no doubt, was a Portuguese. The 
chronicle states " he was a heretic, and for 12 years searched for 
" Pagodas to destroy them. Religion perished in Ramangnya, and 
" good works were no longer performed. The Htee and the Tshap- 
" thwa-hpoo* of the Shwe Hmawdaw were pulled down and taken to 
" Syriam. But the people of Hanthawadie, at the instigation of the 
" Rahans Telatseng and Engamoot, made a new Tshap-thwa-hpoo of 
" 150 viss of gold of the Pagoda." 

When the Ava king heard of the conduct of the Kappeetan, he 
sent an army of 10,000 men under Meng-rai-kyaw-tswa against him ; 
the Kappeetan fled, and was drowned when crossing the river to 
Dallah. The Ava king, whose name is not given, then ruled in Han- 
thawadie. He appears to have resided in Hanthawadie. 

The fifth king of this dynasty, Meng-rai-kyaw-goung, dedicated 
190 families of Pada in Syriam, who had rebelled against his authority, 
to the service of the Shwe Hmawdaw, and assigned three villages for 
their support. 

The seventh king reigned in Ava, and made Hanthawadie over to a 
governor Guatha Oung, who oppressed the people and was killed in a 
rebellion. The next governor also was killed by a rebel named 

* The spike above the Htee, so called from its resemblance to the flower of 
the screw-pine. 

1867.] The Pegu Pagoda. 123 

Tsheng-kya-sheng of Tharet-oke, who set himself up as king with the 
title of Eoodha-kethee Tsheng-kya-sheng. In this king's reign, it is 
recorded the white foreigners appeared in Pegu. 

This king is said to have removed to Laboon in Zimrnay, and to 
have been succeeded by Gui-khaing who was deposed by his minister 
Kanaikhaing, who was anointed king with the title of Bya-maing- 
dee-razadie-patie. This king's son, Byeeaguyadalla, appears hardly to 
have commenced his reign when the Talaings were finally subjugated 
by the great Burman conquerer Aloung Bhoora — whose approach, the 
chronicler says, was heralded by a violent storm and earthquake, by 
which the upper part of the Shwe Hmawdaw was thrown down. After 
subduing the provinces of Dhaway (Tavoy), Byiet (Meigui), Taneng- 
tharee (Tenasserim), Taraw Byat-bhic and Dwarawadee, Aloung 
Bhoora died on the 13th increase of Nayoon 1122 (A. D. 1760) at the 
village of Lawa-mye-byahma. 

With the seventh king of this dynasty, Bhadoon-meng, who ascended 
the throne A. D. 1771, the Thamaing of the Shwe Hmawdaw concludes. 
The Bhadoon-meng built a new capital, Amarapura, and was anointed 
in 1773, with the lengthy title of Theeree-pawara-wiezara-nanda- 
In his reign the shwe Hmawdaw was repaired, and a new Htee made 
under the supervision of the Governor of Hanthawadie. Here ends 
the chronicle of the Shwe Hmawdaw. 

Kings and Governors of Hanthawdie according to the Hmawdaw 

Names. Dates of Accession, 

1 Thamala, 

2 Wiemala, or Wiemala Koomm a, . . . 

3 Athakoomma, 

4 Ariendaraza or Mahiemoorarien- 

5 Hientharaza, ... 

6 Giendaraza, ... 

7 Mieggadiepa, ... 

8 Giezzawievararaza, 

9 Kawarieka, ... 

B. E. 

A. D. 







. 550 


. 557 


. 574 






. 611 


124 The Pegu Pagoda. [No. 2, 

10 Peentsalaraza, 

11 Attatharaza, 

12 Anooramaraza, 

13 Mieggadiepagnay, 

14 Eggathamandaraza, 

15 Oopalaraza, 

16 Poonnarieka, 

17 Tietharaza, ... ... , 

Governors appointed from Pagan. 

1 Akhamarnwon, ... ... 716 1354 

2 Naiapadie, 

3 Lekhaya, 

4 Talabya, ... ... . 

















)) J) 

The Martaban Dynasty. 

1 Warocree, ... ... ... 716 1354 

2 Pagnya-Oo, ... 731 1369 

3 Razadhicrit,* ... ... 743 1381 

4 Dhamniaraza or Pagnya-dhamma- 

raza, ... ... ... 783 1421 

5 Byeenya-ran-khaik, 789 1427 

6 Byeenya-kharo, ... ... 821 1459 

7 Byeen-kyan-daw,... 847 1485 

8 Tamawadaw or Liet-mwot-daw-ta- 

mawdaw, ... ... ... 850 1488 

9 Beenyadaw or Byeenyadaw Sheng- 

tsaw-boo, ... 850 1488 a female so- 


10 Dhammatsedee or Dliamma-tsekya- 

tsedee, ... ... .... 864 1502 

11 HattirazaorByeenya-ran blnethieta 878 1516 

12 Atie-raw-raza or Taga-rwot-pie,... 901 1539 

Toungoo king. 

1 Tabengshwe-htee... 923 1561 

* If Pagnya-Oo reigned 35 years, Eazadhicrit's accession will be 766 B. E. 
or 1404 A ,D. 

1867.] The Pegu Pagoda. 125 

Dynasty not specified. 

1 Thamamgdaw-nvot kalie, ... 930 1568 

2 Tsheng-hbyoo-mya-slieng, 942 1580 

3 Nan-kya-bhooreng, ... ... 971 1609 

4 A Koola Pathee Kappeetan, ... 986 1624 

Ava Dynasty. 

1 A king, name not given, 998 1636 

2 Meng-Rai-dieppa, ... ... 1013 1651 

3 Thato-malia-dharama-raza, 1013 1651 

4 Nankya Engwa Bhooreng, ...1033 1671 

5 Meng-Rai-kyaw Goung, 1055 1693 

6 Engwa-Bliooreng, ... ... 1070 1708 

Governors appointed by Ava Icings. 

1 Gna-Tha-Oung, ... ... 1099 1737 

2 Meng-Rai-Oung, ... „ „ 

Talaing kings. 


Boodha-kethee-tsheng-kya-sheng, 1102 

1740 (?) 


Gnakhaing, ... ... ...1108 



Bya-maingdee-razadie-patie, ... 1108 



Byeengnya Dalla, 1119 

Burman Dgnasty. 



Aloung Bhoora, ... 1120 



His son's name not given, ... 1122 



Tsaleng-myo-tsa-meng, ... 1125 



Tshengoo-tsa, ... 1138 



Hpoung-ga-tsa, .., ... 1143 



Bhadoon meng, ... 1143 



12G On the Antiquities of Bagerhat. [No. 2, 

On the Antiquities of Bdyerhdl. — By Bdbu Gtourdass Bysack, Deputy 
Magistrate and Deputy Collector, Manbhoom. 
[Received 29th March, 1867, Read 1st May, 1867.] 
The Delta of the Ganges offers few localities of interest to the an- 
tiquarian. An alluvial plain, intersected by a number of mighty 
and ever-shifting rivers, there is not a spot on it, which can arrest the 
attention of the traveller by ever so poor a display of the remains of 
human art of a former age ; no hoary temple of the ancient Hindu 
rajas, — no majestic palace buried under the dust and vegetation of 
centuries, — no baronial castle where the Aryan held revelry, when the 
Moslem had not yet set his feet on this land, — rewards the search of the 
inquirer. Nothing meets his eyes that proclaims of ancient civiliza- 
tion, and well may he question if ever any scion of the solar or the 
lunar race dwelt amid the people of Bengal. Even history does not 
afford many names of places in lower Bengal of truly ancient times. 
Sagar Island, it is true, was known some two thousand years ago, but 
not as a royal city or a flourishing port, but only as the abode of a 
hermit. Nuddea was the capital of the Sena Rajas when Bakhtiar 
Khiliji invaded this country, but the Bhagirathi has since so often 
shifted her course, and so completely washed away every vestige of the 
lofty halls and the proud battlements which owned the descendants of 
Adis'ura for their lords, that it is impossible now to determine its 
exact locale. Of other places in the Delta, the history is equally un- 
certain and unsatisfactory. 

But if we know not enough and have no relic of ancient Hindu 
cities in the Gangetic Delta, there are not wanting in it nooks and 
corners which, without pretending to any time-honored antiquity, 
may afford materials not altogether uninteresting. The little town of 
Bagerhat is one of them ; and to a few remains of its former greatness 
I wish to draw the attention of the readers of the Journal, in the 
following pages. 

The town of Bagerhat is situated on the bank of the Bhairab, a 
sluggish stream, 50 miles, as the crow flies, to the south east of Jessore. 
According to the Revenue Survey maps, the latitude of the place is 
22° 40' 10" N., longitude 89° 49' 50" E. When it was first founded, 
it is impossible now to tell, but it was a place of some note more than 

1867.] On the Antiquities of Bcujerltdt. 127 

four hundred years ago ; for I find that about that time one Khan 
Jahan alias Khanja Ally, a chief of great piety and liberality, who was 
rusticated from the court of Delhi, was sent to this place to hold the 
post of a tehsildar. Many fine buildings and stately mosques were 
erected under his auspices, and the place was in every respect greatly 
improved. "What was its name then, I cannot now ascertain ; the in- 
scriptions that I have examined to find it out, being altogether silent 
on the subject. Its present name is but of yesterday. It was given 
to it long after its glories had passed away, and its history forgotten. 
A deserted village on the outskirts of the Sunderbunds, its humble 
inhabitants needed but the aid of a poor bi-weekly fair to supply their 
wants ; that fair was, and is still, held on a raised spot on the river- 
bank where once stood the pleasure ground of Khan Jahan. The 
illiterate dealers and pedlars who frequented it to sell their goods 
called it the c garden fair,' Bayer hat, and the name was adopted by 
Government when, in May, 1863, it was made the head quarters of a 
magisterial sub-division. 

From the few traces still visible I believe the garden must have, 
at one time, included an area of about 200 biggahs. On one 
side of it there was, until recently, a dirty putrifying tank over- 
grown with jungle, which in olden times must have been a plea- 
sant sheet of water ; and on the other a mound, probably the debris 
of what once was a summer house. Traces of metalled footpaths 
are met with at different places, as also the remains of a high 
road, 30 feet broad, made of well-burnt bricks placed on edge, which, 
it is said, formerly extended from this place to Chittagong. 

Three miles to the west of the garden, there is a large tank, over 

a hundred biggahs square, noted for its sweet water and a number of 

tame crocodiles. I had no opportunity to ascertain its size, but 

judging from the impression its sight produced on me and from memory, 

I believe it is fully as large as the Pala Diggi near Murshidabad 

and nearly as large as the Mahipal Diggi in Dinagepur. Babu Guru 

i Churn Doss, Deputy Magistrate of Jangipur, in a letter published 

iu the Society's Proceedings for October 1862, says that " it must be 

in size equal to, if not larger than, that in the Dilkosh Baugofth e 

; Raja of Burdwan." But as the tank under notice has silted up and 

i its water has receded much from the original banks, it is not easy 

128 On tlxe Antiquities of Bagerlidt. [No. 2, 

to ascertain its original size. In the height of the dry season in April 
last the sheet of water measured 1,560 feet square. Its excavation is 
popularly ascribed to Khanja Ally. It is said that that chief, being 
very much troubled from want of good potable water, obtained 
the sanction of the king of Gour, and caused this tank to be ex- 
cavated ; and that when he found its water to be brackish, improved it 
considerably by pouring in it a large quantity of mercury, which, it 
is said, is a most efficacious antidote to brackishness. This story, 
however, is not sufficiently romantic to please the simple people of 
the district, and a sheet of sweet water in a place noted for its saline 
soil being an uncommon wonder, another has been set in currency for 
their edification. According to it, when the tank had been dug to a 
great depth, the workmen came to a perfect temple, with its doors 
closed from within, which no efforts of theirs could unlock. Mes- 
sage was therefore sent to Khanja Ally, who, mounted on a swift horse, 
approached the temple, and struck it with his wand. Anon flew open 
the doors, and he beheld, within, a Fakir seated at his ease before a 
lively fire, and smoking his hukka. Khanja Ally saluted him and 
asked his blessing, to secure a tank full of good water. The Fakir 
said that he had built the temple on the banks of the Bhairab as a 
place of retirement, and had just roused himself from a protracted me- 
ditation to collect food for a meal. He little thought that during his 
state of abstraction so much earth had accumulated over his temple as 
to admit of a deep tank being excavated. However since it was so, good 
water would immediately be produced, but Khanja Ally should fly for 
life, or the rising spring would drown him. Nor was the latter unpro- 
vided for such a contingency. His horse was the swiftest on earth, and 
it bore him through the water to dry land in a twinkling. This 
story suggests the idea, that when the tank was excavated, traces of a 
building were found in its bed ; and considering the frequency with 
which old bricks and broken pottery are met with in the Sunderbunds, 
such an idea would be by no means unreasonable. 

I have said above that the tank is noted for its tame crocodiles, and 
well it may be, for nowhere else have I met with a more wonderful 
instance of the influence which the human mind can exert over the 
saurian. Upwards of twenty monsters, from 10 to 20 feet long, may 
Jiere be seen rising and sinking in the water with the docility of a child, 

1867.] On the Antiquities of Bdfjerlidt. 129 

at the beck of a puny miserable-looking Fakir who could not resist a 
rap from the tail of the smallest of them. They are fed with live 
fowls and kids, and they unhesitatingly come close by dry land to 
receive them. Meat is offered to them on the palm of the hand, 
which they quietly take away, without ever snapping at the hands 
themselves. Little children play about on the bank without any 
risk ; and men, women and children bathe in the tank without ever 
having to repent of their temerity. 

Some time ago a rumour was brought to the notice of Govern- 
ment that infanticide was committed in this part of the Sunderbunds, 
and I was directed to make an inquiry. But I found it was unfound- 
ed ; the fact appeared to be that the simple people of the district 
believe that these crocodiles can bless young ladies to come into an 
interesting condition, and their blessings are sure to bear fruit. Ac- 
cordingly many young women repair to this place to bathe in the 
sacred water of the tank, and implore the blessing of the saurian 
monsters. They offer them fowls and kids ; then paint a human 

j figure with red lead on a stone pillar in the neighbourhood, and, em- 
bracing it, vow to give away to the crocodiles the first fruit of their 
blessings. This vow is never broken, the firstborn is invariably 
brought to the tank, and when, at the call of the Fakirs, the crocodiles 

i rise to the surface, the child is thrown on the water's edge with words 
implying a presentation. But it is taken up immediately after, and 
borne home amid the rejoicings of the family. I could find no proof 
to shew that any child had ever suffered from this exposure. 

Parents whose children die early also often seek the blessings of 
these crocodiles, by exposing their infants on the bank of the lake. 

There is another source whence has arisen the notoriety of Bager- 
hat as a place for infanticide. The Fakirs and Sanyasis who live 
in the adjacent part of the Sunderbunds, have a high reputation for 
supernatural powers in healing the sick ; hence, whenever a child is 
afflicted with any uncommon or mortal malady, or born with any 
permanent infirmity,, such as dumbness, deafness, or blindness, and 
frequently when medicines have failed (and the pharmacopoeia of 
an ordinary native village, which embraces only a few simples, is 

; soon exhausted) the superhuman aid of those worthies is sought with 
all the blind faith of veneration which characterises an ignorant and 

130 On the Antiquities of Bdgerluit. [No. 2, 

superstitious race. Parents from different parts of Jessorc, Pubna, 
Farridpur and Backerganj repair to this place, and occasionally 
leave their children with the Fakirs, in the hope of their taking pity 
on the sufferers, and curing their afflictions. This is generally a 
temporary arrangement, and the little ones are taken home as soon 
as they are cured, and often long before, if the hope of recovery be- 
come faint or fail. Rarely one out of several sons is, in fulfilment 
of a vow, dedicated to the service of religion, to be brought up amongst 
the Fakirs ; but never is a child abandoned in the tank, or in the 
neighbouring jungle, with a view to destruction. 

Close by and to the north of the tank there is a large tomb which 
holds in its centre the mortal remains of Khan Jahan. It is built 
of remarkably well-burnt bricks of a large size, and strengthened by 
stone boulders in some of the piers. In style it differs little from simi- 
lar structures in other parts of Bengal — a square of 45 feet, having 
a central hall along the whole length, and connected with two side aisles 
by open archways. The exterior has an arched doorway on each side, 
the north being closed. The height is 47 feet to the top of the 
dome, which is a well proportioned structure, somewhat pointed at 
the top, and seated on a collar high enough to raise it above the line 
of the cornice without itself being offensively prominent. 

The plastering of the building has peeled off in many places, but 
from what remains it is evident that the builder was perfectly familiar 
with the art by which the masons of Delhi of that time gave a marble- 
like smoothness and polish to chunam work. The steps round the grave 
are inlaid with encaustic tiles of various colours, the richness of which 
has withstood the wear and tear of four hundred years without any 
serious damage. Some of the tiles are hexagons 4 inches across, while 
others are squares of 6 J inches each side. The substance of the latter 
is a white stone ware, and the enamelling on it is of a character 
which makes me suspect these tiles to have been imported from China. 
The former are of red earth, and the glazing and designs on them are 
of inferior execution. Their counterparts are commonly met with 
in Pathan buildings in Grour and elsewhere. The art of making these 
tiles has now been lost to the natives ; the only remains of it are to 
be met with among the potters of Murshidabad and Birbhiim, 
who apply a glazing of some consistency in blue, green and white, 

1867.] On the Antiquities of Bdgerhat. 131 

on the kalkis or tobacco-bowls of ordinary Maliomedan hukkas, as 
also on a common musical instrument called the bayan. 

The grave of Khan Jahan is placed in the middle of the hall, and 
is covered by a large slab of pure white Jeypur marble, raised on 
three masonry steps inlaid with encaustic tiles. It was erected in the 
year of Hijira 863 = A. D. 1458, — just 409 years ago. According to 
popular belief, the tomb was built in the lifetime and at the expense 
of the Khan, who departed this life on the night of Wednesday the 
26th of Jilhijja i. e. about the end of March or the beginning of 
April. The epitaph is in Arabic, inscribed in golden letters, and, like 
most epitaphs, is brimful of nauseating praise (vide Appendix A), 
but the Khan in popular estimation was not unworthy of it. In his 
lifetime he was reckoned a saint, and to this day he is worshipped as 
such by Hindus and Mahomedans alike. Flowers are strewn over 
his grave every day by the attendant Fakirs, and pilgrims from 
various parts of eastern Bengal come all round the year to offer to it 
their salutations. On the full moon of Chaitra, supposed to be the 
| anniversary of the Khan's death, a grand mela is held near the tomb, 
when over ten thousand people assemble to commemorate his piety 
. and sanctity. 

On the sides of the grave-stone, there are four different inscriptions, 

i copies of which I also annex (Appendixes B to E). Three quotations 

• from the Koran are also given, but these I did not deem worth copying. 

, The only available article of interest in the building was an old curi- 

1 ously-carved Koran-stand, which I brought away for deposit in the 

museum of the Asiatic Society ; as the stand was never used by 

anybody, the sacrilegious hands I put on it, will, I fancy, cause no 

inconvenience to the faithful. 

In the side-aisles there are three or four graves, but without 
inscriptions, and the attendants could give no reliable account of the 
people whose bodies rest in them. 

The tomb is situated in a large quadrangle surrounded by a masonry 
wall. Within this enclosure there are several graves, but of no historical 
or artistic importance. There is, however, a small cenotaph on the 
north side which is worthy of a short notice. If is of modest size 
and no architectural pretension ; but it was built by a zealot, one 
Mohammed Taer alias Pir Ally by name, whose religious fervour forced 

132 On the Antiquities of Bdgerhdt. [No. 2, 

the conversion of many a Hindu to the Mahomedan faith. Himself a 
renegade from the religion of his Hindu forefathers, he acquired a 
high reputation for sanctity, and maintained it by a strict observance 
of the ordinances of his adopted religion. 

According to tradition he was sent for to Delhi, and for some reason 
or other, there beheaded by order of the emperor. He is said to have 
once heard from a Brahmin of high caste and great influence, one 
Naranarayana Ray a, that " smelling was half eating," whereupon he 
caused some cooked meat to be brought to his presence. The Brahman 
by his side perceived the smell, and immediately covered his nose with 
his cloth ; but it was too late, the wily Mahomedan urged that by his 
own shewing he had " half eaten," and must therefore cease to be of the 
orthodox creed. He was accordingly outcasted, and his descendants to 
this day are known as Piralis or Pir Ally Brahmans. Puerile as the 
story is, it is worthy of note that all the Piralis of Bengal trace their 
original seat to Jessore, and no Pirali is to be met with in the eastern 
or the northern districts. One of the ancestors of the present Tagore 
family of Calcutta first associated with Naranarayana, and he and his 
descendants have ever since been called Piralis. Such Kayasthas as 
associated with these degraded and proscribed Brahmans, were sub- 
jected to the same penalty, and are to this day known by the name of 
the wicked Pir. Their number, however, is very limited, and they are 
met within no other district except in Jessore. 

Three miles to the south-west of this tomb, there is a magnificent 
mosque, commonly known by the name of Sdtgumbaz, or the mosque 
of 60 domes. It is an open arcaded structure, formed of massive walls 
six feet thick, and having on the top 77 small domes supported on 
sixty pillars. The ground plan is an oblong of 144 feet by 96, 
divided into seven aisles by six rows of pillars. The foundation and 
the domes are of brick ; while of the pillars some are of brick, and 
others of stone. Like all other Mahomedan mosques in India, the 
Sdtgumbaz has its front to the east, thereby enabling the faithful to pray 
with their faces towards the K'aba at Mecca. The number of archways 
on this side is 11, of which the second and the tenth are closed with 
masonry, the same arrangement obtains on the opposite wall, the 
Mulla's pulpit being placed by the side of the central archway. On the 
north and the south facades there are 14 arches, 7 on each side, the 

1867.] On tlie Antiquities of Bayer hat. 133 

height being 15 feet to the point of the arch. The building is flanked by- 
four massive towers which rise above the line of the domes. Two of them 
enclose winding staircases ; that to the south-east being very dark and 
steep, while the one on the north-east is well lighted and easy of ascent. 
The people call the former Andhdr Mdnik and the latter Raushan 
Mdnilc. Altogether the building has a grand and imposing appearance, 
and even in a more favoured locality than Bagerhat would command 
admiration, and be reckoned as an object worthy of notice. It was 
evidenly intended for a jummah masjid or Friday mosque. 

The only other object which has been associated with the memory 
of Khanja Ally and which demands a passing notice, is a physical 
phenomenon of some interest. It is a dull roaring sound, as of the 
booming of distant cannonade, which is said to be fired by aerial 
hands in honour of Khanja Ally. At Bagerhat, those sounds are heard 
at all times of the year ; particularly when the weather is calm and the 
sky clear. It is most distinct during a lull after a storm or a heavy 
shower of rain. At Burrisal they are equally prominent, and noticed 
with great curiosity. Various theories have been hazarded to account 
for the phenomenon. Mr. Pellew, the superintendent of survey at 
Burrisal, in a letter to me, says — 

" What you allude to must be the ' Burrisal guns,' which are heard 
all over south Jessore and Backerganj, at least in the neighbourhood 
of the Baleswar. They are distinctly heard at Burrisal. I have never 
heard them myself west of Morellganj. My own idea is, that they are 
perhaps the sound of heavy surf. My reasons for supposing this (of 
course I am by no means certain) are as follows. The noise exactly re- 
sembles the sound of surf as heard often by me at Pooree under certain 
circumstances, viz. when, on account of a cessation of the south-west 
monsoon, the swell rises to an unusual height before breaking, and 
then breaks simultaneously for perhaps a length of three miles of coast. 
I have often been woke from my sleep by the thunder of these waves, 
when breaking in this manner. As regards the succession of 10 or 11 
reports, we all know that waves generally break successively along a 
beach, and at the distance the listener is from the sea these would 
appear equally loud. 

" 2nd. Reason. The further south I go, the louder the reports are, 
and the more unequal in power (this I have not tested quite sufficiently), 
17 - 

134 On the Antiquities of Bdgerhdt. [No. 2, 

" 3rd. There is a story (to which you allude) of a Collector sending 
down people in a boat to find out about its whereabouts, who heard 
the noise always to their south, till they reached the Hurungotta, and 
were compelled by the weather and sea to return. 

" 4th. The general belief in natives that they are not marriage 

u 5th. The dissimilarity between the sound and that of marriage 
guns, noticed by all who hear them. 

" 6th. The fact that sound would be conveyed very far by the south- 
west monsoon along the surface of the large rivers of Backerganj. 
They are generally heard in a lull after a squall, at least I think so, 
just when the surf breaks most regularly and simultaneously. I am 
sorry I have no more certainty to give you." 

The cause above assigned to the sounds by Mr. Pellew may be the 
right one, but the reasons he has adduced, plausible as they are, do not 
seem to be conclusive. It may fairly be argued that had the sound 
been produced by the surf, they would have been noticed near the 
seashore, wherever there is a low beach. Such, however, is not the 
case. I have nowhere read of such sounds in books, and never heard 
them anywhere beyond the mouths of the Ganges. 

At Balasore, which is only seven miles from the Bay, they are never 
noticed. Mr. Pellew says that a sound similar to the " marriage guns" 
of Burrisal is heard at Pooree, which is occasioned by the breaking of 
the swell on the beach, during a certain time ; but it is not a constant 
occurrence. During my stay for more than two months at Basdebpur, 
a village five miles from the sea between Bhadrak and Soroh, I never 
heard a report of the kind, though the surf rises and breaks on the 
beach with equal or perhaps more violence, during all seasons. Even 
at places near to Bagerhat, or in other parts of the Sunderbuns 
equally distant from the shore of the bay, the noise is not audible ; 
and the only tract which enjoys the honour of these salutes is that 
which extends from the eastern border, from the river Baleswar to 
the foot of the Chittagong hills. 

I had an opportunity of going down as far as " Tiger's Point," and 
I carefully watched the phenomenon, but I did not notice that the 
sounds became louder and louder as my boat drifted down from 
Morellganj to the mouth of the Huranghata. This would lead to the 

1867.] On the Antiquities of Bdgerlidt. 135 

inference that the swell of the sea was not the cause of the sounds, 
and it is possible that they may be due to some subterranean or 
volcanic agency, the nature of which we have not the means now to 
ascertain. It is one, however, which is well worthy the attention of 
scientific men. 


* AjI+JI+j j ^^** ,5 *AJJ *^-w *^° t^:!**"^ t 



jj- /• / 



£** o^Jij^ ci»^l ci^y j«^l *^* m \ J^- 
ViPijJ&^tk. &-U^<L t/*^" i j+' A ° t ' ^"^j* 

186 On the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets. [No. 2, 

On the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets in the Roman Character. 
—By F. S. Growse, M. A. Oxon, B. C. S. 

[Eeceived 5th January, 1867.] 

The question of transliteration has been so fully discussed at recent 
meetings of this Society, that a paper which attempted to revive the 
subject would probably meet with scant consideration. I am also 
myself of opinion that the theory has been discussed more than 
enough, and only wish on the present occasion to state briefly a plain 
matter of fact, and make a practical suggestion. 

It is impossible for any one, however imbued with phonetic 
prejudices, to deny that all European philologists and oriental 
scholars have, by mutual consent, adopted a uniform system of re- 
presenting Indian alphabets in Roman characters, which varies only 
in some few and unimportant particulars. As to the vowels, there is 
at the present day no dispute at all ; for that intensely insular 
peculiarity of denoting the simple sounds of * and u by the awkward 
combinations of double e and double o is now quite obsolete in the 
literary world. I have not seen any recent oriental work from the 
French press, and therefore cannot tell whether their practice of 
representing u by ou has been abandoned or not ; but this at all events 
is a feature which is not likely to be imitated by English writers. 
As to the consonants, there are some few, but very few, points which 
are still left open : thus the palatal sibilant is generally denoted in 
England by s with a stroke over or dot below it, while continental 
scholars prefer the symbol c ; again the compound which English 
scholars represent by ksh is on the continent represented occasionally 
by x, more frequently by csch, which latter is not likely to find many 
advocates out of Germany. Thus too in the Persian alphabet, the 
Arabic kdf is sometimes denoted by q, but more usually by h with a 
dot under it ; and the final consonant he is sometimes expressed by the 
vowel a alone, sometimes by ah. But it is really unnecessary for us to 
regard these minor discrepancies, since they do not appear in what 
may be called our natural authorities. For I suppose it will be ad- 
mitted that Forbes's is the standard dictionary for modern Hindu- 
stani ; while the last complete Sanskrit dictionary is Prof. Benfey's, 
published in London during the year 1866, and the greatest work 
ever yet undertaken for the elucidation of that language is the 

1867.] On the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets. 137 

gigantic cyclopaedia of Dr. Goldstiicker, which, if ever completed, will 
most assuredly be universally accepted as the standard authority on 
all points of Sanskrit learning. In these three works, by three different 
authors, we find one uniform system of transliteration without a single 
point of difference, except as regards one solitary letter, viz. the palatal 
sibilant. This, Forbes, in accordance with modem pronunciation, 
represents by sh, while Benfey denotes it by g and Goldstiicker by s'. 
It appears to me that since we have such authorities as these, our 
course is plain ; for who is to establish rules of orthography, if lexico- 
graphers are not ? I therefore think that the recent discussions on 
the subject by this Society are to be regretted,* since they had a 
tendency to re-open a question which had virtually been long settled, 
and, by ignoring an established fact, to throw a check in the way of 
educational progress. 

That many and serious inconveniences result from the want of 
system that now prevails in India on this matter is undeniable, and a 
remedy is daily becoming more urgently required. For many registers 
of native names have now to be kept in Roman characters, and the 
whole object of alphabetical arrangement is frustrated so long as it 
remains uncertain whether amrit is to be looked for under letter a or 
letter u 7 and whether a person spells his name as Devi-din or Dabi-deen. 
And this difficulty is one entirely of our own creation ; for although 
in English, where the orthography of proper names is altogether 
arbitrary, it is quite possible for a highly educated man, in writing 
down a list of persons from dictation, to mis-spell every word, in a 
catalogue of Hindu names there is no such danger. Every personal 
appellation is also a literary term, with a definite meaning and 
invariable form ; and therefore any one, having a very moderate 
acquaintance with Indian history and mythology, would be competent 
to write a long list of names with unerring precision ; and there is no 
excuse for the carelessness which makes an array of the names and 
titles of native gentlemen in the Government Gazette look like a roll- 
call of South Sea savages. It will be found that almost all names 
resolve themselves into one of the following categories : 1st, and most 
common of all, the name of some popular hero or divinity standing 

* The object of the discussions here referred to, was to determine whether 
European technical terms should be translated or transliterated into the Indian 
vernaculars. — Ed, 

138 On the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets. [No. 2, 

simply by itself, as Lakshman, Baladeva ; 2nd, a similar name with 
the addition of some word denoting \ disciple' or ' by the favour of,' 
as Bhagawan-clas, Ram-sahay, Hanuman-Prasad, Gauri-datt ; 3rd, 
some one of the thousand epithets appropriated to the leading charac- 
ters of the Hindu Pantheon, as Niranjan, the unimpassioned ; 
Chakrapani, the discus-holder ; Bansi-dhar, the flute-player, i. e. 
Krishna ; 4th, the name of some one of the appliances of ritual 
worship, as Tulsi, Salagram, Vibhuti ; 5th, some word expressing 
beauty or other excellent quality, as Nawal, Sundar, Kirat ; 6th, some 
heroic or honorific title asRandhir, " the staunch in fight," correspon- 
ding to the Homeric " meneptoleinus ;" Kharagjit, the conquering 
swordsman ; Mahabali, the greatly valiant ; Anup, the incomparable ; 
7th, the name of some precious material, as Hira, a diamond ; Moti, 
a pearl ; Kanchan, gold ; 8th and strangest of all, some affectionate 
diminutive, as Nek Ram, a little Ram ; Chhote Lai, a little dear, 
Nanku, a darling. In the village patois, it is true, many of these 
names ordinarily appear in a very corrupt form, but even these corrup- 
tions are reducible to the following simple rule, viz. that the first 
syllable of the word only be retained unimpaired, and an open vowel 
substituted for the whole of the termination ; thus Kalyan becomes 
Kalu, Bhagiratha, Bhagi, and Nayanasukh, Nainu. But these diminu- 
tives correspond simply to our English Bob, Dick and Tom, and have 
no right to be included in a formal catalogue of names. The enforce- 
ment of a correct system of transliteration would naturally be opposed 
by all who are too indolent to acquire a rational knowledge of the 
language, or who choose to diversify their style by the simple 
expedient of spelling the same word two or three different ways in 
one paragraph ; but the present slovenly system, or want of system, is 
not only a practical inconvenience, but is also a disgrace to an educated 

But, it may be urged, perfect precision is no doubt desirable in 
scientific treatises, but would be pedantic in ordinary writing. Now 
can any parallel be found to such a state of things as this argument 
supposes ? Every language has recognized laws of spelling, which 
the uneducated classes in practice frequently transgress ; but has any 
government on that account determined to class itself amongst the 
illiterate, and to relegate orthography to the professedly learned? 

18G7.] On the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets. 139 

The Government of India stands alone in this extraordinary patronage 
of a barbarous nomenclature which excites the ridicule of every 
European scholar. 

In one of the recent discussions on the subject, I remember that 
Dr. Lees gave a very good illustration of the results of this lax mode 
of spelling, quoting several Indian words from a 17th century 
traveller, which were so much disguised by their Roman garb., that 
identification was impossible. But by a curious perversion of logic, 
the speaker proceeded to argue the inexpediency of transliteration at 
all ; whereas the illustration only showed the evil of not having a 
definite standard : for if each Indian letter had its acknowledged Eoman 
equivalent, every word would be as intelligible in its Roman as in 
its Indian form. I would therefore suggest that the Asiatic Society 
should print in a tabular form the Roman, Nagari and Persian 
alphabets* as arranged by the eminent lexicographers abovenamed 
and approved by Prof. Max Miiller, the greatest of modern philolo- 
gists ; and that this table should be occasionally appended to the 
Nos. of the Society's Proceedings, and every writer expected to modify 
his phonetic vagaries accordingly. It certainly does not appear 
unreasonable to require that the contributors to a scientific and 
literary journal should master the first rudiments of orthography, 
before they proceed to discuss abstruse questions of philosophy and 
literary history ; and a writer who appears in print under the auspices 
of a learned Society should feel it as strange to put down chatta poker 
for chhatra pohhar as to spell " umbrella," umbreller. I think too that, 
if a more frequent reference to a Dictionary were rendered necessary, 
articles would not be forwarded for publication in such a very crude 
state as is now sometimes the case. Thus in the last No. of the 
Philological Journal, the same distinguished officer, who writes chatta 
poker and Machowa and Cuchoiua for Matsya and Kachchhapa, begins 
his paper with a lengthy speculation about " a race called variously 
Serap, Serab, Serak, Srawaka, who were probably the earliest Aryan 
colonists," and another race called Bhumij, without apparently any 
idea, at the time of writing, that Srawaka is the ordinary Sanskrit name 
for a Jain or Buddhist, and that the literal meaning of Bhumij is the 
earth-born, Autochthones, Aborigines. The identity of the Jain and 
* This lias already been done, — Ed, 

140 On the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets . [No. 2, 

Srawaka is in a confused manner indicated before the conclusion of the 
article, but without recognizing the fact that the name (literally 
" a hearer") indicates a purely religious distinction, and that it does 
not imply a difference of race any more than the term " Roman 
Catholic" implies an Italian by descent. 

I may here incidentally observe that in this district (Mainpuri) the 
Jains, who form a considerable item in the population, are known 
popularly only by the name of Saraugis, which also is clearly a corrup- 
tion of the same word Srawaka. Their habits and customs are of 
course the same as those described by Col. Dalton. 

If my suggestion as above were adopted by the Society, the same 
principle would be consistently carried out in compiling the list of 
members with their places of residence, where we should no longer 
see Babu alternating with Baboo (the latter invariably suggesting the 
loss of a final n) and the first step might be taken towards the correc- 
tion of our present barbarous local nomenclature. Our maps are no 
doubt admirable as results of engineering skill, but in a literary point of 
view, they are ridiculous, — a large proportion of local names, especially 
Hindi words, being utterly distorted from the original form'. Thus 
for instance, I have never yet seen a map where the common village 
name Kushalpur was not spelt with an initial Persian kh, as if it 
were a derivative of Jchush ; and yet it might be supposed that if, 
any Hindi word were to be allowed to retain its identity, it would 
be the name of a district so famous in ancient legend as Kos'ala, 
which had Ayodhya for its capital, and gave a name to the mother of 
the national hero Kama. Upon this point I cannot do better than 
quote the words of the late Prof. Wilson, who, describing Indian 
maps as miserably defective in their nomenclature, says, " None of 
our surveyors or geographers have been oriental scholars. It may be 
doubted if any of them have been conversant with the spoken language 
of the country. They have consequently put down names at random, 
according to their own inaccurate appreciation of sounds, carelessly, 
vulgarly and corruptly uttered ; and their maps of India are crowded 
with appellations which bear no similitude either to past or present 
denominations. There is scarcely a name in our maps, that does not 
afford proof of extreme indifference to accuracy, and of an incorrectness 
in estimating sounds which is in some degree perhaps a national I 

1867.] On the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets. 141 

defect." It may be necessary to take with, some modification, at the 
present day, the above severe reflections on the ignorance of our 
surveying officers ; but whatever their knowledge, it is evident that 
they have not had sufficient courage to deviate from the traditional 
groove of barbarism. To initiate a reform in this direction, is an 
undertaking well worthy the highest efforts of the Asiatic Society. 
But the whole question has been treated so often, that there is no 
occasion for further words ; it only remains for some definite action to 
be taken. 

On the other hand, equal carelessness and neglect of philological 
principles are displayed in the ordinary modes of representing English 
words in Nagari characters : thus the names of the four months 
September, October, November, and December are frequently so spelt 
in Hindi translations, as quite to obscure the fact that they are iden- 
tically the same as the vernacular Saptami, Ashtami, Navami, Dasami. 
It has also become a uniform practice to represent the English t on 
all occasions by the letter il ; thus ignoring the fact that in the 
English alphabet the one symbol does double duty, and our pronun- 
ciation of it varies, though perhaps unconsciously, in different words, 
accordingly as it has a murdhanya or simply dental power. For 
instance, the name Victoria is, so far as my experience goes, invariably 
written with the ~z, though most incorrectly so ; for both in meaning 
and derivation, it corresponds precisely to the common appellation 
Vijay, the j by an invariable rule becoming k before dental t ; while h 
with murdhanya t is an impossible compound, and a short vowel would 
have to be introduced between the two consonants, before they could 
be pronounced. Indeed Her Majesty may reasonably complain of the 
injurious treatment she receives here in India : for not only is her 
name misspelt, but her royal title also is most grossly misrepresented. 
The crafty Musalman, whoever he was, who first suggested the pre- 
posterous expression mdliJcd mtiVizzam^ must, when he found it adopted, 
have chuckled immensely over the indignity he was passing on the 
Queen of the unbelievers. Fortunately, the phrase is so thoroughly 
outlandish, that it practically conveys no meaning in this country ; 
though any Arab chief who heard it would derive from it a strangely 
derogatory idea of the Empress of India. I remember reading an 
article, which appeared in England about a year ago, taking this phrase 

142 On the Transliteration of Indian Alphabets. [No. 2, 

as an illustration of our special linguistic clumsiness, as contrasted 
with Russian tact, and pointing out the considerable advantage which 
they thus enjoyed over us in impressing the oriental imagination. 
For my own part, I am quite unable to see any valid reason why the 
well-known and dignified word pMshdh should not be used, at least 
on all ordinary occasions, where no reference is made to the sex of the 
sovereign, as in the superscripture of service letters, or the wording of 
legal documents. 

As change of circumstances, or the development of European ideas, 
involves an occasional necessity for enlarging the vernacular nomen- 
clature, I would suggest that this coinage of words, hitherto charac- 
terised by the most signal failures, should be transferred from the 
Government mint to the care of the Asiatic Society, and that a 
Philological Committee should be allowed to express their opinion 
before any new issue was definitely stamped and authoritatively 
circulated. The last new word that has been forced down the throats 
of the people is numdish-gah, the principal result at present of the 
fashionable exhibition epidemic. It is a compound, for which it would 
be perfectly useless to look in any Hindustani Dictionary, and in fact 
has never had any existence in the country. As yet its use is 
exclusively confined to the Munshi class, who, in order to define its 
meaning, invariably prefix the word mela, and I believe consider it 
only the Government synonym for a tamdsha of any kind, in the 
same way as sirika is the Government expression for what every one 
in his senses calls chori. Thus, during the grand Darbar at Agra, I 
had petitions from mukhtdrs, explaining their clients' absence on the 
ground that they had gone to the " Agra numaish-gah." With the 
people at large the word meld appears to answer every necessary 
purpose ; or if greater precision is desired, sarhdri meld is employed. 
And although some more adequate expression might no doubt be 
evolved by a due exercise of the critical faculty, I consider this 
indigenous product is at all events better than the official exotic, 
Several other subjects suggest themselves for animadversion, but my 
remarks have extended far beyond the limit I originally intended, and 
some of the points already noticed may appear too minute to deserve 
serious attention. Yet, if philology is worth studying at all, it is 
certainly worth while to recognize its rules in practice. 

1867.] Literary Intelligence, 14* 

Literary and Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

A catalogue of the Vernacular Publications of the Bombay Presi- 
dency has just been brought out by Sir Alexander Grant, Director of 
Public Instruction, Bombay. It embraces the names of 1 679 books 
of which 175 are in Sanscrit, 660 in Marhatti, 628 in Guzrati, 49 
in Canarese, and 43 in Sindhi. Of Zend books there are 4, and of 
Pehlevi 1, being the Pehlevi version of the Zendavesta. Prefixed to 
the catalogue are two interesting essays by Professor F. Kielhorn 
and Mr. M. G-. Ranade, on its Sanskrit and Marathi portions. 

Mr. J. Beames has just published a short introduction to the study 
of Indian Philology, with a map shewing the distritution of Indian 
languages. It is intended to be a guide to those " who, having no 
knowledge of Linguistic Science, wish to record and preserve dialects 
of obscure and uncivilised tribes with whom they may come into 
contact ; or any of the countless local peculiarities of the leading Indian 
languages which may be spoken in their neighbourhood." 

The following is an Extract from a letter from Major G-eneral 
A. Cunningham to Colonel C. S. Guthrie, on a large gold Eucratides 
lately brought to England. 

" But what is a double gold-mohur compared to the great gold 
Eucratides which has just been brought from Bokhara by Aga 
Zebalun Bokhari ? It is 2J inches in diameter, and weighs ten staters, 
or eleven guineas ? It has the usual helmeted head on one side, with 
the horsemen and inscription on the reverse. The owner has refused 
700£ for it. It is genuine — and beats all the Greek coins hitherto 

" I have three specimens of a new Greek King, Apollophanes, and 
some rude coins of Strato with the title of Philopator, which is 
translated priyapitd, lover of his father. Please tell Grote of these 
Bactrian novelties." 



No. III.— 1867. 

On the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. — No. 2. By 
J. Beames, Esq., B. G. S. 

[Received 23rd July, 1866.] 

" If Hindustani, adopted by us as the future general language of 
India, is to be a language and not a jargon, it must become so by 
means of its alliance with Persian, the speech which all Indian Maho- 
medans have at their heart, and use as the feeder, or channel of other 
feeders, for all their abstract thought, their politics, science, and 

This extract serves as a fitting text to the subject which it is my 
aim to illustrate. In a former paper I gave an outline of some argu- 
ments in favour of the present Arabicized dialect of our courts, and as 
the little literature which the language possesses is written in the 
same style, the following remarks may be considered as applica- 
ble to the literary style also. In the present I propose to review 
the assertions of the upholders of the opposite opinion, which 
may briefly, and I trust fairly, be stated thus : — In writing or 

* Quarterly Review No. 234, page 517 on " Vambery's Travels in Central 


146 On the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. [No. 3 

speaking Hindustani, if you have two words to choose between, one 
Hindi or Sanskrit, and the other Persian or Arabic, it is better and 
less artificial to use the former ; and the Arabic and Persian words 
already in use in Urdu are for the most part wrongly used, and are 
often very corrupt forms of the genuine words. There are thus two 
arguments : the first, a political ; the second, scientific. I will 
examine the political or historical argument first. But I must premise 
that I consider the whole question as one for the student rather than 
the statesman. Dr. Fallon, a vigorous partizan of the Hindi school, 
writes, somewhat complacently, thus : # " The Urdu language needs 
direction ; but the natives have neither taste nor learning for such 
a work. The task must be performed by European scholars, and the 
Government of the country." I would ask the author whether, in 
all the range of his comprehensive reading, he has ever met with an 
instance of a language having been created or guided by foreign 
scholars, or licked into shape by a Government. Is language, like law, 
a political creation ? Does it not rather grow up in the homes of the 
people ? Is it not hewn out of their rough untutored conceptions ? 
Does not its value consist in its spontaneous and unconscious growth ? 
Are not its very irregularities and errors, proofs of the want of design 
that attends its formation ? 

Or again, can a stranger guide the native mother in choosing how 
to talk to her child ? If it be difficult for foreigners to influence a 
language in a country where women enjoy the same freedom as men, 
how much more hopeless is the task in a country like this, where the 
mothers of the people are inaccessible and invisible ? 

No, we cannot influence the speech of this people ; they have formed 
it for themselves ; they have, before we came on the scene, chosen 
Arabic and rejected Hindi. It is not true to say that they prefer 
Hindi, and that we have forced on them Arabic. It is not correct to 
say that pedantic munshis have created for the use of the European 
officer a dialect unknown to the majority of the people, and the use 
of which severs him from them, and gives the keys of communication 
into the hands of a single class. The use of Arabic and Persian 
words pervades every class. I, and many other officers, know that 

* English-Hindustani Law and Commercial Dictionary by S. W. Fallon, In- 
troductory Dissertation, p. xviii. ad fin. 

1867-1 On the Arabic "Element in Official Hindustani. 147 

when we go alone and unattended into a native village, we can con- 
verse readily with the commonest people ; and I have found the 
Arabicized style, which I, from deliberate preference, always employ, 
quite intelligible to the ryot and the bunnia. This people formed 
their own language, and we may rest assured they will continue to 
develop it in that direction which they feel to be best. It is true 
that Hindi is the speech of the lower classes, but how many Arabic 
words have invaded even the lowest Hindi, because the national 
feeling has adopted Arabic as a sign of cultivation. The scholar may 
lament that it is so, just as some scholars lament the disuse of Saxon 
words in English, but the lamentations of the scholar do not hinder 
the progress of the language. 

" Hindi is more native to the soil, and lies closer to the hearts of 
the people than Arabic or Persian, and its use is therefore preferable 
to that of the last named languages." This is ike political argument 
of the Hindi school. Dr. Fallon* puts it thus : " Hosts of Persian 
and Arabic words have been introduced by natives of the country (the 
italics are mine) who affect a foreign tongue, and make transfers in 
the mass out of worthless books imperfectly understood. The true 
vernacular is overwhelmed, thrust aside, and scornfully ignored." 
And again, " The vocabulary of the Indian Courts of Judicature is not 
absolutely without a few Hindi phrase3. Still, a very large propor- 
tion of good Hindi is systematically excluded by ignorance or bad 
taste, or, worse still, from corrupt design. Words which are conti- 
nually in the mouths of the people, the current speech in which men 
in town and country buy and sell and transact business, the mother- 
tongue of the peasantry and indeed of the great bulk of the nation is 
repudiated for a foreign, high-sounding phraseology. But a people's 
vocabulary is not so to be set aside. The few have seldom yet suc- 
ceeded in substituting their language for the language of the many. 
Beaten off from the courts and public offices, native Hindi still lives 
in the busy mart, and in the familiarities of social and domestic life. 
In the pithy sayings, proverbs, and national songs of the country, 
dwells a spirit and an influence beside which the foreign and less 
familiar speech seems feeble and flat. These Hindi phrases have 
deep roots in the habits and associations of the people. They come 
* Dissertation pp. xii. xiii. 

148 On the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. [No. 3, 

home to the feelings and the understanding of the highest and the 
lowest. They possess a living power, universality and force of expres- 
sion, which can never belong to the Arabic and Persian platitudes 
that are thrust in their place." 

Now all this is very good and very eloquent, but it rests on false as- 
sumptions. It assumes that what is true of some classes of the population 
is true of the whole. It puts aside entirely all the rank and education 
of the country — it puts the peasant on a pedestal, and requests us to 
accept the barbarous and antiquated jargon that falls from his lips as 
the model of our speech, and as the vehicle for the expression of 
intricate philosophical argument, close legal reasoning, delicate and 
refined discussion on art, science and politics. 

A second erroneous assumption is, that we have to thank our law 
courts for the abundance of Persian and Arabic terms in use in Hin- 
dustani. The fact, however is, that our native clerks use nine-tenths 
of these words, simply because they have been used for five centuries 
past as legal terms, and use has conferred on them a conventional 
meaning, which no other words possess. The native press, in discuss- 
ing matters of a purely unofficial character, uses the same phraseology. 
The style of Abul Fazl and the Sih Nasr-i Zahuri is the model of all 
native composition. And this arises not from pedantry or affectation ; 
the reasons of it are to be sought, first, in the circumstances in which 
the early Musulman invaders found themselves ; and, secondly, in the 
constitution of native society from those times to this. 

Who, then, were the founders of the Urdu language? They 
were a mass of Turks, Tartars, Persians, Arabs, and Syrians ; with 
whom were amalgamated many of the middle and lower classes of 
Hindus ; principally, perhaps, the adventurous trader, who goes any- 
where to gain money, and the idle scum who are always attracted by 
an army. If we further ask what were the materials from which this 
heterogeneous mass could compound a lingua franca y we find, of 
indigenous dialects, Sanskrit and Hindi ; of extraneous ones, Arabic 
and Persian, and various Turkish dialects. They had to introduce 
a new religion, a new government ; systems of policy and organization 
new to India ; rules of etiquette ; the social habits and refinements of 
a town life ; new articles of clothing, furniture and luxury ; philoso- 
phical terms ; terms to express new processes in the mechanical arts. 

1867.] On the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. 149 

To what source should they turn for words to express these ideas ? 
The Brahmin and the Rajput stood aloof from the casteless strangers. 
Sanskrit therefore was probably very little heard in the camps of the 
G-hori or the Khilji, and still less in those of Tiniur or Baber. 

Words of Sanskrit origin, but more or less mutilated, were heard 
from the lips of the lower classes, who also used a vast number of 
Hindi words, i. e. words either of Sanskrit origin or not, but so far 
altered from their original as to become new words.* 

Let us now go through some of the words which we may suppose 
offered themselves to the invaders as native terms to express their 
new ideas, and I think it will be seen that none of these words were 
really available. 

In the first place the new religion was Islam. To express the 
religious duties of that pugnacious creed in anything but Arabic was 
profanation not to be thought of. Hence the introduction of masjid, 
namdz, rozd, kitdb, id, and the words of this class were unavailable, for 
even putting aside the profanation, words of Sanskrit origin could not 
express, because they did not contain, the requisite ideas. If any one 
doubts this, let him think how far the Sanskrit and Hindi words 
written below represent the Arabic or Persian. 

Masjid Sanskrit — mandirum, dcvdlayam ; 

Hindi — dewdla, math, mandar, shiwdla, thdkurbdri. 

Namdz S. prdrthand, nivedanam ; 

H. pujd, path. 

Rozd S. upavdsa, updsanam, abhojanam, langhanam ; 

H. upas, langhan. 

Kitdb S. pustakani, grantham ; 

H. pothi, pustak. 

'Id S. parvva, utsava, ydird ; 

H. par ah, tyohdr or tehwdr. 

Now it is at once evident that the adoption of any of these words, 
deeply tinctured with the hues of the Brahminical creed, would at 
once have been fatal to the genius of Mahomedanism. These Sanskrit 
words therefore retained their place in the language with reference to 

* An example will make the distinction clearer : Rdjd I should call a Sanskrit 
word, because it retains its form unaltered ; hihnltdnd I call a Hindi word 
because its connection with the Sanskrit avilamba is, though undoubted, yet 
not at first sight apparent. 

150 On the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. [No. 3, 

the belief of the Hindu, while for the new Muslim population, the 
purely Muslim words were retained ; and as nothing was displaced to 
make way for them, they were a clear gain to the language, enabling 
it to keep pace with the new religious development of the nation at 
large. Secondly, words relating to the government of the country. 
The mass of little kingdoms each headed by its petty rdjd, a puppet 
whose strings were pulled by his Brahmin ministers, was to give way 
to the rule of one supreme " father-king," padshdh ;* who should 
parcel out his dominions into satrapies or subds ; and these powerful 
satraps again would divide their provinces into districts ; and the 
rulers of districts would portion them out into counties, and so on. 
Divisions of caste were to be ignored, all men were free and equal, on 
condition of paying their taxes duly. The sovereign acknowledged 
himself to be under no obligation towards his subjects. He was 
an absolute despot whose business was to rule, as his people's was to 
obey. He was, however, expected to be accessible to the meanest of 
his subjects at certain times, and on the whole to do justice, though 
after a somewhat random fashion. How utterly inapplicable to such 
a system and to such a ruler would be the Sanskrit title of rdjd ; 
what a crowd of ideas and memories of another order of things would 
such a title bring with it. Would it not lower the great " father- 
king" to the level of the petty knights he had just destroyed? But 
the word rdjd, though inapplicable to the sovereign, was not discarded ; 
it remained as the title of a high order of nobility, as it is to this day, 
and the Persian terms indicative of sovereignty are therefore positive 
additions to the language. 

It is unnecessary to go in detail through the long list of words 
relating to government introduced by the invaders. It is evident 
that a people's language can have no words for ideas or things which 
do not exist in the country. Especially was this the case in India- 
Excluded from all but the scantiest commerce with the outer world, 
India had long believed herself to contain the whole of the inhabited 
earth, or at least to be the centre and greatest part of it. Like China 
in the present day, India thought herself " the central flowery land," 
and had but dim notions of certain " outside barbarians" who led a 
miserable life on the confines of space. When the new era of a vigor- 
* I assume Padshdh to be " pidr-shah" father-king, like Atabeg or Abimelech. 

1867.] On the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. 151 

ous civilization and progress dawned on her, she was unprepared to 
meet it. Her religion, laws, customs and language shrivelled up at 
once, and slunk into holes and corners, and the statues of her gods 
which had loomed grand and terrible in the twilight of Brahminism, 
looked poor, feeble scarecrows in the full blaze of el Islam. The conquer- 
ors were but little disposed to adopt the language of the conquered race, 
but even had they been so, that language afforded them no materials 
in which to clothe their ideas. Necessity stept in to aid inclination, 
and the result was a language full of imported words. 

"But," it may be urged, " no one objects to a certain number of 
Arabic and Persian words ; many of them are necessary, some even 
indispensable, to the people : all we object to is the indiscriminate 
introduction of words which are not necessary, and for which the early 
Mahomedan invaders are not responsible." I might answer this, by 
asking the Hindi school to tell me how they know at what date any 
given word first made its appearance in India ? On what grounds do 
they assert that the simpler and shorter Arabic words were introduced 
first, and the longer and more complicated ones later ? There exists 
no regular Urdu literature by which we can, as in English, mark the 
exact epoch of the introduction of a word. And this brings me to 
my second argument, that, namely, derived from the constitution of 
native society, during all the years in which the Urdu language has 
been growing, up to the present time. 

The conquerors were essentially one nation, though composed of 
very mixed elements. If they had adopted the language of the con- 
quered, in a few generations they would have become scarcely in- 
telligible to one another. In the present day an inhabitant of the 
Punjab just manages to make himself intelligible to a man of Patna 
by virtue of those few words which are now common to all Indian 
dialects, namely those of Persian origin, and the Hindi verbs and 
particles which have, thanks to the Mahomedans, become familiar all 
over the country. At the time of the first invasions hond was not 
used over a wider area than bhd, pas than bhire, uskd than oherd or 
wdkd. As the country was split up into a number of petty kingdoms, 
so was the language into a mass of dialects. Hindi was not one but 
many, and so it is to this day. The service which the Mahomedans 
rendered to India, consisted in their taking one of these many dialects 

152 On the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. [No. 3, 

and making it the vehicle of their Persian and Arabic, and thus dis- 
tributing it all over India. The Hindustani or Urdu language is 
therefore, from one point of view, not Persian grafted on Indian, but 
Indian inserted into Persian. The movement began from above and 
was imitated by the lower classes. 

At an early period of the invasion, large tracts of country were 
converted to the Muslim faith. All the Punjab west of the Chinab, 
and a great deal east of that river ; all the chief towns in the valley 
of the Ganges, and many villages in all parts of the country were 
largely converted ; and the conversion went on for centuries, and has 
not yet ceased. To all these converts Arabic became a sacred tongue, 
and as such lay and lies as near the hearts of this section of the 
people as Hindi. Speak to a Mahomedan rustic in Hindi, he under- 
stands you and talks to you in the same ; but speak to him in Urdu, 
and he will press into his service every word he knows of Arabic and 
Persian, to show you that though, through accident of birth, he can 
only speak a few words of those honored and sacred tongues, he is yet 
not quite without knowledge of them. The rustic father sends his 
son to school to the village pedagogue, to learn what ? not Hindi, 
but Arabic and Persian. And then we are told that these languages 
do not lie near the hearts of the people ! Why, I believe if the votes 
of the whole Mahomedan population could be taken, an overwhelming 
majority of them would prefer to abandon Hindustani altogether and 
make Persian the language of the land. 

Among the higher classes in towns, who form the most intelligent 
and cultivated portion of the population, there can be no question 
whether Urdu or Hindi is most popular. It is in the towns that we 
find the stronghold of the Musulman, and consequently of Arabicized 
Urdu. But on what grounds we are asked to set aside the towns- 
people and all the Mahomedan rural population, together with all 
cultivated Hindus who try to talk as much Urdu as possible, I do not 
see. Native society has been for five centuries so thoroughly leavened 
with the language of the Mogul invader, and the invader has so 
thoroughly made himself at home in India, and has so successfully 
maintained the claim of his composite dialect to express the progress 
and intelligence of the country, that all classes aspire to use it as a 
sign of good breeding and cultivation. 

1867.] On the Arabic Element in Official Hindustani. 153 

The language, to quote Dr. Fallon once more, " in which men buy 
and sell and transact business" is not Hindi ; it is Urdu. If man and 
ser and chitdnk are Hindi, kimal and nirakJi, mdl, saudd, and sauddgar, 
jins, rakni, bazar, and dukdn are Persian. If hat is Hindi, ganj is 
Persian. Sarah, hail, and gdri are Hindi, but pul, sardi and manzil 
are Persian. And so it runs through all the scenes of common Indian 
life ; you hear everywhere simple Persian words as frequently as Hindi 
in the mouths of all classes of the people. I appeal to the experience 
of all who know well the rural districts of this country for confirma- 
tion of this assertion. 

We may then safely state that to the higher classes throughout the 

country, to the Mahomedan rustic, to the townsmen in all districts, 

Urdu is as familiar and as well known ; nay, more familiar, than pure 

unadulterated Hindi. It remains only to discuss the question as 

regards the Hindu peasant. And it is in this connection that the 

i want of uniformity between the various Hindi dialects requires to be 

brought out in a stronger light. Hindi is not one, but many. If we 

' follow the advice of our purists, and try to talk and write only pure 

, Hindi, we abandon the possibility of retaining one universally intelli- 

: gible language and fall back into a chaos of a dozen or more different 

dialects. In advocating the use of Hindi in preference to Arabicized 

j Urdu, Dr. Fallon's school mean by Hindi those portions of Urdu 

which are of Indian origin ; they mean the dialect which uses wuh, yih, 

iskd, ushd ; which says hond, hotd, hud, karnd, kiyd ; that dialect which 

has been incorporated into Urdu : the Hindi, in short, of Delhi and 

Muttra. But ten miles from Delhi itself I have heard uodkd for uskd, 

ydkd for iskd. If we are to reject such forms as these and use only 

the Delhi Hindi, we are quite as far from reaching the heads and 

hearts of the mass of the population as ever. The great Bhojpuri 

dialect, for instance, is spoken throghout eastern Oudh, Gorackpur, 

Benares, Shahabad, Sarun and Tirhut, and is more unlike the Delhi 

Hindi than Dutch is unlike English. I would ask a Delhi or upper 

Doab rustic to interpret the following from the evidence given in 

court in a dacoity case by a peasant of Champaran. u Okerd dwdre 

gdrdhd sunilin, sagare log dhdwalan, tan ddi sau jana j anvil an, ghare 

•' samdgelan, sagard dhan, chipd, lota, dhdn, clidwal sdthi lut lelan, dheri 

toralan, phin niksalan, dm mushdl bhig del an t te bhdgalan, t'hom a* 

I P'shddwa chahet gelin, t'ehlio chor pakardil gel. n 


154 Ancient Hindu Ruins in Garhwal. [No. 3, 

This is pretty simple, especially when written down clearly on 
paper, but when heard from the mouth of the witness, mumbled and 
half pronounced and spoken with the rapidity of a steam-engine, it is 
not so easily caught. It means : " We heard a noise at his house. 
Every one ran [there]. There two hundred men were collected. 
They entered the house. They looted all the property, platters, lotas, 
rice [of three sorts] ; dhdn, [unhusked] ; ehdwul, [husked] ; sdthi [a 
species of Bhadai rice]. They broke the granary ; then they came 
out, threw away their torches and fled. Then I and Parshad pursued, 
and one thief was caught." 

Does Dr. Fallon wish us to fall back on this dialect, for instance, 
with the certainty that by using it we render ourselves unintelligible 
to one-half of India ? or are we to use some other dialect, unintelligi- 
ble to this half ? Or again is each Englishman to use the dialect of 
the district where he finds himself, and have to learn a new dialect at 
each change of station ? 

If in reply I am told that the language meant by Hindi is the dia- 
lect of liai and hud, hartd and hiyd ; and not that of bhd and hhdil, 
Jcarat and haralan* nor that of die and child ;f nor that of lunula 
and hoyd ;% nor that of cho, did and clii ;§ and that a certain amount 
of necessary Persian words is allowable, I would ask where are we to 
draw the line in Hindi between what is classical and what is provin- 
cial, and in Urdu between what Arabic words are allowable and what 
are not ? 

Remarks on some ancient Hindu Rains in the Garhwdl Bhdtur. — By 
Lieutenant Ayrton Pullan, Assistant Surveyor, Great Trigono- 
metrical Survey. 

[Eeceived 6th June, 1867.] 
While engaged in surveying a portion of the dense forest that skirts 
the foot of the Himalayas between Garhwal and Rohilcund, I dis- 
covered a very remarkable temple and a number of carved slabs 
scattered through the jungle. These ruins have hitherto escaped 
notice, owing to the dense jungle in which they lie hidden. The 

* Bhojpuri. f Tirhut. % Panjabi. 

§ Bajputana and Harrowti. 

1 67.] Ancient Hindu Ruins in Garhwal. 155 

admirable preservation in which the temple still is, and the beauty 
of the carving on it, and the surrounding fragments, have induced me 
to make sketches of the most remarkable portions. I send herewith 
zincographs* from my sketches, trusting that with the following brief 
account, they may prove interesting to the Asiatic Society. 

In January last, while in the Chandipahar Sevaliks and near the 
site of an ancient but now ruined village called Mandhal, almost six 
miles east of Hurdwar, I found among the grass the carved figure of 
a Bull ; following up my discovery I came upon a small temple of 
exquisite carving and design, the figures on the frieze in fine alto- 
relievo and the whole arrangement of the facade perfect. 

Round the temple, which was eight feet in height and six or eight 
feet square, were scattered a number of carved slabs, a group of 
wrestlers, Ganesh with his elephant head, and some gods under 
canopies so very Buddhist, as to remind me of " Sakya Thubha" on 
the drawings of the monks of Zauskar and Ladakh. 

The temple itself stands on a platform or " chabutara," twenty feet 
square, and at each side is a trench or drain which was probably intended 
to carry off the water, and leave the flat square dry for worshippers. 
Beautifully executed heads terminate the trench at the four corners : 
on the south a woman's head and bust, at the west a lion, at the 
north a ram ; the east corner is broken and defaced. These heads in 
form and execution brought to my mind most vividly " the Gargoyles" 
on the gothic Cathedrals of Europe. 

Scattered about were two or three large capitals and shafts of pillars, 
evidently belonging to a building of far larger dimensions than the 
small one now standing. The frieze and doorway faces the south ; 
the northern door is much plainer, but I would draw attention to 
one of the pillars shewing a stag under a tree which is identical 
with the stag and tree on a silver coin found by me two years 
ago near Beirut in the Saharanpur district, and attributed to the 
Maharaja Amojdha ; the coin is now in the possession of Babu 
Kajendralala Mitra of Calcutta. Inside the temple lies a square carved 
slab, cracked by a fall, bearing a fine three-headed deity. This 
three-headed god occurs on most of the slabs throughout the 
Terai, and is conspicuous on the lingam found near Lai Dhang. 
* These zincographs may be seen in the Library of the Asiatic Society. Ed. 

156 Ancient Hindu Ruins in Garhwdl. [No. 3 

Whether the stag and tree, common alike to temple and coin, gives 
a cine to the builders ; whether it suggests a stream of Hindu civili- 
zation driven by persecution into the untrodden forests of the Terai, 
like " the pilgrim fathers," seeking in the wilderness quiet to 
worship God after the fashion of their ancestors ; or whether it may 
perhaps go to prove that in time past the deadly fever-smitten Terai 
was not deadly, but a cultivated country filled with villages and 
inhabitants ; — these points I leave for antiquarians to decide. 

About eight miles further east in the Liini Sot, a narrow stony 
ravine running down from the Himalayas, I found some more slabs, 
one with a beautiful female head, and two or three large pillar 
shafts and cornice-mouldings, similar to those at Mandhal. After a 
long search I could find nothing further ; but an old Brahmin who had 
a cattle " got" in the ravine, told me that twenty years ago several 
fine figures, slabs, &c. were carried away to Jayapur and Gwalior by 
wood-cutters from Central India. 

Four miles further east, I came on the ruins or rather indications 
of a city (the place is now known as Panduwala) near the police 
jungle chauki of Lall Dhang. Here after an hour's search I at length 
lighted on the object of my visit ; I found the ground beneath the tall 
tiger grass and tangled bamboos covered for a couple of square miles 
with heaps of small oblong red bricks, interspersed with carved slabs 
of stone ; but the most singular and beautiful relic was the last to 
reward my search ; this was a stone " lingani" of most exquisite 
work, half buried in the ground, but when excavated, standing three 
feet high and carved on three sides. 

Forty or fifty small chirags were turned up by my servants, 
while excavating the " lingam." The people at Lall Dhang told 
a similar story to the Brahmin at Luni of figures and slabs 
that had been carted away to the plains at different times. At 
Panduwala I observed three or four evident indications of founda- 
tions of houses, and in one place a half-choked canal of good 
stone work, which had brought water doubtless to the people of the 
buried city from the cool hollows of the Bijinagar " Sot." A large 
stone, six feet in circumference by three in diameter, also lay 
near the foundation of one of the houses of bygone Panduwala. At 
Mawakot, a Boksar village in the Terai, eighteen miles east of 

18G7.] On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. 157 

Panduwala, I found some more slabs, some of the three headed 
divinity and one bearing a very curious figure. An old Brahmin, 
a resident of the village, told me that it represented " Jangdeo 
Kumar." The mailed figure with his armed supporters seemed 
almost an ancient gothic knight, but the curious tracery of fishes 
surrounding the warrior, somewhat destroyed the illusion. I found 
nothing more worth recording during my stay in the Terai, but 
I came on continued indications of what once had been : here a 
chipped and broken cornice near a cattle " Got." stuck up on end by 
the ignorant Panaris as a " Deota," there a great slab of hewn stone 
lying alone among a clump of bamboos in the middle of the forest. 
That these remains extend through the whole length of the 
Rohilcund and Kumaon Terai, I should think there is little doubt. 
I was told that at B/anmagar in the Kumaon Terai, there were 
some very fine slabs and carved stones, but I was unable to make my 
way there. 

My remarks on these interesting relics are of necessity meagre, but 
I hope that my drawings may induce some of the antiquarians of the 
Society to throw some light on these ruins in the wilderness. I can 
find no mention of these ruins in Batten's work on Gurhwal and 
Kumaon, although that writer mentions the Dwarahath frieze and 
carvings in Kumaon. I believe I am the first European who has seen 
the Mandhal temple, or indeed any of these ruins, as none of the dis- 
trict or forest officers had ever heard of their existence, until I men- 
tioned them. 

Notes on ancient Remains in the 3£ainpuri District. — By 
C. Horne, Esq. B. C. S. 

[Received 8th June, 1867.] 

Asauli. — This large village is within two miles of Mainpnri to the 
north east and can be best approached by the old cemetery, from 
which it is perhaps three -fourths of a mile distant. 


On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. 

[No. 3, 

Crossing an " lisar" plain, and passing through the village of 
Sikandarpur, yon see the village of Asauli picturesquely perched 
on its mound, which rises some forty feet from the level of the plain. 
At one end is a large native brick house used by the Raja of Main- 
puri during the mutiny, whilst at the other (the east) are swelling 
mounds covered with trees. But ere you can reach the said village, 
you have to go a long way round to avoid the extensive sheets of water 
which environ it on three sides, and which have been caused by the 
earth excavated therefrom to raise the mound. 

Entering by the east, one at once notices a large heap of stones, 
&c. on a small mound, and here one naturally looks for the Buddhist 
temple or " chaitya" which certainly faced the rising sun. 

Nor is one disappointed, for amidst the mass stands a stone with 
a deity thereon carved, now called by the villagers u Gulpib-Debi." 
This is represented in the rough sketch given below ; it is held by 


me to represent " Vishnu," the supplanter of Buddh in this instance. 
This slab may, however, have formed part of the temple, and have 
been placed to the right or left of the entrance, as in the later 
Buddhist temple many Hindu deities were admitted. The carving 
about the figure is very rich and characteristic of the period I would 
assign to it, viz. circa 500 a. d. 


On ike Antiquities of Mainpi 


The large squared blocks of kankar forming the original founda- 
tion are, many of them, still in situ — and the building will appear 
to have been of some size and of the usual crucial 
form. The length of the cross is not easily ascer- 
tained. A single cornice block will, however, give 
some clue to the size of the structure as it measured 
34" deep by 20" wide. 

Several heads of Buddh, carved in the conventional style, were lying 
about ; whilst two niche ornaments revealed him sitting in contem- 
plation, and several lintel stones two feet ten inches in length, shewed 
that the sanctuary had been richly carved. There were remains of 
sundry cruciform capitals, and of single and double bases for pillars as 
well as of the pillars themselves, but the most curious piece of carving 
to be seen there was a long slab of kankar, a basement moulding 
which I have figured below. It will be observed that it consists 

entirely of elephants seen fronting one. It measured eight feet one 
inch, and in this space there were five elephants. Another portion 
of the same basement moulding was found in the village, as also 
that of a frieze of demon faces which may possibly have formed 
part of another building. 

Amongst the ornamental carvings were several settings of " viraj" 


On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. 


or jewel shewn in the margin ; whilst the 
over-hranching vase does not fail to assert 
its prominent place. 

There were also remains of statues of 
both male and female figures nearly nude, 
with elaborate waist-belts ; but these 
appeared to me to belong to a time when 
the sensuous Jains were supplanting the 

It is very curious to trace on these 
stones records how the purer faith of 
S'akya Muni mingled and became in- 
corporated with and debased by the 
grosser superstitions of S'iva and Vishnu 
— to see how the pure and, so to speak, 
classical severity of rendering of the 
human form gave way to the sensuality 
of engrafted creeds — how S'akya him- 
self became adorned, needed clothing to cover him, instead of that 
wondrous veil of drapery generally indicated by merely the faintest 
waist-line or mark across the thigh, and required " tika" marks and 
tiara, how the forms of his attendant female devotees bent and twisted 
themselves with their distended busts, and how, in truth, the small spark 
of light S'akya had revived died out. Again, wandering about the 
village, one finds everywhere traces of carvings on blocks of stone built 
into walls. See below. These much resemble those at Malaun which 
I have before described. 


Some are like the figures at Mathura and Bhilsa ; whilst I could not 
find that any Hindu temple had ever taken the place of the original 
Buddhist or Jain structure, in which, as afore-noted, it is probable 
that some of the Hindu Pantheon had found a place. 


On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. 


The mound is of great extent, running nearly east and west. It is 
perhaps half a mile long and of about the same width, and in former 
times there probably stood a large Vihar or convent on its western 
end, where it is highest. 

Near this were lying six large stones very richly carved and in good 
preservation. The carvings upon them appeared to be metaphorical 
representations of the seasons. They are said to have been dug out 
from near where they are now lying some years since, and the stones 
(sandstone) appear quite fresh. 

On one, five feet in length, S'akya is seated on a tortoise. Two 
devotees kneeling, hand or offer vessels ; whilst 
from his head springs a tree, going off into scrolls 
in the bends of which are lotus blossoms. On 
two or three stand little elephants, and on the 
others there are " chakwa chakwi" or Brahmani 
ducks billing and cooing, or sitting alone preening 
their feathers. 
On either side is a panel, much defaced, but upon which " kinnars" 
or cherubs may yet be seen, and again beyond these on either side are 



On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. 

[No. 3, 

amatory groups— very Jain— viz. to the left a man playing a tom-tom 
with a woman holding her hands over his head ; to the right a man's 
hand on his 'heart vowing devotion, whilst the woman is scorning him. 
On another large stone, half of which is wanting, is Buddha rested 
in the middle, the " Navagraha" or nine planets right and left, with the 
sun and moon on either hand closing the series. This stone is clearly 
early Hindu. 

I append an outline of a portion of another carving which appears 
allegorical, although I am unable to make it out. 
I also send an outline of a pilaster found by me at 
Bichaman on the Grand Trunk Road about six 
miles distant. Besides being of unusual design, 
it is pierced with a large round hole, and may 
possibly have formed part of a railing like that 
found at Mathura. 

The bricks about the village were not large, and 
I imagine that in early times, the use of squared 
kankar blocks for religious edifices was universal 
in places where stone is not found. The carvings 
above described were on sandstone which may have 
been brought from Agra or elsewhere. It is, 
however, clear from what I have above noted that 
Asauli is worthy of a visit by any passing Archa30- 


pm i m 

Plate VI r 


£is/~ A >/oc/ Xa^^m^. 2/^/. A<U£. "1 

^- * 

, ^V 


ld^ffBww^ 4^^(^^^J 

£ Vow, c^- Tr» **jl ) 

1867.] On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. 163 

Anjani. About three miles north of Mainpuri in the cross-road 
eading to Eta lies this village, and the road to it is cut through the 
base of the large khera or mound which attracts the attention of the 
Archseologist. To the left (in west) for a very large ext >nt is low 
marshy land caused by the extensive scooping off of the surface earth 
or the purpose of raising the mound to the right, on which, in very 
early times, stood Buddhist or Hindu buildings. 

At present the summit is occupied by a small mud fort surrounded 
by a trench, which I was told was thrown up in Lord Lake's 
time by the Nawab of Lucknow, whose authority was acknowledged 

Close by and still upon the crest of the mound which is of great 
extent, appears a heap of stones, and this upon closer examination, 
proves to have been a Buddhist " chaitya" or outlying chapel to a 
large building. 

The basement would appear to be in situ, and stands in the 
middle of what was once an enclosure of 24 by 18 paces in extent, 
its longest face being toward the south. The foundation of the 
enclosure wall has been dug out to the extent of several * feet, which 
reveals the fact that the whole of this part of the mound consists 
of brickwork laid in mud and the bricks being from 14" to 15" 
X 10" X 2f" in size. 

The " chaitya" was constructed of kankar blocks ; although some 
small portions were of Delhi sandstone. The remains, however, scat- 
tered through the village, shew that there must once have been a very 
large building here with columns of considerable diameter ; and from 
their character, I am inclined to assign a date coeval with the decline 
of Buddhism. 

The sheet of illustrations herewith sent, (Plate VII.) shews that the 
line of Bakshas' or demon heads, bears the character of the Buddh Graya 
restorations and of many found at Benares and Jaunpur (figured in the 
Journal) presumed by me to belong to the same period (Fig. 1). The 
original cruciform capitals (Figs. 2 and 3) and chessboard ("diaper" 
of Col. Yule) pattern, Fig. 4, betoken great antiquity, whilst the find- 
ing in one place of the eight feet of cornice would seem to indicate a 
larger " Sinhasan" or idol throne for the figure of Buddha than could 
have been placed in the little " chaitya." 

164 On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. [No. 3, 

The Hindus would seem to have adopted the said chaitya, for I 
found three broken "nandies" or bulls and three slabs covered with 
Krishnas in relief. The carved stone corner of a lintel, Fig. 7, might 
have belonged to the chapel, and a small clasped hand found in the 
spot was probably that of one of the " Kinnaras" or angelic cherubs, 
such as are generally placed around the figure of Buddha. Very many 
stones were found covered with, what I believe to be, early Hindu cutting, 
(Fig. 10,) whilst the band of carving Fig. 4 is of a very early type. 

I hold therefore that there are good grounds for believing that there 
was once a Buddhist institution (a Vihara probably) on the spot with 
its outlying chapel, which latter was appropriated by the Hindus, for 
the worship of first, Siva, then Krishna and then — allowed to go to 
ruin. The drain-stone from the Lingam, shaped out of an old block, 
is still there projecting over the original step ; although the emblem 
of Siva has departed, and no reverence would seem to be paid to the 
spot by the present villagers, whose zamindar kindly sent me one of 
the finest of the carved stones, (Fig. 11,) without any objection. 

Iiarimganj, About five and a half miles north of Mainpuri, towards 
Eta upon the cross road stand the large village of Karimganj. Appro- 
aching it from the north, a large mound, a short distance from the road, 
attracts attention and appears worthy of investigation. 

This mound, which is of very great extent, being at base 530 by 
330 paces, and which has been formed in ancient times by the heaping 
of the surface earth brought from a long distance, stands between forty 
and fifty feet above the level of the country, and upon its crest has 
been erected in more recent times a mud fort. The level of the general 
raised surface being taken at ten feet, this fort rises yet thirty feet above 
that, and presents a very picturesque aspect in its deoay. (Plate VI.) 
Three sketches and a plan accompany to give an idea of the above. 
The whole mound is strewed with broken pottery, which is account- 
ed for by the fact that a village used to stand upon it, but has since 
been removed leaving only these " traces. The khera" or mound is call- 
ed by the villagers li Khan Bahadur ka Khera," and this would appear 
to have been the name of the petty chief who, subordinate to the 
Nawab of Fatehgarh, built the mud fort in the time of Lord Lake. 

I examined the mound most carefully ; but could not find anything 
in situ, except a few bricks and these of no unusual size. The fort 



CLfL rrvq OL/Vf 

Plate VI. 

^ iU Tlovik . 

.$ favu^eC 






^/a*, o^ 7i^ % /foycivtl, CyQO y&srcU 

tK^h'U'Td. , 


hs±l* i, f«rk<r*K *f JV"4.tL 



1807.] 0;i the Antiquities of Mainpuri. 165 

is composed, as before stated, of surface (here " saltpetre") earth. 
Hence the mass of mud is gradually disappearing, being dug out and 
taken away by the villagers to manure their poppy crops, and thus 
in the course of time the whole of the upper mound will be levelled. 
But, although there are no remains " in situ," there are plenty 
around the large well-mouths and scattered throughout the village, 
and I subjoin a small sheet of illustrations (Plate VII.) to shew that 
there must have been in later Buddhist or early Hindu times, a 
building of some pretensions on this spot. Here too I observed for 
the first time, kankar blocks, with the main lines of the carving sunk 
deeply in them, and the whole face of the stone covered with fine lime 
plaister which was admirably moulded. 

The patterns thus produced abounded in curved lines, an illustra- 
tion of which is given in Fig. 3 ; they resemble those used in the 
temple at Makiun (distant perhaps twelve miles) and in the " ehaitya" 
at Anjani, two or three miles distant. 

The whole country appears covered with kheras, upon which many 
of the villages are built, and my own house here stands on one. So 
that I hope to discover many more sites of ancient buildings, the 
remains of a very thickly populated Buddhist state. 

Thdkurd. Leaving Karimganj to the west and proceeding due 
east over the large " jhil" or marsh and some barren sand hills for 
about If miles, one comes to Thakura village, on the farther side 
of which, under some noble trees are the remains of an early Hindu 

These remains, some illustrations of which accompany, (Plate VI.) 
are curious principally as shewing how the Hindus adopted the 
Buddhist forms of ornament, and gradually changed them until the 
ancient style was lost or blended with the more corrupt modern 

The material used throughout appears to have been block kankar, 
which is a most intractable stone, being much like a solid sponge, and 
the people deserve great credit for the way in which they have worked 
it. It is I believe softer when first dug than it afterwards becomes. 
The people of this village were very ignorant, and as they had a 
lurking reverence for the stones I brought none away. 
The drawings on the plate may be thus described. 

166 On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. [No. 3, 

Fig. 1 is the small enclosed shrine, built with squared kankar 

Fig. 2 is a more recent capital. 

Fig. 3 is a very singular capital, for a round pillar 11 inches in 
diameter, in which the ancient cruciform shape is retained. 

Fig. 4 is an odd ornament, curious but ineffective. It must have 
been placed over a window. 

Fig. 5 is an extremely handsome ornament of the same kind for 
placing over a window or niche. 

Fig. 6 is a portion of the ornament always found in the projecting 
faces of old Hindu temples, the form of the capitals is singular, whilst 
the " viraja" or jewel of Buddha thus set, has become a flower, subse- 
quently often used in ornamentation. 

Fig. 7 is a portion of a similar ornament. The form of the capital 
resembles some seen at the cave temples, and is essentially Buddhist 
in design. 

Nonaird. This large and ancient village stands on a very extensive 
mound which rises from the plain to a height of about 40 feet. It is 
perhaps 1J miles north of the Grand Trunk Road, and about the 
same distance from the Police Post and Canal Chauki of Dhanahar, 
and nine miles from Mainpuri. 

The name savours of " salt," and we find that until quite recently, 
from very ancient times, there was a large saltpetre manufactory at 
this place. Doubtless salt was also formerly made, and hence the 
name from " nun," salt and " nonaira," salt-maker. Although the 
mound is so extensive, there is no marsh or " jhil" around the vil- 
lage. It would seem to have silted up, and the lands are now 
watered by a branch of the Granges canal. 

On the eastern spur of the mound, I, as usual, found the traces of the 
foundations of an ancient religious building ; whilst to the north stands 
the fort, in the construction of which have doubtless been employed 
most of its materials, as remains of heavy cornices were seen crop- 
ping out of the foundations. 

Enough, however, remained to shew that there had been a small 
Buddhist " chaitya" with a Jain ceiling. I subjoin a few drawings, 
(Plate VIII.) and would draw attention to Fig. 1, which represents the 
boar incarnation of Vishnu, or the " Varaha- avatar." He is accompanied 


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1867.] On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. 167 

by the "sakti" or female energy — his wife " Varahi ;" and I observe 
that Moor in the original edition of his Hindoo Pantheon has a very 
similar figure on plate 6. 

Figure 2 shews the centre boss of the Jain ceiling, whilst Figure 3, 
gives the details of an architrave of the most ancient type. 

Figure 4 is curious, as shewing how the same plan of eaves-stones 
was adopted over the small windows, cut in imitation of wood, as found 
by me at Saidpur, Juanpur and Benares. 

Figures 5 and 6 are also representations of very rough and ancient 

Figure 7 represent the projecting entablature, of which I found 
several portions, and which is very finely finished. 

Figure 8 shews a portion of the original shrine. It is extremely 
worn, although the kankar in which it is cut, is of the hardest 

Figure 9 has also been originally well cut ; but the wear of centuries 
has almost levelled the high relief in which it was executed. 

Figure 10 shews a detail which, taken in connection with two 
pillars found, proves that there was a smaller under shrine. 

Figure 11 is another instance of bricks carved with a tool. 

I was not able to find any large square bricks, commonly called 
" Buddhist," but many occurred of an unusual form, and the Karinda 
of Raja Prithvi Sing, the zamindar of the village has kindly sent me 
one, which is at the service of the Asiatic Society, and which mea- 
sures 12J" X 9" X 4". The ornament represented in Figure 11 was 
cut from such a brick, but the art of cutting and shaping bricks would 
seem to have been now entirely lost in the village. 

In spite of their thickness, these bricks are beautifully burnt, and 
each one is marked on one side. The lines with which they are 
marked appear to have been made with the three fingers of the right 
hand, having been very carefully drawn across the brick when first 
moulded. Amongst more modern (yet ancient) bricks I have often 
seen the mark, made with the finger. This I believe to have been as a 
charm, and to have roughly represented the trident. This mark also 
occurs as a mason's mark on marble at Agra, in buildings of the time 
of Shah Jahan and Akbar. 

I am not aware of similarly ornamental bricks having been else- 

168 On the Antiquities of JIainpuri. [No. 3, 

where noticed, or described ; although I may here add that I found 
one carved into a capital at Sarnath. which may be seen by the curious 
at the Museum, Queen's College. Benares. 

Mdldun. When driving on the Grand Trunk Road on my way to 
Eta. and 13 miles east from that place. I unexpectedly came upon an old 
temple, and as I have not met with any account of the same, I made a 
few notes and drawings which may perhaps prove of interest to some, 
and which I therefore annex. The first thing which attracted my 
notice, was the size and regularity of the kankar blocks with which 
the temple had been built. 

They varied from 3' 6" to 4' X "' X 9". and appear to have been 
freely used by the officers of the Grand Trunk Road for bridge build- 
ing, for many miles of road. Jaswant Singh, the old Thakur zamin- 
dar of the place, told me that a certain " Conolly Sahib" had taken 
the road right through the temple, entirely clearing away the southern 
arm of the cross, in which ancient form, the erection had been con- 
structed, and used Government vans at night to transport blocks 
of kankar. carved and plain, for his works ; whilst the " oldest in- 
habitants'' who professed to have remembered the occurrence, added — 
" The kaidis (prisoners') backs were broken by their weight," and 
a third put in, " Nay. but they were killed outright !" 

This is merely mentioned, to shew the need of some officer to see 
to the preservation of old ruins ; for the zamindar offered me as 
many stones as I might require, and did not appear to mind their 

But to resume my account. The only portion of the original 
foundation that I could find laid bare, was built with large bricks 
ll" or 15° X $'' X 2|" and was bV in thickness, with a buttress 
extending 9 feet. The facing of the superstructure, was originally 
composed of the large blocks of kunkur formerly alluded to, and very 
little other stone appears to have been used. 

In Figure, No. 14. a specimen of the basement moulding is given 
This is about 1 foot in depth, and is of the most ancient type. I 
Sundry traces of Hindu restoration of an ancient Buddhist chaitya are | 
apparent ; amongst others, a large lintel stone (of Agra (?) sandstone) 
with the peculiar frog-like crushed figures at either end, so often 
seen in modern Hindu temples at Benares and elsewhere. This stone 

2 «">/*7Wu_ 



Plate IX 






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1867.] On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. 169 

is fully 6 feet in length. There were lying about, both in the temple 
and near a bridge three miles nearer Eta, by the road side, many cut 
blocks of kankar. 

One of them, figured as No. 10, bore traces of great antiquity, and 
reminded me of some faces similarly arranged, which I had drawn at 
Benares : the type is a universal one. 

Many fragments of cornice were also lying there, all indicating a large 
building. Two of these are shewn drawn to scale in Figures 3 and 4. 
Ornamental details, figures 2 and 12 indicate the date of the work, 
the former being very bold and effective ; whilst the latter, in spite 
of the rough grain of the kankar, looks very rich. 

Moulding, Mo. 13 is ornamented with the old denticulated pattern, 
and has a good effect. 

Figure 11, shews two tigers, more modern in their design. 

From the above it will be seen that the details of ornamentation 
were very rich, in spite of the uncompromising nature of the material, 
viz. porous block kankar. 

The temple was built upon a slight mound raised with earth, dug 
from the neighbouring marsh, now nearly filled up by the annually 
drifting sand of this part of the country. The temple covered a 
space of about 75 feet square. 

The form would appear to have been oblong. I was able to 
recover two of the pillars, which had been originally used. It will 
be seen by figures 8 and 9, that they were of a very simple and 
early style. 

The base figures in both and the central portion in each is eight- 
sided. The upper recessed portion in Figure 9 has, however, only six 
sides. These pillars may have formed part of the same building ; for 
we often find different patterns employed in one edifice. 

Figure 7 represents an eaves- stone cut in imitation of wood 
work. It probably covered some small door or upper light, and, as 
before remarked, resembles those found at Jaunpur (Pair Daruba 
and Atala mosque) and Rajghat, Benares. The figure of a sitting 
Buddha is still on the spot to point out who were the founders, 
although there are also several Hindu deities present in effigy on 
sundry slabs of stone, to attest the subsequent appropriation. 

Around the niches once occupied by figures of Buddha are handsome 

170 On the Antiquities of llainpuri. [No. 3, 

ornaments one of which, (82 inches by 24 inches) has been figured 
by me as No. 15. There were many others of the same character. 
We now come to the roof. Of the central slab of this Buddhist (or 
as Fergosson would call it " Jain") ceiling, I was fortunate enough 
to find three portions, one of which has been figured as No. 5 ; it is 
drawn to scale, from which it will be perceived that the central 
rose lotus blossom must have been 5' 4" in diameter. This would 
give a central chamber vault of at least 11 feet, or with the cornice 
12 feet. The massiveness of the long slabs of block kankar, must 
have been very great ; but they were not sufficiently strong to bear 
the weight of a large pipal tree, which now stands upon this spot, 
and which doubtless helped much to cause the ruin. 

Arrived at the exterior of the roof, we find a strange pinnacle, of a 
form new to me, one in which the form of the vase is not abandoned, 
but very well adapted. Vide figure 1. 

There were also built into the walls around, the remains of three 
kalasas, each of 3 feet diameter, which, doubtless, at a subsequent 
period, capped portions of the edifice. I also observed the fragment 
of a very singular capital (figure not numbered) w r hich would seem 
to have been used in the building. An emblem of S'iva has been 
erected in the centre of a wretched enclosure on the site, and the said 
enclosure is generally kept clean ; but except by the women, much 
sanctity does not seem to obtain for the place. It is, however, the 
scene of many a festive " mela" or fair, held at regular intervals, and 
for the convenience of visitors at which, the kankar blocks hav 
been much scattered and rebuilt into small walls. The temple was 
undoubtedly of Buddhist origin, and belonged probably to the fifth 
or sixth century after Christ. Of course, it was impossible to find j 
any mason marks, as these could not be well cut on kankar blocks. 
There was no inscription that I could discover, whilst my search for 
coins in the village produced nothing. 

These notes may prove the more valuable, as it is probable that in 
a short time not a trace will remain of this ancient ruin. 

Karauli. — At the suggestion of General Cunningham, I drove over| 
to Karauli, which is about 11 miles north of Mainpuri, and upon 
the Grand Trunk Road from Allahabad to Delhi ; being 240 miles 
from the latter place. 



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18G7.] On the Antiquities of Mdinpuri. 171 

There is a magnificent grove, at the road side, of gigantic tamarind 
and other trees, under which are scattered some Muhammadan tombs, 
and there are traces everywhere of this town having once flourished 
under the Musalman emperors, of whose coins I obtained three 
or four, as well as two of the nail-headed character. These latter 
abound in these parts. A thorough search through the town shewed 
no traces of very ancient buildings in situ, although the old fort 
mound, now being levelled and converted intoa"ganj" or market 
place, may have been the site of one. I, however, marked about 
30 stones, i. e. block kankar and sandstone, which had once formed 
parts of a Buddhist erection, and all of which appeared to me to 
have been brought from Malaun about eight miles distant. I have 
figured some of these. Of No. 1, I found two portions; the rest of 
the cornice being at Malaun, and a band of the same pattern adorns 
one of the faces of the great tope at Sarnath, and has been figured in 
the " Researches" of the Asiatic Society by General Cunningham. 

Figure 2 is commonly to be found carved at the Atala mosque, 
Jaunpur, and on very early capitals. 

The forms shewn in Figures 4, 5, 6 and 7 indicate great antiquity. 
There are similar ones at Malaun and at many other places. The 
basement moulding Fig. 8 is very bold, massive and effective, and also 
of a very earl}' date. 

Figure 9 is very singular ; but there may be doubts as to its age. 

Cornice, Figure 3, needs no special remark. 

Many of these stones were found built into the gateway of a new 
sariii ; some were seen near the Old Fort or walls ; whilst others 
were used to form the mouths of wells. 

Fragments of three kalasas, of a similar size as those found at Malaun 
were also discovered ; so that the conclusion I arrived at was, that no 
building of any note in Buddhist times, had existed in Karauli, but 
that these remains had been plundered from Malaun, which would 
seem to have been used as a quarry for many years past. I find this 
district to be dotted over with high mounds of great antiquity, many 
of which produce stones as herein illustrated ; I hope to examine 
more of them. 

This fact, however, shews one that caution must be exercised in 
statements as to whence stones have been taken ; for there may have 

172 On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. [No. 3, 

been many small shrines or " chaityas" in connection with monasteries 
on mounds, which latter may have been built of bricks, which said 
bricks, which is commonly the case here, have been annexed and 
used by the surrounding villages. 

I can, I am sorry to say, obtain no written notice of these mounds, 
and they are far beyond the range of oral tradition. A collection of 
the best of these carved stones might be made here by Government 
at a very little expense ; but no one in these parts appears interested 
in the subject. 

Jusrau, visited February 13^, 1866. About two miles west of 
Anjani village, described in a former paper, lies the village of Jusrau. 
It forms part of the titular Raja of Mainpuri's zamindari or estate, 
and has, I have little doubt, been plundered of its best archaeological 
remains in the shape of pillars and capitals by former residents of 
Mainpuri, from which it is scarcely three miles distant. The last 
attempt would, however, seem to have secured immunity for the 
future from these spoliations. 

The " oldest inhabitant," a grey -haired Brahman, informed me 
gravely, pointing as he spoke to a large block of kankar which had 
once formed part of the ancient Buddhist shrine at this place, that 
the Raja had sent for this to be used in building ; that he had laden 
it on a two-bullock cart ; but that the cart had broken down and the 
bullocks been drowned whilst crossing the river Isan, not very 
distant, in the sacrilegious attempt to remove it. He added that the 
fresh cart and bullocks then sent by the Raja brought it back with 
ease, and restored it to the spot where I then saw it. So alarmed 
are the villagers, that they will not use the smallest, plainest stone 
for any purpose, and in proof of their sincerity, they shewed me their 
great need of a good well, saying that they were too poor to burn 
bricks for it, yet they dared not use the blocks lying about in 
profusion. And this was the more curious, as the remains about to 
be described, are thoroughly Buddhist, and not at all Brahminical 
in their character, whereas the village is a Brahman one. 

The cart track leaves the high road from Mainpuri to Eta, 
shortly after the 4th mile, and crosses a sandy expanse, now 
covered with crops of barley, &c. until it terminates in the village. 
To the east of this are remains of what had been formerly two village 

1867.] On the Antiquities of Mampuri. 173 

Buddhist shrines, and these were all the buildings to be traced. These 
are both 50 feet by 30 feet, measured outside, and Plans Nos. 1 and 2 
sufficiently explain them. Each has a raised platform 19 by 12 feet, 
built of well-cut kankar blocks without cement, and quite plain. 
These must originally have risen from 5 to 6 feet, from the terrace 
in which they stand •, for even now in one place the finished upper 
work is of that height, whilst in others, rubbish has accumulated. 
On these raised platforms were probably originally built open chaityas 
as at Bakariya Kund. The remains of kalasas or dome caps, of 
5 feet in diameter, such as could crown a " Vimana" of 30 or 40 feet 
in height, evidence large buildings ; whilst the finding of several 
projecting face ornaments enabled me at once to state with certainty 
the original form of the building. See Figures 4, 5 and 9. 

The present residents of the village call the ruins by the name of 
Jagat Devi's temple, and they tell me that at the Holi festival, 
a great " mela" or fair is held here, when offerings of ghi and rice 
are made to the Devi, who is neither more nor less than our old 
friend " S'akya Muni" or Buddha. The local name merely means 
" The deity of the locality." 

Buddha is to be found sitting in every niche iu the sculpture, and 
there is, besides, the two small figures, one of which does duty 
for Jagat Devi, (Figure 5,) and another very well carved, some 
4 feet in height, of which I give a rough representation, Figure 
8. Nearly all the Buddhist ruins about here, would seem to belong 
to the time of the decay of the purer faith, and these are no 
exceptions ; for we find the ornaments of the projecting faces to have 
been the same at Anjani, Karimganj, Karauli and Malaun. Vide 
Figures 4 and 5. 

Here I saw for the first time on kankar, what I believe to be 
a kind of mason's mark : Figure 11. The carving of the large 
Buddha is very well executed ; but the head has been knocked off 
and replaced minus part of the neck ; and the two upper groups of 
-' Kinnaras," or cherubs, are altogether broken away. The two tigers 
under the lotus, are the same as those I saw at Malaun ; the animals 
are something between a pig and a bear. The forms of these I saw 
in Behar, and also on a stone in Benares opposite to the Golden 

174 On the Antiquities of Mainpuri. [No. 3, 

To the right at base is the figure, supposed by Mr. Sherring and 
me to be " Surya," the sun, and figured amongst the remains from 
Bhitari in the Society's Journal, Vol. XXXIV. Part I. plate xvii. 
The lotus or glory around the head, is finely cut in relief, as is also 
the canopy. There were no traces of large bricks, but all seems to 
have been built of kankar blocks. In all this village, I saw no trace 
of the worship of S'iva, and truly, all fell down before, although 
many openly laughed at this their Unknown goddess, " Jagat Devi," 
the fear of whom was moreover shewn by their not daring to touch 
a stone of her former temple. 

Additional note on Karaidi. — Since recording the foregoing notes, 

I have had several opportunities of examining ancient carved stones at 
Karauli. Chaudhari Lachhman Sirlh is constructing a tank in steps, 
the entire facing of which, consisting of squared kankar blocks, is 
composed of the remains of some very large and handsome Buddhist 
buildings, which, contrary to the opinion heretofore expressed by me, 
existed on the spot. 

These blocks, in number several thousands, were found when level- 
ling the mound or " khera" for the purpose of laying out a large 
market. I subjoin a plate (x) of some of the more remarkable, which 
need little explanation. There were besides, large and handsome 
mouldings and specimens of nearly all the carved ornamental bands in 
use in this class of buildings. As usual, however, there had been a 
reconstruction ; for I found two huge blocks of kankar with the tigers 

II couchant" placed one on either side of the doorway ; whilst originally 
they had been joined and formed the basement for a large figure of 

The drawing No. 1, Plate X., represents what was probably at the 
back of the shrine, and resembles other portions found at Noner and 
elsewhere. It is very complete and curious. No one can say what may 
have been built into the tank-facing, but this is one of many instances in 
which valuable carvings have been lost. A few slabs were secured by 
me for a local museum, should such ever be established in Mainpuri. 

At the village of Basema, where is a large and ancient khera, 
I saw remains of a small building, similar to some of those described 

1867.] Literary Intelligence* 175 

in these notes. This village is about two miles south of Karauli, and I 
here secured a curious vase-shaped pinnacle which well denoted the 
period of its construction. 

Literary Intelligence. 

A very useful handy-hook on the Hindu law of adoption has just been 
published under the patronage of Honorable Prasanna Kumar Tagore, 

C. S. I. It is entitled the Dull aka-Siromani, and contains the substance 
of all the leading treatises on the subject, including the Dattaha- 
mirryinsa, the Dattaha-chandrikd, the D. nirnaya, the D. Darpana r , the 

D. Didhiti, the D. Kaumudi, the Dattaha Siddhdnta rnanjari, as also 
of an apocryphal treatise named the Dattaha Tilaha. The work has 
been compiled with great care and judgment by "Professor Bharata- 
chandra S'iromani of the Sanskrit College of Calcutta, who has also 
supplied, at the end of each chapter, an excellent summary of its 

Anglo-Pali literature has received an important accession in an 
English translation of the Attanagalluvansa of Ceylon, by James 
d'Alwis. Though professedly a history of the Temple or vihara of 
Attanagalla, it contains the chronicles of King Sangabodhi, who 
reigned in the middle of the 3rd century A. D. In an elaborate 
preface the translator has discussed a number of interesting questions 
regarding the Singhalese Chronicles of the Mahavansa and the Dipa- 
wansa, and of translations of particular passages in them by Turnour 
and others. 

The Librarian of the Sanskrit College of Calcutta, Pandita Jagan- 
mohan Tarkalankara, has brought out an edition of the play of Clianda 
Kausiha of Khemisvara. The author flourished in the court of 
Mahipala Deva of Gour, and his work therefore is about 900 
years old. By a curious mistake the editor, confounding an epithet 
with a proper name, says in his preface that the work was written for 
the entertainment of a king of the name of Kartika who flourished 
between four hundred and a thousand years ago. The subject of the 
bcok is the preeminence of truthfulness as illustrated by the story 
of Visvamitra and king Harisckandra. The Tamil version of this 

176 Literary Intelligence. [No. 3, 

work is well known under the name of Arichandra, of which an 
excellent English translation was, a short time ago, published in 
England by Mr. Matukumara Svami of the Ceylon Legislative Council. 

The same editor has also published a new and very carefully revised 
edition of the Venisaiihara of Bhatta Narayana, with a new commentary. 

The learned professor Jayanarayana Tarkalankara, to whom Sanskrit 
scholars are indebted for several excellent commentaries on ancient 
Sanskrit authors, has lately presented to the public a very useful little 
digest, named Puddrtha-tattvasdra, containing an epitome of the Philo- 
sophy of Kapila and Kanada. The book will prove a great help to the 
students of philosophy in the Sanskrit colleges of Calcutta and Benares. 

An original treatise on the mode of performing the ceremony of 
weighing one-self against gold, silver and other articles intended for 
presentation to Brahmans, Tuldddna-paddhati, and a new grammar of the 
Sanskrit language (A'siibodham Vyakaranam), have been brought out 
by the indefatigable Professor Taranatha Tarkavachaspati of the 
Sanskrit College. The former will prove useful to those who have 
especial faith in, and the means to perform, the interesting ceremony 
of which it treats, but we doubt very much if the latter is likely 
to supersede the excellent compendium of Varadaraja, the Laghu 

To the Persian scholar, we have to recommend a small volume con- 
taining two small treatises on Metre and Rhyme, the 'Aruz of Sain, 
and the Kdfiah of Jami, very carefully edited by the learned Shemitist, 
Professor H. Blochmann. 

In three old letters found in the archives of the Asiatic Society, 
the late Colonel Wilford announced to Mr. Edward Colebrooke, the 
discovery of certain Sanskrit MSS. on geography, of which no notice 
has since been met with, and which seem not to be known to Sanskrit 
scholars. The works named are, 1, Bhavishya Pur ana of 60,000 slokas. 
The Purana of that name, according to the Vishnu Purana, should con- 
tain only 14,000 slokas. In the commentary on the second work on our 
list Jayasinha, " who often speaks or is made to speak in the first person, 
says that he had in vain sent people all over India to procure it ; he 
ascertained that it was not to be found, and supposed it no longer existed ; 
however near Allahabad he heard that it was in Trina guru Desa or 
Tibet, in the possession of Jnani guru, and that he got a copy from 

1867.] Literary Intelligence. 177 

him." 2nd Dharma Kasha, of 700,000 s'lokas, compiled by order of 
Jayasinha Raja of Jayapur, who is said to have " sent the author to 
perambulate the Gangetic provinces. He was furnished with a Machiles- 
wara or compass, and a water clock which as he advanced shewed the 
coss and its parts." 3rd, Bhrigu Sanhitd, " between 40 and 50,000 
s'lokas, all on geography." 4th, Garga Sanhitd, " certainly about 2J 
lakhs of s'lokas." 5th, Mddhavi Kosha, " entirely on geography. It 
consists of 10,000 leaves or above nine lakhs of s'lokas. It requires 
three men, or at least two very strong ones, to carry it. It is divided 
into 56 books describing the Chhapan Desa of India." 6th, Ishta 
Purdna, " compiled by order of Mana Sing for the illustration of the 
geography of the Puranas— about 2 J lacks of s'lokas." 7th, Ahahala 
Sanhitd. " of 56 Sections relating to the 56 grand divisions of India." 
8th, Suta sanhitd. 9th, Pardsara Sanhitd, u both on geography." 
Wilford possessed MSS. of most of these, and it would be of interest 
if they could now be traced. 

The following are extracts from three letters lately received from 
Professor Holmboe of Christiania, giving the results of his recent 
researches into Indo- Scandinavian antiquities. The first is an abstract 
of a memoir on some figures sculptured on a rock in Scandinavia, 
which will be found interesting to Indian Archaeologists : — 

" Depuis un temps immemorial on voit sur les rocs pres de la 
mer aux cotes de Suede et de Norvege un grand nombre de figures 
sculptees, representant des navires, des roues, des voitures, des 
hommes armcs, des chevaux, des cavaliers, des souliers, &c. Elles 
se trouvent ordinairement groupees ensemble, ce qui a motive qivdques 
archt'ologues a les prendre pour des tableaux executes en memoire 
de batailles, particulierement par mer. Mais il est constate^ que les 
figures, qui forment une groupe, ne sont pas contemporaines, mais 
fabriquees a differentes epoques. Le navire on bateau sont des symboles 
ordinaires de la metempsychose en Orient, et les memes symboles se 
trouvent parfois sur des pierres sepulcrales dans le Nord. M. H. sup- 
pose done que ces figures sculptees sur les rocs y sont placees en memoire 
de personnesdecedees, et que le choix des figures depend ou du gout des 
parents survivants, ou de la position, sociale du defunt, ou de quelque 
evenement important de sa vie. Quant aux autres figures, les souliers, les 
voitures, les chevaux &c. l'auteur renvoie le lecteur a la croyance des 

178 Literary Intelligence. [No. 3, 

payens, que le defunt devait passer par des chemins obstrues par des 
e pines et d'autres difficultes, a cause desquelles on avait dans le Nord 
la coutume de lier des souliers sous les pi antes des pieds des morts. On 
peut done envisager les souliers, les chevaux et les voitures comme 
symboles de leur voyage a Valhal. Enfin M. H. emet l'opinion que 
les petites voitures de bronze qu'on a decouvertes en Allemagne 
et en Suede, une fois du moins dans un tertre sepulcrale, ont servi a, 
des ceremonies funeraires emblematiques symbolicant le depart de la 
vie terrestre. Les memoires sont illustres d'une planche et de beaucoup 
de tailles en bois." 

The Professor gives the following brief notice of an essay of his on 
the sacrifice of the Horse among the Scandinavians : — 

" On lit dans les anciennes Sagas ou histoires de la Norvege que 
plusieurs homines consacraient des chevaux au dieu Frey, et au com- 
mencement de chaque annee on sacrihait des chevaux et en mangeait la 
viande. Mais dans une Saga Islandaise, dite Vatsdadasaga, il est raconte, 
qu' un homme nomme Hrafnkel avait un Freyfux, c. a, d. un cheval 
consacre a Frey, et qu' il avait defendu chaqu'un d'y monter sous peine de 
mort. Neanmoins un de ses serfs le monta, et fut puni de mort. L'auteur 
compare cet evenement aux effets de la consecration des chevaux chez 
les anciens Incliens et chez les Kalmuks et les Mongoles actuels. 
Chez ces peuples il etait et est defendu sous des severes peines de monter 
les chevaux consacres." 

The next two memoirs of his noticed by the Professor are on certain 
gold rings on which the ancient Scandinavians took oaths. In the 
first of these — 

" l'auteur attire V attention aux anneaux, sur lesquels les Scandina- 
ves aux temps du paganisme portaient la main en pretant sermem> 
Plusieurs de ces anneaux ont ete trouves dans la terre est sont conserves 
dans les musees du Nord. lis sont faits d'une barre d'or, courbee en 
forme d'un anneau oval dont les bouts, qui sont un peu plus larges que la 
partie intermediaire, ne se touchant pas, mais laissant une petite ouver- 
ture entre eux. Pour prouver, que la maniere susdite de preter ser- 
ment tire son origine de 1' Orient, M. H. donne sur la 1 re planche 
les dessins de 4 anneaux, un de Norvege, un de l'Angleterre, un de 
Bretagne, et un de Persepolis. Les trois premiers sont d'or, le quatrie- 
me se trouve parmi les sculptures de Perespolis ; le dernier ressemble 

1867.] Literary Intelligence. 170 

tout a fait celui de Bretagne, ou on voit dans la grande procession 
Bacrificale des homines portant en mains levees de tels anneaux. Puisque 
les sacrifices et la jurisdiction etaient ordinairement reunis dans les 
grandes assemblies des peuples payens, les anneaux a serment dependent 
leur place dans la procession sacrificale. A la Ire, pi. on voit aussi le 
dessin d'une monnaie celtique, dont l'avers presente un liomme 
portant en main un anneau de la forme susdite (symbole de la 
jurisdiction), et sur le revers un animal et uncouteau dessous (symbole 
du sacrifice). L'auteur emet ensuite l'opinion, que les sculptures 
Sassanides en Perse ou on voit deux personnes portant couronne, dont 
l'une presente un anneau et l'autre pose sa main la-clessus, representant 
le chef des Mages, le grand-mobed, qui reyoit le serment du roi, qui 
vient de monter sur le throne. Les planches 2, 3 et 4 donnent les 
dessins de trois des sculptures sus-noinmoes. A la fin l'auteur domic 
unc liste des poids de 37 anneaux d'ur a serment, pour niettre les 
lecteurs en etat de juger, si les fabricants, comme quelques archeologues 
out pense, eurent eu le dessein de leur donner un certain poids corres- 
pondant avec les poids convenus ou non ; l'auteur en doute. 

" Dans le second mcmoire M. H. defend son interpretation des 
sculptures Sassanides contre un savant Danois, M. Miiller, qui 
pense, que le symbole du serment ne consiste pas dans l'anncau, mais 
dans le poing que le roi tient devant la bouche (v. pi. 1 et 2 de M. II.). 
L'auteur objecte contre cette opinion que sur plusieurs sculptures on voit 
des personnes avec le poing devant la bouche se trouvant derniere les 
personnages principaux et meme tournant le dos envers eux. 

The following is the substance of a paper by the learned Professor 
on the numbers 108 and 13 : — 

Chez les Indiens, aussi bien que chez les Bouddhistes autre part, le 
nombre 108 a depuis des temps immemorials obtenu le credit de 
posscder un pouvoir magique, et son emploi est tres repandu ou il est 
question de ceremonies religieuses. Leur Roudrakshas ou chapelets 
contiennent partout 108 globules ou corails. Dcja au 3me siecle 
avant notre ere le puissant monarque Asoka fit reciter 108 prieres a 
la consecration d' un Tope, et environ 100 ans plus tard le roi 
phutthaganiini de Ceylan fit employer plusieurs articles au nombre 
de 108, lorsque le grand Tope, Mahathupa, fut bati. Plusieurs 
temples de l'lnde contiennent 108 Lingas ou symboles du dieu 

180 Literary Intelligence. [No. 3, 

Qiva. La veuve clu Raja Tilouka Chandra fit batir 108 temples 
pour le culte de Qiva, et on y placa 108 Lingas et 108 images du 
boeuf sacre. Dans quelques reglements il est present dese promener 
108 fois autour de l'image des dien. L'auteur emet la conjecture 
que l'influence du meme nombre s'est fait sentir dans l'emploi du 
nombre 540, qui selon le rapport de 1'ancienne Edda fut le nombre 
des portes de Valhal, la demeure d'Odin, le supreme dieu des 
Scandinaves ; car 540 = 5 X 108, et le nombre 5 a aussi joui 
de la renommee cl'un nombre merveilleux. Si nous resolvons le nombre 
108 dans ses elements, nous aurons 2 X 2 X 3 X 3 X 3, et la 
somme de ces elements est 13. Or le nombre 108 une fois reconnu 
sacre, la somme de ces elements ne doit pas avoir trpuve difficile 
d'acquerir le meme credit. Les Bouddhistes de Nepal enseignent, 
qu'il y a 13 bhuwanas ou demeures apres la mort pour les vrais 
croyants, et par consequent ils construisent sur leurs batiments 
sacres des tours, ay ant 13 etages. Dans une legende Tibetaine on 
trouve la description d'une contree ravissante, ou il croissaient trois 
fois treize (sic) sortes de fleurs, et 108 sortes de plantes odoriferantes, 
et qui etaient arrosees par 108 sources. Les devins de la £hine se 
servent d' une baguette divinateuse divisee en 13 paliers. 

Une confiance egale dans le nombre 13 se deeouvre en Scandinavie 
dans l'emploi de 13 pierres placees debout formant des circles, qui 
marquent les places ou des reliques de personnes d'importance ont 
ete enterrees. Quoique ce nombre n'est pas l'ordinaire, il est cepen- 
dant remarquable qu' on le trouve assez souvent. L'auteur cite entre 
autres par ex. une paroisse en Norvege, ou il restent encore trois 
tels circles de 13 pierres cbaqu'un. 

Concernant la raison de choisir le nombre 108 l'auteur propose 
diverses hypotheses, parmi lesquelles il trouve celle la plus vraisem- 
blable que le choix est derive de quelques idees astrologiques ou astro- 
nomiques. L'ancien astronome Varaha ayant calcule la precession 
du point equinoxial du printemps, crut avoir trouve, qu' il procede 
pendant 3,000 ans vers l'Orient, parcourant 27° du zodiaque, retourne 
ensuite ver 1' Occident, passant 54° du meme, et enfin retourne vers le 
point de depart par 27°, ayant fait en tout un passage de 108°. 

La derivation clu nombre des portes de Valhal, la demeure du dieu 
supreme des Scandinaves, d'un nombre sacre (5 X 108) a son 

1867.] Literary Intelligence. 1^1 

analogue dans la derivation du nombves des portes de la demeure du 
dieu supreme des Kalmuques et des Mongoles, dont le nombre 169 
est = 13 X 13. 

The following is the substance of a very interesting memoir 
affording curious traces of the worship of S'iva in Europe in former 
times : — 

Pour se fournir de materiaux a une comparaison entre les traces 
de (pivaisme en Europe (hors la Grece et l'ltalie) et les idees Indiennes 
sur £iva ou Rudra, l'auteur donne d' abord un court apercu des 
qualites de ce dieu. Comme point de depart pour la comparaison il cite 
un memoire de M. Ganjal, sur une idole Gauloisc appele'e Ruth 
(insere dans les Memoires de la Societe Roy ale des Antiquaires de 
France T. IX p. 61 fig. v.) dans lequel il prouve qui les deux anciennes 
villes Rode (dite Ruthero par les Romains) et Rouen (dite Rotomagus) 
derivent leurs noms d' une idole nominee Ruth ou Roth qui avait ete 
adoree par les habitans des villes et des environs, et dans le culte dc la- 
quelle les debauches jouaient le role predominant. M. Ganjal tire de la, 
la conclusion que Ruth fut la meme divinite que Roudra ou (Jiva des 

M. Holmboe donne ensuite une liste de noms propres de villes et 
d'autres places en Europe, qui eveillent l'ide'e d'une derivation de 
Roudra, p. e. Rhoden, Rodenacher, Rodenberg, Rodenthin, Rottenburg, 
Rottenfels, Rhode, Ruhte, Ratheborg &c. en Allemagnc ; et Rutland, 
Ruthwel, Ruthin en Angleterre ; Rot, Rotholet, Rotnoe en Norvege. 
Comme clans l'lnde Rudra, a la tete des Maroutes (les vents), est la 
personification del'ouragau, ainsi en Europe l'ouragan est personifie par 
un chasseur farouche (en Hannover appele Rodo) courant dans l'air, 
suivi d'un grand cortege. En Norvege et en Suede on a trouve un 
nombre de Lingas (symbole ordinaire de 9^ va )? ime ^°^ s ^ eDout sur 
un tumulus, une fois dans la chambre sepulcrale d'un autre tumulus, 
et plusieurs fois autre part. lis sont fabriques de marbre ou d'une 
autre pierre blanchatre. Le musee de Bergen conserve quatre de 
ces pieces (voyez les tailles en bois aux pages 24, 25, et 26). Dans une 
ancienne loi ecclesiastique de Norvege on rencontre une expression, 
qui jusqu'ici n'a pas ete comprise, c'est le mot Bot, qui se trouve 
dans une enumeration d'artieles pay ens que la loi defend d 'avoir 
dans les maisons, comme sorcier, idole, &c. L'auteur suppose que Rot 

182 Literary Intelligence. 

a ete le nom du linga, emprunte de Roudra. II cite d'une ancienne 
redaction de l'histoire du roi Saint Olaf, qui introduisit le Cbristia- 
nisme en Norvege, un recit d'une famille payenne demeurant dans la 
province NordJand, qui adorait le linga d' un cbeval, qu' on avait 
tue, mais dont on avait conserve le veretrum. Les soirs cette piece 
passait de main en main non seulement parmi les personnes de la 
famille, mais encore parmi les botes qui pussent etre presents, cha- 
qu'une recitait un verset en delivrant l'idole a une autre. L'auteur 
pense que c'est la forme du linga qui a ete imite'e par quelques urnes 
sepulcrales, qui ont ete decouvertes dans les celles de plusieurs 
tumuli, car elles sont cylindriques et arrondies au fond, (voyez p. 33, 
ou une de Norvege, une d'Angletere et une de l'lnde sont dessinees). 
Plusieurs de ces urnes sont ornees de figures emoulees en forme d'o 
vales. Le musee de l'Universite de Christiania en possede quatre 
ornees respectives de 13, de 39 (3 X 13), de 14 (2 X 7) et de 21 
(3 X 7) ovales, or les nombres sacres de 13 et de 7 entraient dans 
tous ces nombres, — preuve qu'on les a destines a un usage religieux, 
et que les ovales peut-etre aussi designent les ceufs, etant symboles de 
metempsycbose ; — une doctrine, dont on trouve aussi des traces en 
Scandinavie. La meme idee parait etre symbolisee par les pierres en 
forme d'oeufs, dont on a trouve des exemplaires aussi bien dans les 
celles de topes de rAfgbanistan, que dans celles des tumuli de Scan- 
dinavie. M. H. renvoie ensuite a un memoire, qu'il publia en 
1859 sur le type de plusieurs bractees cl' or, dont les musees du Nord 
conservent un nombre considerable, deterrv^s parfois de tumuli payens. 
II y a demontre que le type represent e Qiva sur le dos du bceuf sacre 
(Nandi). Preuves, que le culte Indien du bceuf a penetre dans la 
Scandinavie sont des legendes de vacbes sacrees, qu'adoraient un roi 
de Norvege nomme Augvald et un roi de Suede, appele Eustein Beli. 
Augvald etant mort, ces reliques furent deposes dans un tumulus, et sa 
vacbe dans un autre a cote de celui du roi ; et en Danemark on a au 
milieu d' un tumulus trouve le squelette d' un boeuf. Un nombre si 
considerable de traces du Qivaismeprouve evidemment, que le culte de 
Civa ou Roudra a ete tres repandu en Europe au temps du paganism^ 






Nos. I. to III.— 1867. 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men 
of science in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing, 
and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish, if such 
communications shall be long intermitted j and it will die away, if they shall 
entirely cease. 

Sir Wm. Jones. 





No. I. 

(Published 17th August, 1867.) 


Experimental Investigations connected with the supply' of 
water from the Hooghly to Calcutta, Part II., being 
Supplementary Observations. By David Waldie, Esq. 
F. C. 8., &c, 1 

Kashmir, the "Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains, 
a geological paper by Albert M. Verchere, Esq. M. I)., 
Bengal Medical Service, with a note on the fossils by 
M. Edouard de Verneuil, Menibre de l l Academic des 
Sciences, Paris. Pt. Ill 9 

Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. VIII. List of Estuary 
shells collected in the delta of the Irawady in Pegu, with 
descriptions of the new species. By William T. Blan- 
ford, A. R. S. M., F. G. S., Cor. Mem. Z. S. &c, 51 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Obser- 
vations taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the months of March and April. 1866, ., xvii 

No. II. 
(Published 1st November, 18G7.) 

On the Jungle products used as articles of food by the Inhabit- 
ants of the districts of Manbhoom and Hazaribagh. — By 
V. Ball, Esq., B. A., Geological Survey of India, 73 

Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains. 
A geological paper, by Albert M. Verchere, Esq , M. I)., 
Bengal Medical Service, with a note on the fossils by 
M. Edouard de Verneuil, Membre de 1' Academic des 
Sciences, Paris. ... . : 83 

Experimental investigations connected with the supply of 
water to Calcutta, Part III. By D. Waldie, Esq., F. C. S., 

&c., 115 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

made at the Surveyor General's Office in May, 1866, xxxiii 

iv Contents. 

No. III. 

(Published 3rd February, 1868.) 


On the Reproductive Functional Relations of several Species 
and Varieties of Verbasca. — By John Scott, Esq., Curator 
of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta, 143 

Contributions towards a history of Panolia Eldi : McLelland, — 

By Captain R. C. Beavan, C. M. Z. S. &c, 175 

Zoological Notes. — By William T. Blanford, F. G-. S., Cor. 

Mem. Z. S. Lon., 189 

Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains, a 
Geological paper. — By Albert M. Verchere, Esq. M. D, 
Bengal Medical Service ; with a note on the fossils by M. 
Edouard de Vernetjil, Membre de l'Academie des 
Sciences, Paris, 201 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions made at the Surveyor General's Office in June, July, 
and August, 1866, xli — xlix 





No. I.— 1867. 

Experimental Investigations connected loith the supply of water 
from the Hooghly to Calcutta, Part II, being Supplementary 
Observations ; by David Waldie, Esq. F. C. S. dx. 

[Received 28th September, 1866.] 

In the preceding remarks I have directed attention to the discre- 
pancies between my own results as to the quantity of organic matter 
by weight in the Hooghly water and those given in Dl\ Macnamara's 
Report, and I have also made some pointed observations on the very 
doubtful accuracy and unsatisfactory nature of the results generally 
given by chemists respecting organic matter in waters, except some of 
the most recent. For though I have found that the process detailed 
in the previous part of m} r paper is older than I then supposed, having 
been recommended by Mr. Dugald Campbell in 1850 as suggested by 
Ih . Clark,* and that an analogous plan was given by Abel and Bloxam 
in 1854,f though imperfect, yet these plans seem either to have been 
little known, or neglected, or imperfectly earned out. Some analysts 
indeed of later date do not even attempt to estimate the amount of 
organic matter at all, apparently despairing of reliable results. But 
the process given, I believe, yields the most trustworthy results 
hitherto obtainable, if properly performed. 

* Journ. Chem. Soc. Vol. IX. 1856, p. 51, 
f Handbook of Chemistry, 1854. 

2 Mr Waldies investigations connected [No. 1, 

But if the estimation of the organic matter in waters is to be of any 
value at all as a means of judging of their salubrity, it is essential that 
it should be done accurately. If it is to be a fundamental datum 
on which Municipalities are to choose or reject certain waters for the 
supply of large towns, that sanitary boards are to draw conclusions 
from as to the healthiness of certain localities for the residence of 
troops or other collections of human beings, and on which medical 
men and hygeists are to reason respecting the origin of disease or the 
maintenance of health, it is unnecessary to say that it ought to be 
ascertained in a reliable manner. 

In the case of my own results, differing so widely from those referred 
to, the question occurs, is there no way of accounting for them or 
reconciling them ? One cause has been suggested to me independent 
of correctness of method of analysis or of accuracy in its execution, 
namely the age of the water when examined, that is the length of 
time which had elapsed since the water was taken from its source. 
High chemical authority has been adduced for the necessity of setting 
about the analysis with the least possible delay, on account of the 
chemical changes which the water would undergo by keeping, which 
would result in a diminution of the quantity of organic matter 
present. The validity of the caution I am not disposed to deny, neither 
am I prepared to deny that in my own operations this point was not 
always sufficiently attended to. Indeed it had not particularly 
attracted my attention ; except as regards gaseous constituents the 
point had not been particularly noticed either in text-books or 
monographs I had seen, and the consideration that the organic matter 
collected by rivers had already been freely exposed to decomposing 
agencies, so that probably what remained was not readily decomposible, 
confirmed as this was by my own observations while operating, led 
me not to attach much importance to it. Still it appeared that there 
might be a change of considerable amount shortly after collection 
which had passed unnoticed, while afterwards the water remained less 
liable to change. A small change, experiment shewed, did occur 
speedily, but the present question did not refer to a small change but 
to a large one, and it was desirable if possible to ascertain to what 
amount it might extend. The question principally concerned the 
waters of the hot season and of the rainy season. 

1867.] ? "'V7* the supply of ivater to Calcutta. 3 

So far as general observation could go, having been engaged in 
collecting and examining the river water from 1st May to 14 th June 
for the purpose of ascertaining the amount of tidal contamination, 
I had abundant opportunities of judging of the physical characteristics 
of the water and observed nothing particular except a comparatively 
slight, somewhat fetid smell, which contrasted distinctly with the very 
decidedly worse smell of the water after the rains had come on, and 
of which the personal use of the river water gave me a vivid illustra- 
tion. Other differences I have already noticed in the earlier part of 
the communication, all suggesting the greater proportion of organic 
matter in the water of the rainy season, at least in the earlier part of 
it. Moreover looking to the absolute weight of organic matter, I had 
only found even in the worst of the tanks, when their water was low 
and putrid, four or five grains in 100,000 fluid grains of water, equal 
to rather less than three or four grains per gallon ; while the river 
water at any season was much superior to these in smell and colour, 
even during the rains, that is after the mud had settled. 

Yet as these observations might not be sufficiently precise, experi- 
ments were instituted to endeavour to determine the question. The 
oxidation of the organic matter by permanganate of potash offered 
the readiest and easiest way of examination, and was applied to 
various samples of water, more particularly to determine the rapidity 
of change after collection. And it did indicate a rapid change even 
in course of a day or two, indeed the greatest amount of change took 
place within the first 24 hours. But it has already been pointed 
out that this test indicates the proportion only of certain kinds of 
organic matter, and gives no information as to the total amount. It 
may even indicate more oxidizable matter after the amount by weight 
of organic matter has diminished, as was really the case in some of 
the experiments made. This will be seen in the case of the mixtures 
in the succeeding table, in which the proportion of oxidizable matter 
diminished for the first few days, and then increased decidedly, 
afterwards diminishing again. In No. 3 mixture it increased to a 
large extent up to time of writing this, and no doubt would diminish 
afterwards. The great extent of change in this case is accompanied 
by a great diminution in weight. 

The question at issue, however, was the amount by weight of 

Mr. Waldie's investigations connected 

[No. 1, 

organic matter present. It was impossible of course to get the hot 
season water in its original condition, but experiments could be made 
with river and tank water, and with mixtures intended to imitate the 
real or supposed peculiarities of hot season water. These could be 
examined to ascertain the amount of change produced on them by 
keeping. Accordingly experiments were made the results of which 
are exhibited in the following table. 

Date of collection 
or preparation. 

Date of Expt. 

For 100,000 jZ. grains W. 
Organic matter. Oxygen reqd. 


Calcutta Sewage Water. 
13th Sept. 1866, 13th Sept. 

15th 21.80 

27th 10.75 

Mixtures of River Water with Sewage. 
No. 1, containing |th Sewage. 

10th September. 10th Sept. 5.44 


24th 3.63 

*2nd October, 
No. 2, containing ^th Sewage. 
11th September. 11th Sept. 

12th 2.18 


24th 1.88 

*2nd October, 
No. 3, containing J Sewage and § Barn. Tank Water. 
18th September. 18th Sept. 6.05 

26th 2.65 

*2nd October. 













* Introduced after date of paper. 


with the supply of water to Calcutta. 

Bate of collection 
or preparation. 

14th May, 18GG. 

Bate of E.ipt. 

For 100,000^. grains W. 
Organic matter. Oxygen reqd. 


Cornwallis Square Tank W. 




15th Scptemher. 

18th September. 

8th August. 

18th September, 
cleared by- 




21st May, 
20th June, 
11 th August, 
6th September, 

Baranagar Tank W, 

15th Sept. 
*2nd October, 

Dalhousie Square Tank. 

19th Sept. 

River Water. 

17th August, 

2.5th Sept. 



29th, more than 

The Mixtures were composed of river water of the hot season three 
or four months old and of recent river water with a little Salt Lake 
water, No. 3 containing also Tank water ; with these were mixed the 
specified proportions of sewage water which had been collected on 8th 
September, and, as tried on the 9th, contained 27.33 grains organic 
matter in 100,000 fl. grains. 

It will be observed that in the organic matters oxidised by the per- 
manganate of potash there is a distinct diminution early, even by the 
lapse of a single clay, as indicated by the smaller quantity of oxygen 








t 1.89 







t 1.36 


* Introduced after date of paper. 

f Evidently an error of Expt. The organic matter could not increase. 
% Exp. faulty. Enough of Carb. Soda had not been used. Eesult could not 
have been less, but probably would have been greater, had it been correcc. 

6 Mr. Waldie's investigations connected [No. 1, 

required subsequently ; afterwards the diminution is slower, or in 
some cases even an increased quantity of oxygen may be required? 
from changes taking place in the water causing the production of a 
larger quantity of readily oxidisable matter. This therefore gives no 
indication of the weight or actual quantity of organic matter present. 
The weight of organic matter ascertained by experiment however, 
indicates in some cases a rather rapid diminution at first. But this 
is only to a small amount, except in the case of highly decomposable or 
putrefying liquids, such as sewage or mixtures containing much sewage. 
Calculation will show that the loss of weight of organic matter in 
mixtures Nos. 1 and 2 is less than would have been sustained by the 
constituent proportion of sewage water in them. In No. 3 probably 
the vegetable matter of the Tank water added caused the more rapid 
and extensive decomposition. 

The loss of weight in the mixture No. 3 is 3.4 grains in 8 days, 
being fully more than half of the original amount ; in Nos. 1 and 2 
it is only only 1.8 grains and 0.3 grain respectively. 

But the river water at no time could contain anything like the 
proportion of sewage that these mixtures did, such as one-fifth, one- 
eighth or even one-twelfth of sewage, the smell alone of such mixtures 
makes the supposition quite inadmissable ; besides a comparison of the 
size of the river with the amount of drainage of the town would show 
that such a proportion was quite impossible. The amount of liquid 
discharged by the drains compared with the volume of water in so 
large a river must be insignificant. 

But instead of citing results of my own, which if incorrect may be 
supposed to be all equally incorrect, it may carry more weight to quote 
the results of others. The older determinations of organic matter are 
generally of no value whatever, and I shall refer only to the most 
recent and trustworthy. I have already quoted Dr. Frankland's results 
with the London waters, but as all these are of water filtered for 
distribution they may be considered not quite comparable. Another 
example I shall adduce from the paper of Lawes and Gilbert 
in the Journal of the Chemical Society already quoted. They give 
tables of the composition of the Rugby sewage from May 1862 
to October 1863, shewing that it contains in solution from 7.6 to 
8.35 grains per gallon, and also a statement of the amount in the River 

1867.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 7 

Wandle before receiving the Croydon sewage which is 1 .44 grains per 
gallon, and after receiving it which is 208 grains per gallon. 
According to this the estimates of organic matter to the extent of 8 or 
10 grains per gallon in the Hooghly water during May and June shew 
that it contains fnlly more than the liquid part of the Rugby sewage, 
and this in a tropical country. 

I do not wish it to be understood that I maintain the perfect accuracy 
of my own results. The oversight in not examining the samples speedily 
enough after collection must be admitted, though from all that I have 
been able to learn from the experiments instituted for the purpose, the 
error cannot be a great one. There was no great delay in examining 
the water of the hot season, — about ten or twelve days, and this 
caused by the time and attention taken up in examining the influence 
of the tides in numerous samples. There was greater delay with 
the water of the rainy season, probably about a month with the first 
samples in July, about a week or 10 days with those of August. 
This was caused by waiting for the settlement of the very finely 
divided clay, the presence of which was very unfavourable to the 
accurate estimation of the organic matter. Recently I have found 
that the addition of a small quantity of hydrochloric acid causes the 
mud to settle so rapidly that the water may be filtered clear in course 
of a few hours : solution of potash or soda and milk of lime do the 
same, but the water cleared by these reagents seems to contain a 
different proportion of organic matter than that cleared by simple 
subsidence. It is of less importance, as the question at present is not 
respecting the water of the rainy season. The samples of December 
and February water circumstances prevented me from proceeding with, 
and they were preserved in stoppered bottles and probably not much 
done with them till April. The results are consequently more 
doubtful, though I do not suppose that they are very wide of the 
truth. As the season advances, should circumstances admit of it, 
I shall not fail to repeat the analyses, in order to get unobjectionable 

The observations made during the last month enable me to add a 
little to my former statements respecting the effect of the change of 
seasons on the river water. The increase of organic matter from the 
rains seems to be chiefly of the more soluble and putrescible kinds ; as 

8 Mr. Waldies investigations. [No. 1, 

the season has advanced, the fetid smell has materially diminished. 
This is indeed to have been expected : the soil has been washed 
comparatively clean, and there is less of such matter to wash away. 

The only possible way in which my results as to the small quantity 
of organic matter in the water of the hot season (supposing there is no 
great error in the analysis) can be reconciled with the results of those 
analyses that give it as equal to 8 or 10 grains per gallon, would be to 
suppose that the water at that season contains a large quantity of 
organic matter having no very offensive smell, but capable of very rapid 
decomposition, so that about -|th to T 9 th of it would be lost during the 
first two weeks. Without denying the possibility of this, I can only 
say that I know of nothing that makes it probable that such is the 
case, while I have already given reasons for believing that no such 
state of matters exists. Further observation and experiment can 
alone decide the question beyond doubt ; while I may remark that 
if such be the case, it will be a fact well worth noticing and establish- 

It may also be observed, that as in the case of supplying towns the 
water must always be stored for a time in tanks or reservoirs, it is a 
point of some importance to note the changes which it undergoes by 
keeping in these circumstances. I have made some observations in the 
course of these enquiries suggestive of further investigations on this 
subject, and which may also have a bearing on the purification and 
preservation of such waters, a subject which has lately been occupying 
much attention in England. It is obviously a possible thing that one 
water may be putrefying but its putrescibility nearly exhausted, while 
another may be highly putrescible, and yet its actual putrefaction may 
be only about to commence. As regards the preservation of waters 
too, it is one thing to keep them in stoppered bottles, and another 
thing to keep them in tanks. It seems to me questionable if they 
improve in tanks as they do in glass bottles. It is by following out 
such inquiries that advance in knowledge of such subjects is attained, 
and in the present case the activity of chemical changes produced by 
the high temperature and the regularity of the seasons are in no 
small degree favourable for carrying them to a successful result. 


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1867.] Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir. 9 

Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains, a geologi- 
cal paper by Albert M. Verche'be, Esq., M. D Bengal Medical 
Service, with a note on the fossils by M. Edouard de Vernueil, 
Membre de V Academie des Sciences, Paris. 

(Continued from page 203, of No. III. 1866.) 

Chapter III. — Cursory Survey of the several chains of the Western 
Himalaya, the Afghan mountains and their dependencies. Preli- 
minary geological mapping of the Western Himalayan and Afghan 

59. It is intended, in tins chapter, to give, in as few words as 
possible, an idea of the general geology of the several portions of the 
Western Himalaya, the Afghan mountains and their respective de- 
pendencies. In doing so, I have availed myself of all sources of in- 
formation which have been opened to me ; I have, however, been 
sadly in want of the help of a more extended library, and I have 
never seen some excellent works which would have much improved 
this chapter, if they could have been consulted. I need there- 
fore hardly say that it is a most superficial of surveys ; but I hope 
nevertheless that it may be found to contain a few interesting obser- 
vations and some new matter yet unpublished. Such as it is, it 
will enable us to sketch at least the first preliminaries of a geological 
mapping of the Himalayan and Afghan Ranges ; and also to attempt, 
in the last chapter, to draw the history of the mightiest mountainous 
mass of our globe. 

By reference to the map and and to the long Section (Sect. G) it be- 
comes evident that the Himalayas are a succession of more or less 
regularly parallel chains, having a general N. W. to S. E. direction. 
Between the chains are situated valleys which are elevated above the 
sea in proportion as one nears the centre of the mountainous mass : 
thus the Bawul Pindie plateau, between the Salt Range and the Sub- 
Himalayan hills, is about 1700 feet high ; Poonch valley, between the 
Sub-Himalaya and the Pir Punjal chain, is under 4000 feet ; Kashmir 
between the Pir Punjal and the next chain (called in the map Ser and 
Mer chain), is above 5000 ; Ladak between the Ser and Mer chain and the 
Kailas chain is 10,000 to 11,000 ; Nubra and the valley of the Shay ok, 


10 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

between the Kailas and Korakoram chains is a plateau nearly 15,000 
feet high. It is probable that on the other side of the Korakoram 
chain the elevation diminishes and that the Aksai chain and the valley 
of the Yarkandkash river, between the Korakoram and Kuen-Luen 
chains, are about 10,000 feet high ; beyond the Kuen-Luen is the 
province of Kotan which has been satisfactorily determined by its 
vegetation to be no more than 5000 feet high. 

We have therefore a series of steps rising from the plains of the 
Punjab to the high plateau of Little Thibet, and descending from 
Little Thibet towards Turkish China. These steps are supported 
by parallel chains or walls which tower by some thousands of feet above 
the plateaux which they support. These chains offer a considerable 
impediment to the flow of rivers towards the plains, and most rivers 
have a considerable course parallel to the direction of the chains, 
before they can find a gap to pass through. 

The Afghan mountains present the same arrangement as the Hima- 
layas; the direction is from the N. S. W. the direction of parallel 
chains is less well marked than in the Himalaya, but this is probably 
due to the little which is correctly known of the topography of 
these mountains. The plateaux are similarly graduating : Bunnoo 
being about 1200 feet above the see, Kabul 7000 feet, Kafriristan 
higher, whilst the plateau of Koonduz, on the other side of the Hin- 
doo Koosh, slopes gradually towards the west. This arrangement by 
plateaux is the same as is seen in the Andes with their high central 
chain and their plateau between that chain and the Cordilleras. 

From the hypothesis, advanced in the next chapter, of the manner 
the Himalayan and Afghan mountains were upheaved, we will deduct 
which of the lower hills belong to the Afghan and which to the 
Himalayan mass, and I will therefore not discuss this subject here, as it 
would but lead to useless repetitions. I shall begin with the hills 
which one first meets crossing out of the alluvial plain of the Punjab, 
as he travels north from Mooltan ; and I shall take the parallel regions 
of the Himalaya one after the other, noticing as I go on whatever 
little I know of the geology of the Afghan mountains in the same 

60. In latitude 32° 10', longitude 70° 50' to 71° 20' rises the 
double chain of the Kafir Kote range or Rotta Roh and the Sheikh 

1867.] Jhe Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 11 

Bodeen range. A small valley, the Paniala valley, separates the Rotta 
Roh range from the Sheikh Bodeen range, and the direction of 
both small chains is from the N. E. to the S. W. as far as the highest 
summit of Sheikh Bodeen, whence westvvardly the Rotta Roh alto- 
gether disappears, and the Sheikh Bodeen range is continued by a 
small and low ridge of hillocks directed towards the W. N. W. and 
supporting the plateau of Bunnoo. (See map.) 

The Rotta Roh is mostly composed of carboniferous limestone. 
The Zeawan bed is well developed, but extraordinarily disturbed ; it 
is a yellowish rock, often very sandy. It forms the base of the hills 
on the E. and S. E. 

Dr. A. Fleming sent home some fossils from Kafir Kote, which were 
ascertained by M. de Verneuil to belong to the following species : — 
Productus cora (D'Orb.) ; Prod actus costatus (Sow.). 
Productus Huniboldtii, (D'Orb.) Spiriferf 
Dentalium ingens, (DeKonig). 

All the species of which I have given drawings in PI. I, III, 
and V, were found in the Rotta Roh limestone, with the exception 
of the Spirifer like S. trigonalis.* Several species of corals, either not 
found at all or very rare in Kashmir, were found abundantly in the 
lower beds of the Rotta Roh ; but altogether the fauna of the Zea- 
wan bed in Kashmir and in the Rotta Roh is so very similar, that it 
can be called identical. 

The limestone restsf on a quartzite rather peculiar in some locali- 
ties. It is composed of opaque white quartz in which are imbedded 
plates of pearly white mica half an inch wide ; these plates of mica 
are arranged in tufts ; there are also some irregular nodules or granules 
of black augite (?) quite lustreless (see fig. 74, pi. IX). There can be 

* A distinct species of Sp., according to Mr. de Verneuil. 

f I failed to find the bed of quartzite in situ ; my examination was much 
more superficial than I could wish. But it is hardly to be wondered at that 
the quartzite beds are not found in situ, if we consider the wonderful state of 
confusion the beds are in. The limestone is in an extremely shivered condition, 
having been thrown into stray arch-like anticlinals separated by numerous 
faults. The shivering of the beds often goes so far that it is difficult to ascer- 
tain the dip and strike of the beds. In such convulsions as those which must 
have taken place in these hills, the brittle and fragile beds of quartzite must 
have been entirely broken, and are therefore not to be seen in situ at their out- 
crops, but are only indicated by the fragments into which they were reduced. 
Iu several localities the ground is covered with angular pieces of quartzite, 
either with mica as described in the text, or plain and opaque. 

12 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1 7 

no doubt that this micaceous quartzite represents the bed of quartzite 
which we have seen invariably underlying the Zeeawan bed in Kash- 
mir. The beds of volcanic ash which it probably covers are not 
exposed in the Kafir Kote Range. 

The Zeeawan bed of lime'stone is capped by very extensive and 
thick beds of Weean limestone rich in goniatites, in mussel-like 
anthracosiae, in Aviculo-pectens and other characteristic fossils. I 
found some blocks of the sandy limestone in which the anthracosicd, 
solenopsis and A. pectens are generally found, containing one speci- 
men of Productus semireticulatus, several Athyris subtilita (Hall) and 
A. Boyssii (L. W.), and also the P. Bolivicutis (D'Orb.) mixed up with 
the anthracosice and A. pectens , a mixture of Zeeawan and Weean 
fossils which I never saw in Kashmir. Some very large bivalves of 
which debris had been found in Kashmir and resembling an aviculoid 
inequilateral pecten were also found ; the transverse diameter is 7 J 
inches. Fine nautilides and spines of cidaris six inches long were 
also found. In the Rottah Roh the difference between the Zeeawan 
and Weean beds is not everywhere so well marked as it is in Kashmir, 
as I have just exemplified ; generally, however, the assemblage of 
fossils given in the plates as characteristic of the beds is the same as 
it is in Kashmir. 

In the northernmost end of the Rottah Roh, the Zeeawan bed does 
not appear, and is only represented near Kumdul by a few small 
mounds of debris rising through the sandy plain close to the foot of 
the hill. As we travel south and approach the Kafir Kote river, the 
Zeeawan bed appears under the Weean, and can be traced without in- 
terruption as far as the southern end of the hill a few miles from 
Paniala. It is impossible to give the dip and strike of the Zeeawan 
bed, as not a hundred yards of it keeps the same direction ; the 
broken fragments of the bed are more like packed ice in the polar 
seas than like courses of rock in a hill. The Weean bed above is 
much less disturbed, except the deepest beds which rest immediately on 
the Zeeawan ; it dips generally N. W. with a very trifling angle 
varying from 20° to 8° or 9° with the horizon ; occasionally the dip 
becomes W. and even S. W. 

I have not seen any beds in the Rottah Roh similar to the Kothair 
bed of Kashmir. 

1867.] tlie Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 13 

At the northern end of the Rottah Roh, the carboniferous lime- 
stone is immediately covered in by a Miocene sandstone and con- 
glomerate. A little further south, some beds of reddish limestone 
and some sandstones, grey and bituminous, are either the top of the 
carboniferous or possibly Permian or Triassic beds. The fossils are 
very scarce and mere debris. The sandstone contains thin layers 
of a shale which is full of carbonized remains of plants, and from the 
sandstone, near the shale, a black bitumen oozes out. It is a mineral 
pitch or impure petroleum ; the quantity is insignificant. 

As we continue to travel south and west, we find the Weean bed 
forming the top of the hill the whole way ; with here and there 
patches of gypseous marls, red marl, grey sandstone and variegated 
thin-bedded non-fossiliferous limestone, or rather dolomite, which are 
in all probability Triassic, but which will require much more careful 
study than I have been able to give them, before they can be satis- 
factorily classed. I believe them identical to the red marl and gypsum 
of the Saliferian formation of the Salt Range. Close to the village of 
Paniala these supposed Triassic beds are well developed, and from them 
issue some saline hot springs. Near Gunga, at the other (northern) 
extremity of the little Range, a patch of these same gypseous 
sandstones and marl appear at the end of a fault in the carboni- 
ferous limestone, and from these supposed Triassic beds two or three 
small hot and saline springs issue. It is a remarkable fact that 
everywhere in the Himalaya and in the hills of the Punjab, where 
these gypseous marls, reel marls, sandstones and dolomites appear 
well developed, they are generally accompanied by saline springs, 
usually hot. 

At the northern extremity of the Rottah Roh, over the village 
of Kundul, we have seen that the Weean limestone forms the bulk of 
the hill. Under it, at one place, is found a feldspathose sandstone 
invaded by tortuous veins of quartzite ; it has acted powerfully on 
the limestone near it, this being much metamorphosed, cellular, 
traversed in all directions by thick bands of crystalline carbonate 
of lime, and all fossils being obliterated or changed into a lump of 
spar. The feldspathose sand has the appearance of having been 
forced between the broken ends of the beds of limestone which is 
thrown into an anticlinal ; it is generally white, occasionally coloured 

14 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

red in patches ; it is not stratified, but mammilated, globular, 
irregular, and branching like a dyke. This intrusion of a feldspathose 
solution or paste took place before the final upheaval of the Himalayas, 
as there is evidence that some of the beds have been redisturbed by 
this upheaval, and as the Miocene conglomerate which 'partially fills 
the fault is unconformable to the limestone. A full description of 
this locality would be complicated, and I have no intention of giving 
here such a description. I merely want to point out that we have 
here Weean beds disturbed and baked by a geyserian action, similar 
to that which we have seen at Ishlamabad and at the Manus Bal. 

61. The Sheikh Bodeen Range is mostly composed of miocene 
sandstone, clay and conglomerate. These beds are thrown into an 
anticlinal, the south-eastern and southern slopes dipping to the 
S. E., and the S. and the north-western and northern slopes dipping 
N. W. and N. One can see, from the top of the highest summit, 
that deeper rocks have endeavoured to push their way through the 
miocene, the beds of sandstone and conglomerate being arranged in 
semi-theatres on both sides of the points where an underground mass 
has endeavoured to break through. But everywhere these under- 
ground masses have failed to find a way to the surface except at one 
point, viz., the Sheikh Bodeen summit, in the centre of the Range. 
This summit is 4604 feet above the level of the sea, whilst the 
Miocene range does not reach higher than 2800 feet and is generally 
very much lower. There is evidence that the Miocene was at one I 

S B A I & T 

Horizontal appearance of the Miocene beds, Sheikh Bodeen range. 

time much higher and reached to within 8 or 900 feet of the summit of 
Sheikh Bodeen. But the friable sandstone and loose conglomerate; 
disintegrate very quickly, whilst the limestones of Sheikh Bodeen 
summits decay but slowly ; hence the Miocene portions of the Range ' 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 15 

have become low hills, whilst Sheikh Bodeen summit has nearly 
retained its original height, and appears therefore to stand now as an 
isolated summit in the middle of insignificant, low, barren and 
crumpling sandstone and conglomerate hillocks. 

Sheikh Bodeen hill (not range) is mostly composed of Jurassic 
limestone, excessively shattered from having been thrown into a 
succession of very sharp anticlinals. The anticlinals are separated by 
faults which run from W. S. W. to E. N. E. The following diagram 
sections are from the N. N. W. to the S. S. E. 

Sections V and VI General Map. 

The section in the distance is about a mile north of the section 
through Sheikh Bodeen Hill. Jurassic limestone is at least 800 feet 
thick ; it is rich in fossils which are, however, seldom well preserved. 
The lower beds contain Belemnites, Ostrea3, RhynchonellaB and 
Terebratulae in great abundance, especially in and near some ferrugi- 
nous sandy beds. Shaly beds are full of petrified branches of trees. 
The limestone is sandy and impure ; along the great cliff facing the 
S. S. E. and formed by the removal of half the arch of an anticlinal 
(see section, marked cliff) some very fine specimens of ripple-marking 
are exhibited on a large scale. A minorities are also found, but very 
much broken. Cariophyllides and an Astrcea are the commonest corals. 
Two or three species of Pholadomya are tolerably abundant. In the 
uppermost beds I have found a Nerincea, very likely the N. Brun- 
trutana (Thuma) of the coralline. In both the lower and upper beds 
the mineral characters appear to be identical, and many species of 
fossils are common to both, especially Bhynchonellae, of which no less 
than ten species are abundant. In the lower beds I have found eight 
species of Terebratulce with short loops, or true Terebratulce. The 
Belemnites are three or four species, of which a thick one like the 
B. sidcatus, a grooved species like the B. canaliculars, and a hastate 
species like the B. hastatus are the most abundant. Gasteropods are 
extremely abundant in some beds, most especially a species oiActeonina ; 
a few encrinite stems were found, but no heads. 


J)r Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 


•qrao^ Treaepog; ^Q^IS " 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 17 

From this fauna it appears therefore that the limestone of Sheikh 
Bodeen* is equivalent to the Oxfordian formation of England, and that 
the uppermost beds are contemporary to the English Coral Rag or 
rather to the Galcaire a Neimaes of the Zena. We shall see presently 
in the country of the Wuzeerees, beds which are, in all probability, 
the equivalent of the Coral Rag. Some of the Oolitic shells collected 
by Dr. Gerard in Spiti are represented in Dr. Royle's Illustrations of 
the Botany and other branches of the Natural History of the Hima- 
layan mountains ; the drawings are by T. Sowerby and are remarkably 
good. The form numbered 17 in Royle's plates and described as an 
Area or Ctccidhea is found at Sheikh Bodeen ; the Rhynchonellai 20 
and 21, described as Ter eh rat idee or Atrypce, are common at Sheikh 
Bodeen ; the two species of Ammonites, figs. 22 and 24, are also found 
at Sheikh Bodeen, as well as the two species of Belemnites represented 
figs. 25 and 26 and fig. 27. The fig. 23, called a Delthijris, has also 
been found at Sheikh Bodeen, I believe, but I do not possess a 
specimen of it. 

The Rhynchonella represented by Royle and which is common at 
Sheikh Bodeen, has also been found in Rukshen by Captain Austen. 

The Jurassic limestone of Sheikh Bodeen rests in variegated 
dolomitic limestone without fossils (?), red marls, gypseous dark marls, 
and feldspathose white sandstone extremely friable ; and this formation 
appears identical to the Saliferian formation of the Salt Range. 
From these lower beds issue a few small springs of brine, and it is, 
probable that masses of salt exist here and there in the marl, as it 
does in the Salt Range, but nowhere does the salt crop out, Some 
beds of massive gypsum occur on the southern side of the hill near 
its base, but are not extensive. The Oolitic and Saliferian formations 
conform in all their folds, faults and twistings most perfectly, but 
there is a slight nonconformity between the Saliferian and Oolitic 
beds and the Miocene sandstone and conglomerate. The Saliferian and 
Oolitic formations had been upheaved to some extent before the Miocene 
began to be deposited, as boulders of gypsum and Oolitic limestone are 
found in the Miocene conglomerate in company with boulders of 
volcanic rocks, of nummulitic limestone, of carboniferous limestone, 
and with rolled Producti brought from the Bilote Range. But the 
* A few fossils of Sheikh Bodeen are sketched at Plate XI. figs. 2 to 6. 


18 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

hills formed by the first upheaval were so low, and their beds pro- 
bably so near the horizontal position, that the non-conformity of these 
beds and of the Miocene beds is not now very apparent, both sets of 
beds having been redisturbed to a great extent by the final great 
upheaval of the Himalayan mountains. 

62. In the country of the Wuzeerees, lat. N. 32° 15' to 32° 45' 
and Long. E. 69° 45' to 70° 15', we find the continuation towards 
the north of the Soolimanee Range to be formed of a chain of 
mountains of which the Pir Gul (11,583) and the Shewy Dhur 
(10,998) are the highest summits. These high summits were not 
ascended by the expeditionary force against the Mosood Wuzeerees in 
1860, but the army marched along the fine plateau of Rusmuk 
(7,000 ft.) which skirts the main chain; and by collecting the pebbles 
of the torrents which descend from these high peaks I was enabled to 
estimate to a certain extent the mineral nature of the central ridge. 
These pebbles were all volcanic, trappean and metamorphic, and none 
of a granitic nature were found. The following specimens of rocks 
were collected in ravines descending directly from the Shewy Dhur : 
basalt, having the appearance of hard jet ; it is divided by joints and 
by innumerable cracks filled with carbonate of lime. It fuses quietly 
before the blow-pipe into a black bead. Some varieties do not shew 
the cracks filled with carbonate of lime, but are schistose in appearance, 
and the joints, which are large, are lined by quartzite, Half inch 
thick plates of volcanic ash, composed of a central layer of a pale 
dirty-greenish and compact mineral, and external layers of a brownish 
granular substance. The central layer fuses very easily before the 
blow-pipe, boiling up into a swollen and blistered surface ; it has the 
appearance of tremolite, the outer layer appears to be a mixture of 
tremolite with grains of augite ; the augite here and there forms 
little masses, and these fuse partially, the assay becoming studded with 
minute dark globules. Hornblende rock with grey mica. The paste 
appears to be an intimate mixture of felspar and hornblende, and is 
invaded by irregular and small plates of grey mica ; the rock is 
divided by a series of well-marked joints, an inch apart. An augitic 
porphyry ; the paste is perfectly black and apparently composed of 
chatoyant augite ; it is invaded by closely set and minute prismatic 
crystals of dull white albite ; it is more like a porphyritic lava than 
like a true prophyry. 

1807] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 19 

A metamorphosed micaceous limestone, schistose, the foliation being 
extremely wavy. It has the appearance of a thin-bedded micaceous 
and calcareous shale which had been both crumpled and highly meta- 
morphosed. It is nearly entirely composed of exfoliating mica 
imbedded into grey bands of magnesian (?) carbonate of lime, which 
effervesces feebly, and other bands of white felspar. The felspar 
forms bands by itself, a quarter of an inch thick and free of mica. 
The rock exhibits a foliation or stratification which is thin-bedded and 
wavy. Greenish, soapy, spotted chlorite schist. Jaspery flint, bluish 
and transparent, with veins and patches brownish and opaque, and 
occasionally threads of milk-white quartz. Quartzite with well 
formed crystals, six-sided prisms, at one end terminated by a six-sided 

These rocks are therefore mostly volcanic ; the four last are, how- 
ever, metamorphic, and such rocks are not seen in Kashmir ; but they 
are extensively developed in the most northern portion of the Hima- 
laya, as in Skardo, Zaskar, &c. 

63. Between the range of the Pir Gul and Shewy Dhur and the 
plains of the Derajat, is a thick belt of low hills which are nearly 
entirely made up of nummulitic limestone, slate and shales, and of 
Miocene sandstone and conglomerate. At Palusseen, however, (see 
map) under the nummulitic limestone is discovered a rock of a very 
hard and dirty appearance and not forming beds, but huge masses of 
flesh-coloured limestone which are imbedded either in a grey sandstone 
or in the lower beds of the nummulitic limestone. These masses are 
most evidently old coral reefs, once rising from the bottom of the sea 
and ultimately covered by sand and calcareous mud ; they are a 
confused agglomeration of corals of many species, imbedding shells, but 
unfortunately neither corals nor shells are in a good state of preser- 
vation. I am not sufficiently familiar with the forms of the Coral- Rag 
of England to say whether this bed is its representative in India, but it 
is not unlikely to belong to secondary strata, for the following reasons.* 
1. It is situated under the sandstone, which generally forms the base 
of the nummulitic formation. 2. It does not contain any of the 

* A coral reef formation, apparently closely analogous both in lithologic 
characters and mode of occurrence, occurs at the base of the Ootatoor division 
of the cretaceous rocks in Trichinopoly. See Mem. Geological Survey, Vol. IV, 
Pt 1, pp. 52-72.— Ed. 

20 Dr. Yerchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

fossils found in the nummulitic limestone above. 3. It appears 
much disturbed and dislocated by local movements, whilst the num- 
mulitic limestone is to be seen in regular, though much tiltecl-up 
beds above it. 4. It rests immediately over beds of red marl and 
gypsum which are always found, in the Punjab, where Oolitic beds 
occur much disturbed. 5. Some of the corals appear identical with 
some species found near Maree on the Indus, in a limestone containing 
the same fossils as those of Sheikh Bodeen which is decidedly an 

I have therefore, in consideration of these reasons coloured these beds 
as Oolitic, but there is a doubt about it. The country was so dan- 
gerous at the time we were encamped at Palusseen, that I could 
collect but very few fossils, and I have not yet had the good luck to 
discover a similar bed in British territory. 

These coral reefs reappear in many places in the country of the 
Wuzeerees : at the entrance of the plateau of Rushmuk a great 
quantity of this bed was again seen, but the rock was different, though 
the fossils were identical ; the limestone was extremely impure, full 
of small rounded grains of gravel, and so much invaded by iron that it 
is often quite brown, and often also spotted by the iron forming little 
dark nodules in the mass. 

Again, near the hot spring of Sir-Oba, similar beds were seen 
resting on red marL with here and there masses of gypsum. This 
gypsum is opaque, white and compact, and contains a great number 
of crystals of quartz, very fine in their form, and terminated at both 
ends by a six-sided pyramid. The same crystals occur at Maree and 
Kalabag in the gypsum which accompanies the rock-salt of these 
localities, and are there collected and sold to natives as ornaments, 
under the name of Kalabag diamonds. 

One of the members of the nummulitic genus in the Wuzeeree Hills 
requires notice on account of its economical value. The Wuzeeree 
iron is obtained by the smelting of a brown shale, extremely rich in 
brown haematite ; the beds of the shale are situated under the num- 
mulitic limestone, and seem to replace the extensive beds of slate, with 
nummulites, seen in other localities. The quantity of the ore is 
enormous, whole ridges being formed of it. It is not quarried, as far 
as I could discover, but merely broken off the surface of the beds. It 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 21 

is first roasted, and becomes black and highly magnetic. It is then 
worked either with nummulitic limestone or pieces of the coral-reefs 
and smelted with charcoal in small furnaces identical to those seen in 
Kashmir. I found at Mackeen a house with two of these furnaces and 
heaps of charcoal, of iron-ore and of limestone, evidently collected for 
smelting, and I could thus identify the ore used by the Wuzeerees, 
though no information was to be obtained from the people. I have 
had, since, pieces of ore brought to me, at Bunnoo, by the Wuzeerees 
engaged in trade and who bring the pig-iron to the plains for sale, and 
it is exactly the same ore which I had seen at Mackeen, and which I 
had observed in situ as one of the members of the nummulitic for- 
mation. This shale is heavy, generally covered with a rusty powder ; 
it varies in colour from reddish-brown to nearly black ; it soils the 
hand, it is not calcareous, and the richest parts of it have a tendency 
to form concretions, or at least to assume a sort of concentric slaty 
cleavage. It is only smelted to a paste, not to a fluid, and is refined 
by hammering. The iron produced is soft and fine-grained, but apt 
to exfoliate, a defect which is evidently the result of the metal being 
half worn-out by the extensive hammering to which it is submitted. 

The carboniferous limestone was found in situ in Wuziristan. But 
that such rocks do exist in the hills between the British border and 
round the central chain of the Afghan mountains, is proved by the 
boulders in the rivers which drain those countries. Major Vicarey 
found boulders of limestone containing carboniferous fossils in the 
streams near Peshawur ; Dr. Fleming found " Productns-limestone" in 
the ravines which drain the Solimanee chain towards the east ; and I 
have found in the bed of the Korum, a torrent which drains the 
southern slopes of the Sufed Koh, boulders of a black limestone contain- 
ing Prodactus cora and P. Huniboldtii. 

64. In the Salt Range the carboniferous limestone is well developed 
and attains, according to Dr. A. Fleming, a thickness of 1,800 
feet. It begins near Noorpoor in Long. E. 72° 30', as a thin bed, 
which increases as it goes towards the west, and attains its maximum 
of development near Vurcha, in Long. 72°. It decreases again 
towards the Indus, and is not seen at all near Maree and Kalabag ; 
but on the right bank of the river it reappears about six miles west 
of Kalabag, and is continued in the Chichalee range and the northern 

22 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

end of the Speen or Lowa Grur. It appears to be identical, in fossils 
and in lithological characters, to the limestone of Kashmir. Dr. A. 
Fleming does not mention its ever resting on quartzite or volcanic ash, 
hut supposes on the contrary that it rests on the Saliferian formation, 
which he, in consequence of this view, calls Devonian. Whatever 
little of the carboniferous limestone of the Salt Range I have myself 
seen, is too much disturbed to allow me to form an opinion ; I cer- 
tainly never saw any quartzite underlying the limestone in the Salt 
Range ; but such quartzite exists in the Rottah Roh, and it is evident 
that the Rottah Roh carboniferous limestone, and that of the Salt 
Range are one and the same sheet of deposit, broken and separated by 
convulsions of a posterior age. This, however, does not prove much 
either way. 

The long controversy about the age of the salt and gypsum in the 
Alps bids fair to be repeated in the Punjab. The Saliferian of the 
Salt Range has already been placed by successive observers in nearly 
every formation from the Devonian to the Miocene ! In the Alps, geo- 
logists appear to have once become desperate at the fight, and M. 
Sismonda published in the Comptes rendus de V Academie des Sciences 
de Paris (Vol. III. p. US) the somewhat startling hypothesis that 
" in the Alps the shells of the Lias lived at the same time as the 
carboniferous plants" !!!... It is not a little curious resemblance 
that in the Maurieune, in Savoy, (the great field of contention,) the 
gypsum, quartzite, marl, &c, are much disturbed by local foldings and 
bendings, and appear to be placed under the carboniferous rocks (terrain 
houiller). Fortunately a thin, but very persistent and well-char- 
acterised bed, the Infra-lias, has enabled the geologists who have 
best studied this locality, to fix the position of the red marl, red and 
green shale, quartzite, gypsum, &c, in the Trias, and to show that the 
apparently inferior position of these Triassic layers was due to such 
great disturbances and reversions of strata as one may reasonably 
expect to have accompanied the surging up of mountains like the Alps. 
Less fortunate or less industrious than they of Europe, we have not 
yet found the Infra-lias in India, and we have not therefore got hold 
of the thread which led so successfully the Swiss and French geologists 
to a true understanding of the Alpine Saliferian. 

I wish that I could have determined satisfactorily the age of the 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 23 

salt of the Punjab, before forwarding this paper to the Society ; but I 
see at present but little chance of my being able to visit again and 
study the Salt Range within a reasonable time. My own impression, 
from what I have seen, is that the Saliferian of the Punjab is Triassic 
or Permian. 

This Saliferian formation, (whatever its age may be,) plays a very 
important part in the economy of Upper India, and may possibly be 
made a great deal more of than at present. It gives a supply of salt 
which pays to the State a handsome revenue ; it has been the original 
source of the Reh or Kullur of the soil, an impure and effervescing 
mixture of saltpetre, of soda and chloride of sodium, which renders 
fields barren and thus causes very serious losses to that same revenue. 
There can be little doubt that it contains some at least of the numer- 
ous minerals discovered in the Russian salt mines of Stassfust-Anhalt, 
and it is very possible that it will one clay give some fertilizing material 
which will more than repay the loss caused by the Reh. It is a fine 
field for research, and only wants work bestowed upon it to yield 
valuable results. 

Any one who has visited the Saliferian of the Punjab must have 
been struck by the much disturbed state of the beds. These appear 
as if they had been raised into a succession of small cones or 
" boursoufiiures," and suggests at first sight the idea of the Saliferian 
having been at some time or another violently dislocated by eruptive 
gases and sublimated minerals. This is so marked in some localities 
that Dr. A. Fleming advances, as a possible hypothesis, that the salt 
may be of volcanic origin. But the stratification is generally so well 
defined (the courses of salt being separated by thin layers of red marl 
or of cellular gypsum) that we cannot regard the salt as intrusive ; 
it is decidedly sedimentary. That the disposition of the salt gypsum, 
bipyramidal quartz crystals, &c, &c, took place under the influence 
of heat, due probably to hot springs, is pretty certain. For Charpeutin 
and de Beaumont have shewn that the gypsum was first deposited as 
anhydrite, and this anhydrite must of necessity have been precipited 
from hot solutions ; neither do we see how sea water could deposit 
gypsum, unless submitted to a high temperature ; whilst, high tem- 
perature being admitted, the precipitation of gypsum becomes easily 
explained, if we remember Mr. David Forbes's observation in Peru: 

24 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

" The quantity of sulphates and more especially of sulphate of lime, 
" included invariably in these deposits, might, at first sight, appear to 
' the observer too great to suppose it due only to the evaporation of 
" the sea -water ; but I believe that this impression will be dissipated 
" when he sees the enormous amount of gypsum removed in the form 
" of hard white cakes or sedimentary crust, from the boilers of the 
" large distilling machines in use along this arid coast, for producing 
" from the water of the sea a supply of fresh water for the maintenance 
" of the inhabitants, beasts of burden, and even the locomotive engines' 
" of the railways along the coast. It appears not necessary to suppose, 
" as has been put forth, that the sulphates present have been formed 
" by volcanic exhalations acting upon the bed of salt."* What induces 
us readily to admit of the existence of very numerous and extensive hot 
springs during the Triassic epoch in the Punjab is, that even now-a-days» 
the Saliferian formation is remarkable for the great number of hot 
springs it contains ; indeed hardly a hot spring in the Punjab and the 
Himalaya is to be found unconnected with the Saliferian, and whenever 
we find Saliferian beds, we generally also find hot springs. This is 
true of the Salt Range, of the Rottah Roh, of Kangra,f of Rukshu in 
Thibet, &c. We may therefore conclude from these remarks that the 
salt, gypsum, &c, is sedimentary, though deposited under peculiar 
circumstances, viz., the presence and influence of hot springs. How 
then to account for the very disturbed state of the Saliferian beds, for 
these limited, local, fragmentary disturbances which give to the beds 
so elastic an appearance ? Two ordinary causes appear to me 
sufficient to account for this : one is the transformation of the 
anhydrite into gypsum by absorption of water, a phenomenon which 
continues to take place now-a-days. This absorption of water and 
the consequent increase of volume of the gypsum brought about the 
swelling up of the beds in cones and " boursoufflures." Then the 


* " The Geology of Bolivia and Peru," by David Forbes, with notes on fossils, 
by Professor Huxley and J. W. Sailer, Esq., published by Taylor and Francis, 
Ked Lion Court, Fleet Street, 1861, communicated to Geological Society in 1860. 

f The saline springs of the Towala Mookhi and of Kangra-basa, in Kangra, 
issue from Saliferian ranges immediately covered by Miocene beds. Mr. 
Marcadieu has found that the water of these springs contains Iodine, in addi- 
tion to the usual saline matter of the springs of the Saliferian formation in 
Upper India. Vide Report, No. 84-, by M. Marcadieu. Sketches of Corre- 
spondence, Punjab, 1860. 

I8G7.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 25 

second cause of disturbance began to act : the beds of salt are often 
dissolved and removed by water infiltrating through cracks in the 
rocks ; a cavity is thus formed under the vault of rocks which covered 
in the salt and one day the vault falls in. 

This process is to be seen now-a-days in actual existence, on a 
small scale, in the hillock of Maree on the Indus. 

Thus, from the swelling of the gypsum by its transformation from 
anhydrite to common gypsum, and from the falling in of the vaults 
formed by this swelling, the beds of the Saliferian formation in the 
Punjab have a most broken and turned-over appearance. 

Add to this that these beds have participated in the convulsions 
produced by the great final upheaval of the Himalaya, and you will 
have no difficulty in understanding how difficult it is to make out 
with certainty the stratography of these rocks, and how it is that the 
Saliferian appears here and there inferior to the Palaeozoic beds. Before 
quitting the Saliferian formation, let us notice that the beds of it 
appear to have suffered very great denudation. We can easily, un- 
derstand that the red marl was very easily denuded, when we see how 
it crumbles into a powdery, friable, fluid earth, after a few days 
exposure to the atmosphere. It is on account of this denudation, on 
account of the very considerable amount of material which this for- 
mation gave to the Miocene and to the alluvium deposits of Upper 
India, that the presence of Reh or Kullur in the soil of the Punjab 
\ and the North- West Provinces is to be credited to the Saliferian. I 
shall say a- few words about this again, when we explain how the 
Miocene was made up, in the next chapter. 

As there is yet such incertitude about the age of the salt, I have 
called the formation " Saliferian," without entering it on the Map as 
belonging either to the Palaeozoic or to the Mezozoic epoch,* 

The carboniferous limestone is covered in, north of Vurcha, by an 
Oolitic formation of trifling thickness and containing Oxfordian forms. 

* I have purposely avoided insisting on the mineral characters of the 
Saliferian formation of India, as it is now-a-days the fashion to undervalue 
very much these characters ; but it may be as well to remember that in the 
Salt Range we have beds of gypsum full of rock-crystals of a bipyramidal 
shape ; that the layers of gypsum are separated by calcareo-magnesian bands, 
having a cellular disposition (Cargneule of the Swiss, Rankwacke of the 
Germans) and that the salt is accompanied by a bright red marl without 
1 fossils. These several characters are found in the Triassic salt and gypsum of 
Switzerland, of Savoy and of Spain, and, I believe, in no other formation. 


26 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

As the carboniferous limestone thins out in approaching the Indus, 
the Oolitic formation increases in importance and forms much dis- 
turbed hills, all the way from Moosa Khel to Kalabag. It is con- 
tinued west of the Indus in the Chichalee Range and the northern 
end of the Speen Ghur ; a little above Moola Khel it disappears 
under the alluvial, and does not reappear till Sheikh Bodeen, where, 
as we have seen, it attains a considerable thickness. 

65, The salt and gypsum is continued on the west side of the 
Indus, in the hilly country of the Kuttuks, but it is there much 
covered by tertiary clays and sandstones. It crops out near Bahadoor 
Khel and along the course of the Teeree To we. At the first named 
place the Saliferian forms an anticlinal arch ; the salt, above fifty feet 
thick, is the lowest bed seen, and is very regularly stratified ; above 
it is a thin bed of red marl, another of grey sandstone, also thin ; then 
gypsum, about twenty-five to thirty feet thick ; then a thin band of 
a limestone with minute debris of fossils, and which resembles 
lithologically the Oolitic bed of Kalabag and Maree on the Indus ; 
then the dark, brown, sandstone which often forms the base of the 
nummulitic formation ; some coarse and crumbling shales without 
fossils ; and finally, a bed of limestone rich in nummulites, volutes, 
veneridae, &c, and about ten to twelve feet thick. This is at last 
covered by the marly lumpy clayey beds of Miocene. A fault running 
approximately W. E. through the Soordak Pass, has caused an up- 
throw of the beds on its southern side, and there the nummulitic 
limestone, much tilted up, forms a pretty high hill. 

Along the Teeree To we the Saliferian is immediately covered by 
Tertiary. As far as Lachee the rocks seen are Miocene sandstone, clay 
and conglomerates ; thence to Peshawur the country is entirely covered 
by nummulitic limestone and shale, and the Miocene sandstone is only 
seen here and there in small detached beds and patches, which are 
evidently the remains of layers which have been mostly removed by 

6Q. North of the Salt Range we have also a great extent of 
Tertiaries. Nummulitic limestone, shale and sandstone first covers 
in the secondary layers in the western portion of the range, but rests 
directly on the salt marl and gypsum in the eastern half of it. It 
attains a great thickness, where well developed, (4500 feet,) and forms 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 27 

the summits of nearly all the highest hills of the Salt Range. It is 
continued to within two miles of Maree on the Indus where it thins 
out, but reappears near Kalabag, and is very well developed in the 
Chichalee Range and in the Speen Ghar. Near the Indus, all the 
beds of the Salt Range, excepting the Saliferian marl itself and the 
secondary strata where much locally disturbed, dip towards the N. E. 
On the western bank of the Indus, that is in the Chichalee Hills and 
the Speen G-hur, the dip is W. N. W. or N. W. This last dip is gene- 
rally that of all the strata of the Kuttuk hills. 

The nummulitic formation appears in the Salt Range as a thick 
belt which, beginning at the Mount Tilla near Jheelum, is continued 
to near Maree on the Indus, where it disappears for a little space, but 
reappears on the other side of the river, and is to be seen forming the 
bulk of the Speen Grhur to near Esokhel. The formation keeps a 
remarkably similar aspect the whole way. It is, from below upwards, 
composed* of — 1. Sandstone often coloured by iron, but generally 
dirty white or pale grey. 2. Very arenacious, thin bedded or lumpy 
limestone, with gasteropods, few and small nummulites and innumer- 
able debris of oysters or gryphea3. 3. Shales of various colours, with 
beds of lignite and of alum carbonaceous shales. The alum shales 
are only developed where the lignite is situated close to the Saliferian 
formation, and appear to be patches of lignite metamorphosed. 4. 
Argillaceous limestone, full of large nummulites, chama, cardita, 
crassatella, ostrcea, many gasteropods, very large echinodermata, &c, 
&c 5. Shales often replaced by a clay-slate containing nummulites. 
The shales contain sometimes lignite and Rol (alum-shale), but the 
seams are made less well defined than in the lower shales. 6. Argilla- 
ceous limestone, extremely white in some places and containing the 
same fossils as layer 4 ; in the eastern portion of the Range it 
contains flints ; it is often foetid. 7. Chert, hard limestone, weather- 
ing rough and pitted ; pale yellow or flesh-colour, brittle and 

* Occasionally a bed of white soft fragile limestone is seen to form the base 
of the nummnlitic formation. It is characterized by a planorbis which is 
tolerably abundant ; but it contains neither nummulites nor any other fossil. 
It is found in lenticular beds of little extent, and rarely more than two or three 
feet thick. It suggests to the mind beds formed in pools or creeks among 
sandy islands and promontories at the mouth of a river. Whenever it occurs, 
I have found in the nummulitic limestone above it a great number of teeth 
and bones of fishes (sharks). 

28 Th. Ver there on the Geology, of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

splintery. Shells fewer, nummulites small, but very abundant, 
especially the N. variolaria, whilst the flat and irregular N. pushi 
and N. laevigata, so abundant in beds 4 and 6, are not to be found 
here, or are at least rare. A nummulite about the size of the N. pushi, 
but thicker, is, however, found pretty abundantly, though not in 
swarms like the N. variolaria. A ribbed cardita is the only bivalve 
which appears tolerably abundant. 

67. Resting on the nummulitic formation of the Salt Range are 
thick beds of Miocene sandstone, clay and conglomerate. I have 
described in chapter I. how these sandstones form a great plateau 
between the Salt Range and the foot of the Maree Hill, and indicated 
that thay may be considered as the upper Miocene Bed, whilst the 
Maree Hills and the whole of the mountains between the Jheelum 
and the Pir Punjal chain are to be regarded as lower Miocene. The 
upper bed is rich in mammalian fossils, and is identical to the 
Sewalik formation. The lower bed is devoid of fossils,* containing 
only a few debris of plants, rootlets, small stems aud occasionally 
small niduses of lignite. The upper Miocene has probably been a 
great deal denuded ; remains of the bed are, however, to be seen in 
the valley of Poonch ; they are there rich in very well preserved 
fossils, teeth of elephants being common and very perfect. 

68. The sandstones and conglomerates just mentioned form a 
great belt from the E. N. E. to the W. S. W. (see Map) and to the 
north of it appears another belt, having a similar direction and com- 
posed of nummulitic limestone and slate. It begins in Hazara in 
Lat. 34°, and forms all the superficial covering of the Hazara moun- 
tains as far as the Sirun river and as high north as Mausera, being about 
thirty miles in width as the crow flies. It proceeds from N. E. to S. W. 
towards Attock, keeping the same width and extending in that 
district from the Indus to Janika Serai. Crossing the Indus, it forms 
the whole of the Akora Kuttuck and Afreedee hills between Peshawur 
and Kohat, extending about sixteen miles south of Kohat. It has 
been followed as far as longitude E. 70°. The beds of this nummu- 
litic formation have a general dip to the N. W. A similar 

* It is said that one or two bones have been foirad in the lower Miocene, but 
this is doubtful ; if they exist, they are at any rate very rare. Mr. Medlicotfc 
has pointed out a non-conformity between the lower and upper Miocene j ' 
makes three beds of the formation. 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 29 

nummulitic tract follows the foot of the Himalayan ranges along the 
southern versant of the Pir Punjal chain and its continuation to the 
S. E. It begins in the valley of Poonch ; it is seen north of Rajaori, 
and the pebbles of the streams near Rajaori are often nummulitic 
limestone, though the parent -beds have not yet been discovered. I 
cannot say whether nummulitic beds are to be seen to the north of 
Tummoo, Basaoli, and Noorpoor or in Kangra, but they appear near 
Subathoo in long. 77° lat. 31°, and have further been just discovered 
by Captain Gr. Austen on the east of the Ganges in Kumaoon. 
But this nummulitic along the foot of the Himalaya is either 
much denuded or much covered up by Miocene, and does not make 
such a show on the surface as the other belt which follows the 
direction of the Afghan mountains. 

To the north of these zones of nummulite we meet the volcanic 
hills, which I have described in the first chapter. 

69. The stratum of nummulite in Hazara, occasionally broken 
through, or faulted or denuded sufficiently to allow of older rocks 
making their appearance. 

At the northern end of Mount Sirbun near Abbottabad, carboni- 
ferous limestone resting on volcanic rocks is quarried for building 
purposes. The limestone belongs to the Weean and Kothair groups 
and is thin-bedded, arenaceous, marly and occasionally conglomeratic. 
It is of considerable thickness and immediately covered in by lime- 
stone, the lower beds of which are so poor in fossils that it is im- 
possible to identify them, the upper being nummulitic. 

The following is a section near the small village of Sheikh Wandie, 
from E. to W. 


Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 




1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 31 

Section of the Northern extremity of Mount Sirbun, near Abbotiabad, 
from E. to W. bearing S. (not drawn to scale?) 

1. Very compact and very hard Cornean rock, composed of a paste of white 
feldspar and grey hornstone in intimate combination. The joints and exposed 
surfaces are smooth and have a quartzy glimmering. In the paste there is 
often a partial separation of white feldspar in spots of a dull white colour. 
Splinters of the white spots can be rounded on their edges before the blow- 
pipe, but the grey paste of the rock appears to be more refractory, though 
there is certainly a softening of the mineral compound and a slight smoothing 
of sharp edges after long exposure to heat. It is a bed of very considerable 
thickness, stratified and much jointed. 

2. White quartzite in a brecciated state, the pieces being recemented 
together by a grey feldspathose paste. It appears as if the bed had been 
broken after its formation and the fragments reunited by a feldspathose paste. 

3. Very heavy, chocolate-coloured, clay-stone, with bands of quartzite. 

4. Indurated clay, with round nodules, the size of a bean, of a black 
mineral having the lustre of jet, whitening to a milk-white colour before the 
blow-pipe, and finally melting with difficulty on thin edges ; it belongs probably 
to the hypersthene group. The clay itself is grey, smooth and meagre. 

5. Chloritic clay ; grey, very smooth and soft to the touch ; hardness of 
slate. It is full of ninute round grains of a semi-transparent mineral, grey 
like the clay, but a little darker. The clay becomes white and meagre before 
the blow-pipe ; it is unaffected by muriatic acid, and does not form a pasty 
mass with water, either before or after grilling. 

6. Limestone, at first extremely arenaceous and argillaceous, and presenting 
particles of dirty blue and brown colour. It becomes gradually conglomeratic 
and at the same time thin-bedded, the layers being made of layers of pebbles 
of limestone cemented by a calcareous sandy cement ; the top of the layer 
appears to have been worn flat by the action of the waves, before the deposit 
of the next stratum took place, the pebbles appearing as sections on the surface 
of the bed. The next layer is a muddy limestone containing a few flat athyris, 
remarkable especially for three internal raised lines or ribs proceeding from the 
beak as far as the middle of the valve. But these shells are in a very bad 
state of preservation. This layer is only two feet thick, and is succeeded by 
another equally thin and containing numerous debris of gasteropods and 
corals. Then comes a black, sometimes blue-black limestone, extremely foetid. 
The bluer portions are crossed by white lines intersecting each other in all 
directions and containing only debris of fossils. 

The limestone forms altogether a bed of about thirty feet, when it is cut by 
a fault whioh causes it to be repeated, and a succession of faults directed 
W. N. W. to E. S. E. keeps the same limestone on the surface for more than 
half a mile, it becomes finally covered by nummulitic limestone. 

32 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

This Mount Sirbun forms the left side of the Abbottabad valley. Following 
the slopes of this hill, we find beds of qnartzite, similar to No. 2 of the above 
section, reappearing three or fonr times in short anticlinals ; above it are beds 
of limestone containing a few fossils, principally casts of gasteropods. This 
limestone is often strongly oolitic in structnre, bnt presents also the very 
nnusual appearance of resembling beds of travertin which had been entombed 
in a calcareous mnd after their formation, so that the cavities of the travertm 
have become filled np with a limestone less hard than the original deposit. I 
have usually regarded these beds as fresh-water origin near a low coast, and 
referred them, in a general and provisional way, to the Jurassic ; of course 
this is doubtful. 

70. On the lower road from Marree to Abbottabad, near the 
Tillage of Sayd Kote, great disturbances are observed, and rocks of 
a geyserian nature make their appearance about half way between 
Sayd Kote and the Dowr river. They are principally a chocolate- 
coloured sandstone, becoming coated by weathering on the surface a» 
well as in the joints, with a shining dark incrustation. It is much 
jointed and breaks in prismatic blocks. A great quantity of dark 
boulders of this rock may be seen in the bed of the river Dowr. It 
appears to be similar to some variety of dust-rock or sandy ash or 
earthy ash seen in Kashmir. It is capped by a bed of qnartzite com- 
posed of large, opaque, angular grains of quartz, jammed together and 
cemented by a feldspathose white paste of which there is very little. 
Angular grains of black augite are sparingly disseminated in the rock. 
Under the brown sandstone is seen a thick bed of crumbling clay 
slate, very dark and foliated. This is the lowest bed seen. These 
three beds, viz., slate, sandstone and qnartzite conform together in 
their dip and are capped by a patchy limestone of doubtful age, and 
interbedded with grey soft slate. There is much kunkur near the 

At Sayd Kote the limestones are wonderfully disturbed : beds 
having the appearance of Xothair limestone and containing a great 
number of gasteropods and cyathophyllides are seen repeatedly, as the 
road crosses nearly perpendicular beds which are much faulted. 
Nummulitic limestone appears to cover in. directly the carboniferous (?) 


Again on the upper road from Murree to Abbottabad, at the bottom 
of the ravine under Doonga Gully, volcanic or rather geyserian rocks 
are to be seen. They consist of a very white and friable rock com- 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 33 

posed of acicular minute crystals of albite easily fusible before the 
blow-pipe and pressed and entangled together ; there does not appear 
to be any cement to bind the small crystals together ; the rock has a 
coarsely saccharine aspect and can easily be crumbled between the 
fingers. It rises in vertical and contorted bands, from half an inch to 
two and a half feet thick, amongst sands and disintegrated shales. It 
assumes very many remarkable colours, being sometimes flesh-coloured 
or reddish, and at other places azure-blue ; its general colour is, how- 
ever, snow-white ; where it is blue, the shales near it are of the same 
colour. It is interbedded with thin beds of tufaceous limestone which 
have probably found their way there by infiltration. It is covered in 
"by a rubanneous and dark slate, much disturbed, extremely cleaved 
and jointed and falling into small angular pieces. This slate appears 
similar to that seen near Syad Kote, and the feldspathose rock is 
intrusive. These two rocks are at the bottom of the ravine, on a 
fault, and form a little mound by themselves. There are no rocks 
to be seen in immediate relation to them, and the beds of the sides of 
the ravine appear to be entirely nuinmulitic. 

From the examples given of volcanic rocks in Hazara, it seems? 
evident that that district has participated in the great volcanic 
accumulation which preceded the carboniferous epoch, and that it has 
also been disturbed at a later date by intrusive volcanic action of a 
local and geyserian character. 

71. Of Chumba, Kulu aud Kunawar, districts which occupy the 
hilly tracts south of the extension of the Pir Punjal chain towards 
the Sutlej, I know nothing. 

72. Kashmir is continued to the south-east by the highlands of 
Lahul and Spiti which are situated in the same Himalayan parallel, 
viz., between the Pir Punjal chain or parallel and that of the Ser 
and Mer. Spiti has been pretty often visited by geologists, and we 
know that carboniferous and Jurassic fossils were brought thence by 
Dr. Gerard. Liassic fossils have also been found there. As for 
crystalline rocks, M. Marcadieu mentions much granite, and Captain 
W. E. Hay, granite penetrated by huge veins of ter-sulphuret of 
antimony and " other metals." Gypsum is reported as extremely 
abundant in Spiti, forming, it is said, whole mountains; and here I 


34 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, ]No. 1 

would mention again that several hot springs are found in close 
vicinity to these gypseous beds. 

But I must draw back here, and leave the ground to Dr. Stoliczka 
who has been for some time studying the geology of Spiti with great 
care and is preparing a work on the subject. Dr. Stoliczka has found 
in Spiti rocks of the following ages : Silurian, Carboniferous, 
Triassic (?), Liassic, Oolitic and Cretaceous. I have said before that 
most of the fossils from Spiti represented in Dr. Boyle's Illustrations, 
are to be found in the Jurassic rocks of Sheikh Bodeen. 

73. The great chain of Ser and Mer (called by Capt. B. Strachey, 
between the Sutlej and the Kali, the chain of Snowy Peaks, and by 
Cunningham, the western Himalaya or central chain of the Himalaya) 
appears to be, as far as I have been able to ascertain, made up of 
granite, gneiss, and other rocks of the plutonic and metamorphic 
groups. From the Nanga Parbat (26,629 ft.) to near the Sojji La 
pass, (11,300 ft.) the range is, I believe, mostly granite ; it is traversed 
by the road of Skardo via G-uzais, and Mr. Drew informs me that the 
range, (which here forms the southern boundary of the Deosai plain) 
is " chiefly granite, partly schist." The plain of Deosai is a singular 
plain or steppe entirely covered with debris and loose stones ; it is 
tolerably flat, considering how it is situated, and has perhaps once 
been the bed of a gigantic glacier. It is surrounded by granitic 
mountains on the southern and western sides ; the north end is 
bounded by mountains of schist and slate, and the eastern side is closed 
in by granitic hills which gradually pass, over Drass and Kurgyl, into 
volcanic rocks. 

If we cross the Ser and Mer chain by the Sojji La, from Kashmir 
into Drass, we find near Baltal, a village on the Kashmir versant of j 
the pass, that the carboniferous limestone ceases and is succeeded by 
beds of very coarse and micaceous slaty shales, often very sandy and ' 
always very thin-bedded. The specimens I possess of this rock show j 
it to be identical with the sandstone and sandy coarse shales seen in i 
the Zebawan and there interbedded with ash, agglomerate and slate. ; 
This rock goes on to nearly the top of the pass, where it becomes a 
dark and hard slate, having a metamorphic appearance. Then lime- 
Itone reappears and is seen as far as Drass ; it rests the whole way, ! 
as far as can be seen, on volcanic rocks and azoic slate. It is pro 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 35 

bably continuous, through Sooroo, with beds of limestone seen between 
Moolbek and Khurbu. 

I do not know what sort of rock forms the summit of the Kun Non 
or Ser and Mer Peaks (23,407 ft.) but their north-eastern slope and spurs 
are composed of gneiss and schist ; these metamorphic rocks extend 
as far as the Sojji La, where they are graduating into beds of the 
coarse slaty shales described above ; on the north of the road it is 
continued by beds of slate and of sandstone extremely micaceous and 
resting on mica-schists, of which some specimens effervesce powerfully 
with acids. Beds of metamorphic white marble are also seen, but 
the great bulk of the mountains between Tillail and the Deosai is 
made up of granite, shist and mica-slate. 

Following the great chain to the S. E. we find it crossed by several 
passes of which the Bara Lacha (16,505 ft.) and the Parungla (18,794 
ft.) are the most celebrated and frequented. Mr. Marcadieu describes 
these passes as being principally through granitic rocks ; but unfor- 
tunately Mr. Marcadieu does not seem to have enjoyed much his 
visit to these " belles horreurs" and he gives us little geological infor- 
mation, but many complaints, about these " delights of Satan," as he 
calls the mountains. 

South-east of the Sutlej, the chain continues to be mostly granitic. It 
is studded with noble peaks, Porgyul (22,700, ft.)Baldang (21,400 ft.) 
Kamet (25,000) and Nanda Devi (25,700, ft.) all of them made up of 
granite, gneiss, and schist. But I must refer the reader to Captain 
R. Strachey's paper " on the geology of part of the Himalaya moun- 
tains,"* for the mountains south-east of the Sutlej. 

74. Having crossed the Ser and Mer Parallel, we find ourselves in 
the great trough between this chain and that of the Kailas peak 
(which I shall call for convenience sake the Kailas chain) and we 
may hardly call this trough a valley, considering that it is a plateau 
from 10 to 12,000 feet high above the level of the sea ; and yet it is 
a valley between the two. great parallels which tower over it by some 
10,000 feet more. It comprises the districts of Deosai, Soroo and 
Drass, Ladak proper, Zanskar, Rukshu and in the S. E. the great 
plateau of Tibet through which runs the Sutlej and inhabited by the 
Hundes. This last or south-eastern portion of the trough is toler- 
* Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, June, 1851. 

36 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

ably flat, only a small volcanic peak rising here and there, detached 
and isolated, through the thick horizontal bone- beds of sandstone and 
conglomerate which till up the valley.* But in the other districts, 
the trough is nearly entirely filled up by vast mountains, which 
occupy in the parallel valley of Ladak the same position as the 
catenated chains we have described in Kashmir do in the parallel 
valley of Kashmir ; the chain formed by these mountains has been 
called by Colonel Cunningham the'* Tso Moreri" chain, and has been 
raised to the position of one of the great parallel chains of the Hima- 
laya, but it will best suit our purpose to consider it as an inter- 
parallel mass of mountains. 

Deosai has been described already. Drass and Kurghyl are covered 
with volcanic rocks into which the granite of Deosai gradually passes. 
Mr. Drew tells me that he found near Kurgyl a rock composed ex- 
clusively of mica and felspar, graduating into granite. Some 
specimens I possess from Tashgam, half way between Drass and 
Kurgyl, are composed of a dark green hornblende which fuses with 
difficulty and swelling a little before the blow-pipe. Felspar is not 
conspicuous, but is probably intimately combined with the horn- 
blende. But rocks undoubtedly volcanic are also seen, such as green- 
stone and amygdaloid. A considerable bed of limestone reposes on 
the volcanic rocks and appears to be the continuation of the bed seen 
near Drass. I do not know the age of this limestone. The Drass 
bed contains fossils which are, I believe, carboniferous, and I have* 
coloured the bed now under consideration, carboniferous, assuming 
the continuity of the two beds to be true. 

Of the mass of hills traversed by the road from Kurgyl to Le 
I know very little indeed. They are said to consist mostly of slaty- 
rocks capped here and there by conglomerates and grits. 

As we near the valley of the Indus in Ladak proper, near the- 
village Kulsi, interesting beds appear. Resting on a hornblende rock 
or trap is a series of slate, light coloured limestone, conglomerate 
with rolled boulders of the same limestone, sandstone, shales and 
dark purple indicated clays. The dip is not very great and the 
several beds appear to conform together. The whole valley of the 

* Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, page 306. 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 37 

Upper Indus from Kulsi to Nodmo (and probably further east) ap- 
pears to be excavated in this formation and the river flows in a fault 
of it or more probably in the centre of a denuded anticlinal.* The 
series of rocks (series of Upper Indus Valley) rest, on the North, 
against the granite of the Kilas Range. Captain G. Austen, 
to whom I owe these details, estimates it to be at least 3,000 feet 
thick, and mentions also its appearance in Rodok at the North of the 
Pang Kong Cho, resting there unconformably on slate. In the 
limestone layer of this series (about 150 feet thick or more) Captain . 
Austen found a few fossils which he was kind enough to show me. 
They were very ill-preserved and fragmentary, but appeared to 
resemble some forms found in the Kothair bed in Kashmir ; some 
cyathophyllides are certainly not to be distinguished from those 
represented at figures 56 and 57, Plate VII. Another fossil was 
supposed to be the radical end of a Calamite. To complicate matters, 
the fossils were declared by palaeontologists at home to be cretaceous. 
The specimens are so bad, that I apprehend that this determination 
must have rested entirely on the one fossil which I took for a Cala- 
mite, and which was regarded, I suppose, as a Hippurite. My 
own impression is, that the limestone is identical with the Kothair 
bed of Kashmir, and therefore either the uppermost layer of the car- 
. boniferous or perhaps the lowest of the Tiiassic. 

Above this Upper Indus series come the nearly horizontal grits 
and coarse sandstones which form the flats called in Ladak Chang 
Tang and Rang. The non-conformity between the Indus Series and 
the Chang Tang beds is not conspicuous, as that dips at a very low 
angle and these are nearly horizontal. There is also, I believe, a 
great similarity of lithological character between the two formations, 
one being merely the resettlement of the other. I conceive that 
some difficulty may be experienced occasionally to decide where one 
formation ends and the other begins. A few mammalian bones have 
been found in the Chang-tang sandstone, and there is but little doubt 
that this bed is similar to the sandstone and conglomerate of the 
Great Thibet plateau to the north of the Niti Pass. These high 
horizontal plateaux of conglomerate and sandstone are also observed 

* A very great number of rivers in the Himalaya run part of their course 
in the centre of a denuded anticlinal. 

38 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashnir, [No. 1, 

in the Afghan mountains, where they are called in Pooshtoo 
Ragzhie. I have examined some of these ragzhies, of which the 
plateau of Rushmuk in Waziristan is a good example at an elevation 
of 7,000 feet, and I feel satisfied of their fluvio-lacustrine origin 
and of their age being posterior to the final upheaval of the Hima- 
laya and Afghan mountains.* 

Zaskar and Rukshu or Rupshu are interesting districts, on account 
of their lakes, numerous hot springs and borax mines. The country 
is an elevated labyrinth of mountains and valleys, having a mean 
height of 15,600 feet. The principal peaks are the Korsok Too 
(above 20,000 feet) and the Napko Gondo ; but there are great many 
other nameless peaks ; the passes are all a good deal above 17,000 
feet. In Zaskar we find a great mass of gneiss and schist which 
appears to be the eastern extension of similar rocks which begin in 
Suru, and, after entering largely in the formation of the mountains 
of the highland of Zaskar, are prolonged eastward into Rukshu, where 
they graduate into beds of metamorphic slate on which rest fossili- 
ferous rocks. The gneiss, schist, slate and limestone are all stratified 
and conformable together, and they all dip towards the S. S. W. 
The limestone appears to be the continuation of the bed of limestone 
seen in Sum reposing on the gneiss and schist of the foot of the Ser 
and Mer peaks. 

The occurrence of fossils in Rukshu had been noticed by several 
travellers, but little was satisfactorily known, and to Captain Gr. 
Austen is therefore due the credit of having first brought trustworthy 
fossils from Rukshu, and to him I am indebted for the following 
details : — 

Two of the valleys of Rukshu are the Tso Moreri valley and the 
Pang-po-loomba ; they are separated one from the other by the 
ridge of the Korsok Tso, composed of granitoid rocks and of gneiss 
and schist. From the Pang-po-loomba (valley) one passes into the 
valley of the Tsa Rup (river) by the Pang-po-la (pass), towards 
Zaskar. This Pang-po-loomba (valley) and Pang-po-la (pass) are 
the localities where fossiliferous beds have been noticed. The 

* Col. R. Strachey appears inclined to regard these horizontal beds of the 
Great Tbibet plateau as contemporary of the Siwalik hills and a sea-formation. 
I believe that both hypotheses are untenable. 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 39 

whole bottom of the valley is uneven and its southern portion is 
formed by beds of limestone in which both Captain Austen and Mr. 
Marcadieu found carboniferous fossils (No. 1.) At the foot of the 
Pang-po-la the carboniferous becomes covered by a muddy sandstone 
(No. 2) which is, however, not seen in situ on the northern slope of 

fan c po loo mba 


Section across the Pang-po-loomba (valley) and Pang'-po-la (pass) in Kaksku 
from a sketch by Captain Godwin Austen (approximate). 

the Pang Po, but of which numerous debris fill the ravines. Above 
this sandstone is found Jurassic limestone (No. 3), all the way to 
the top of the pass, full of Belenmites, Ammonites, Rhynchonelhe 
and Terebratulse. One of the Rhynchonelhe collected there by Captain 
Austen appears identical with a form very common in the middle 
Oolite of Sheikh Bodeen in the Punjab. 

Having crossed the top of the pass and descending towards the 
Tsa Rup (river), the same bed of muddy sandstone (apparently) 
again crops out. It is there interbedded with thin beds of impure 
limestone, and in these beds were discovered a great many Belenmites 
in fine state of preservation. Mr. R. A. C. Austen, to whom the 
fossils of these parts were forwarded, pronounced some of them to be 
Liassic, but I do not know whether these liassic forms came from 
the muddy sandstone bed or from beds inferior to it. 

On the other side of the valley of the Tsa Rup, some beds of lime- 
stone, much folded and bent, again appear, but they showed no 
fossils and their age is therefore unknown ; they rest against beds of 
slate much up-tilted and apparently unconformable to the limestone. 
At the back of the slate is the great mass of the Ser and Mer 
chain, attaining immense height and crossed by passes above 16,500 
feet high. 

75. The Tso Moreri is the largest of many salt lakes which form 
one of the features of Rukshu. It is 14 miles long and more than 
15,000 feet above the sea. Its water is very salt and bitter, though 
Mr. Marcadieu affirms that it contains only one part of saline matter 

40 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

in 10,000 parts of water ; the saline matter is sulphate of soda and 
sulphate of lime. Another lake, the Karso-Talao, about 6 miles 
long, is reported by the same gentleman to contain a great deal of 
chloride of sodium and sulphate of soda, with a little carbonate of 
lime and carbonate of soda. These two lakes are said to be sur- 
rounded by mountains of crystalline rocks, principally mica-schists 
and granite. But one of the most interesting subjects connected 
with the geology of Rukshu is the existence of borax in the valley 
of Puga. The manner in which it occurs as an efflorescence is too 
well known to require description here, but one cannot but regret 
that Mr. Marcadieu's report is not more geological ; indeed it can 
only be regarded as chemical, and the geology of the district is still 
a work to be done. I have never visited Puga, but, from the 
several descriptions of it I have read, I am satisfied that the borax 
ground is the bottom of a dried up lake. The analysis of impure 
borax collected at Puga shows it to contain, besides borax, sulphate 
of soda, sulphate of lime, chloride of sodium and carbonate of soda. 
These impurities are precisely the composition of the Kullur salt 
of the plains of the Punjab and of the saline matter of many hot 
springs and salt lakes of the Himalaya and the Salt Range, and it 
appears to me evident enough that the lacustrine mud which fills 
up the bottom of the Puga valley, is similar to the alluvial deposit 
of the Punjab. Boracic acid, which probably once rose freely to 
the surface of a small lake and was deposited in an uncombined state, 
is now arrested by the bed of lacustrine mud which fills up the 
fumarole and combines with some of the salts of soda. It appears 
therefore much to be regretted that an attempt was not made to 
estimate the thickness of the lacustrine deposit and that a few wells 
were not sunk into the borax ground and the waters and gases 
which might have been collected in these wells carefully examined ; 
possibly such researches and experiments might have led the way 
to an increase of the present supply, and to a system of collecting the 
borax or boracic acid sufficiently pure not to require refining. 

76. In Ladak, Rukshu, Sooroo and Zaskar, no fossils were ever 
found, as far as I know, older than those of the carboniferous forma- 
tion. But if we follow the great valley, between the Kailas Range 
and the Ser and Mer chain towards the S. E. we find, on the other 











1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 41 

side of the Sutlej, great beds of limestone rich in Silurian fossils.* 
Mr. Salter has recognized the following genera among Captain 
Strachey's fossils : — 

Cyrtoceras. Chcetetes. 

Litnites. Crinoid Stems, &c k 




Mr. Salter, M. Barrande and M. de Verneuil, who saw some of the 
fossils collected by Colonel Strachey, agree that they indicate beds 
of Lower Silurian. We shall see that beds of Silurian also exists in 
the huge mountains to the north of Skardo and near the Mustak 
Pass in the Korakoram chain. 

But let us first relate what Colonel R. Strachey found in the high 
ranges south of the Sutlej. 

The Silurian above mentioned rests on beds of slate without fossils, 
and this slate rests on schists, mica-schists and other rocks of the 
metamorphic group. Then above the Silurian limestone, some beds 
of carboniferous must exist, though they were not found in situ 
by the explorer ; Producti, Athyris Royssii and other well known 
fossils were found in loose boulders near the Niti Pass. I believe 
also that some of the shells placed by Colonel Strachey and Mr. Salter 
in other groups belong really to the carboniferous ; such is the 
Chonetes placed by Colonel Strachey in the Mushelkalk, but trans- 
ferred to the carboniferous by Mr. Salter ; the Ptilodictya Fenea 
(Salter), the narrow variety, which I have found in carboniferous 
beds in Kashmir ; (it was naturally placed with the Silurian fossils 
by Mr Salter, on account of the Ptilodictya having been found as 
yet only in Silurian beds in Europe and America) ; the Spirifer 
Stracheyii, (Salter) placed among the Triassic fossils by Mr. Salter, 
and which is common enough in the Weean bed of carboniferous 
limestone in Kashmir ; and lastly the Spirifer Rajah (Spir. Keilhavii, 

* On the geology of part of the Himalaya and Tibet, by Capt. R. Strachey, 
Bengal Engineers, F. G. S. in Proceedings Geological Society for June 1851, 
also " Palaeontology of Niti in the Northern Himalaya, being descriptions and 
figures of the Palaeozoi and Secondary fossils collected by Colonel R. Strachey 
R. E." " Descriptions by T. W. Salter, F. G. S., A. L. S. and H. T. Blanford, 
A. R. S. M., F. G. S.— Calcutta 1865." 


42 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

Yon Buch), which has been removed from the Trias by Dr. Oldham, 
and declared to belong to beds anterior to that epoch. 

There is therefore a strong probability that both the Zeeawan 
bed (Producbus semireticulatus, Athyris Boyssii &c.) and the Weean 
bed (Spir. f. Stracheyii, Spir. Eeilhavii) exist in the ranges near the 
Niti Pass, but have been much denuded and broken in loose frag- 
ments along the section followed by Colonel R. Strachey. 

Then comes what Colonel Strachey supposed to be Muschelkalk, 
and which Mr. Salter refers to the Keuper and Hallstadt bed of the 
Upper Trias. I cannot refrain from expressing a suspicion that a 
few of the shells referred to these beds do not really belong to them, 
and that fossils of various ages have been mixed, either from collect- 
ing them, without due care being paid to the strata in which they 
were respectively found, or from careless packing. There is such 
a great likeness between the figures of some of the Triassic Am- 
monites of Mr. Salter and those of the carboniferous ceratites of 
M. DeKoninck,* (see Ammonites Blanfordii, Salter, nov. sp. and 
Ceratites Lyellianus, Dekon. nov. sp.) that one finds it difficult to 
decide between these two great authorities. The species of am- 
monites figured in the Palaeontology of Niti have nearly all the 
ceratite-like sutures usual in triassic ammonites in Europe, and 
therefore much resemble deKoninck's ceratites. 

It may be advanced, on the other side, that M. DeKoninck's 
ceratites belong to triassic beds ; but these ceratites are to be 
seen in the Rotta Roll associated to some of the fossils which I 
Have given as characteristic of my Weean bed of the carboniferous 
in Kashmir and the Punjab ; and a portion at least of this Weean 
bed would have then to be made over to the Trias. Unfortunate- 
ly for this view, the mixture of Weean and Zeeawan fossils in 
some layers of the Rottah Roh (described in para. 60 of this 
paper), does not allow us to make the Weean anything but car- 
boniferous, unless we are prepared to regard the Prod, semi-reticu- 
latus, the A. Boyssii, the A. Sabtilita and other such essentially 

* " Description of some fossils from India, discovered by Dr. A. Fleming, of 
Edinburgh." By Dr. L. de Koninck, F. M. C. S., Professor of Chemistry °and 
Geology in the University of Liege— Journal Geological Societv of London, 
Vol, XIX. p. 1. 

1 867,] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 43 

carboniferous fossils as occasional inhabitants of the Trias ! ! ! If 
we are prepared to stretch the point so far, we may as well give 
up at once all idea of successive faunas. 

I have, since writing the above, found in the Rottah Roh, some 
beds containing a few fossils which appear Permian. I have not 
yet had time to examine the fossils with care ; but should they 
prove Permian or Saliferian (St. Gassian), — and I have little doubt 
that they will be found to belong to either one or the other of 
these formations, — the presence of patches of such a bed on the top 
of the carboniferous would explain away, in a great measure, the 
difficulties I have now been considering. 

I have said before that I believe the Saliferian of Upper India 
to belong to the Paikilitic formation, but that it has been found 
impossible as yet to demonstrate that such is the case. The dis- 
covery of one or two fossils may settle the question, if they were 
forms thoroughly well known as characteristic of the Indian Trias. 
The study of the fossiliferous Triassic beds in India is therefore of 
the greatest interest ; but much care is required lest the mixture 
of Palaeozoic and secondary types should take place in our pack- 
ing boxes and not in nature, and we thus become accustomed to 
regard, as characteristic of the Trias, shells which really belong 
either to the carboniferous, or to the Lias and Oolite. 

To Colonel R. Strachey, however, is due the honor of having 
first discovered fossiliferous Triassic beds in the Himalaya ; and 
we may hope that much light will be thrown on the Indian fossils 
of that age by Dr. Stoliczka, in his expected work on the Geology 
of Spiti. 

Over the beds last described, Colonel Strachey found Jurassic 
beds ; but the relation between the Triassic and Jurassic beds 
could not be ascertained, owing to a great fault running parallel to 
the general N. W. — S. E. direction of the Himalayan ranges. The 
section exposed by this great fault is at least 5,000 or 6,000 feet in 
thickness, but the difficulties of the route prevented Colonel Strachey 
from examining it from top to bottom ; the lowest beds were not 
examined. The lowest which were examined gave forms which Pro- 
fessor E. Forbes was inclined to identify with fossils which occur 
in the fuller's earth and cornbrash of England. No Liassic forms 
were discovered. 

44 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1 

These inferior oolitic beds are capped by dark coloured shales 
containing belemnites and ammonites, and referred by Professor 
E. Forbes to the age of the Oxford clay. These shales are there- 
fore the representatives of the several Jurassic beds we have already 
seen in several parts of the Himalaya and of the Punjab. 

The oolitic beds are covered by grits, shales and limestone of 
unknown age, and finally by the great horizontal bed of what 
Colonel Strachey considers to be miocene (Siwalik) sandstones and 
conglomerates. I have said before that the identity of these sand- 
stones, grits and conglomerates to the Siwalik formation is far from 
established, and that there are more reasons for considering them 
pleistocene, than for assuming them to be coeval with the deposition 
of the Sub-Himalayan tertiaries. 

77. The Kilas Chain is of less elevation than the Ser and Mer, 
and its peaks are neither so numerous, nor so well known or so re- 
markable for their enormous mantles of snow. The principal sum- 
mit is the Kailas (or Tise) peak, which rises to 22,000 feet above 
the sea, in longitude 81° 18', and is therefore far to the S. E. of our 
"Western Himalaya. As it is, however, the only well known peak of 
the Chain, I have called the whole chain from its name. 

The Kilas chain begins near Mount Haramash, N. of Astor and 
N. W. of Baltistan, and is traversed near Skardo by the Shigar river 
which cuts a passage across the range. The summit, Mashknlla, 
(16,919) towers over the alluvial plain of Skardo, Shigar and Kuardo. 
This mountain is mostly granite ; its spurs show a great deal of 
metamorphic slate at a high angle of dip ; and the little hill close to 
Skardo, evidently an off-shoot of the Mashkulla, is composed of an 
imperfect shist. All along the left bank of the Shigar river, schists 
of various sorts, especially mica-schists, and micaceous slates, together 
with metamorphic marbles, form the great wall of mountains that 
bound the Shigar valley to the N. E. Following the road which 
leads from Shigar to the Thale valley, by the Thale la (pass) Captain 
G-. Austen discovered some beds of limestone, resting on the mica- 
slate, and I have coloured that bed of limestone Silurian in the Map. 
My reason for believing it to be Silurian is its proximity to 
limestone beds of similar appearance and position at the Mashabroom, 
and there, I believe, decidedly Silurian ; and also the fact that the 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 45 

discoverer of the bed found there a few fragments of fossils which 
he regarded as Palaeozoic, though different from any of the carboni- 
ferous forms which we found together in Kashmir. There is there- 
fore presumption that this bed is Silurian, though of course it is 
merely a presumption. I have also assumed that a bed of limestone, 
seen to the South of Skardo, between that town and the Deosai 
(plain), is Silurian. We shall see the bed discovered at the Masha- 
broom, when we describe the Karakoram Chain. 

From Skardo towards the S. E., the Kilas Chain appears to be 
nothing but a great granitic wall, along the foot of which runs the 
Indus. Near Lc in Ladak the range is crossed by the Digor La 
(pass), the road going through a succession of granitic rocks. 

78. Between the Kilas and Karakoram Chains, we find the 
rugged district of northern Baltistan, the valleys of Saltoro, Nubra 
Sluiyokh and the Chinese province of Rodok. In the country of 
the Baltis, the Kilas and Korakoram Chains approach each other 
to within about 45 miles, as the crow flies, from range to range ; 
whilst on the contrary the chains diverge as we proceed towards 
the S. E., the Korakoram chain having apparently a less south- 
ward direction that the other parallels of the Himalaya. In northern 
Baltistan, consequently, we find the country covered with mountains, 
cut with deep narrow valleys and mantled with immense glaciers ;* 
in Radok on the contrary high plateaux are abundant, and form to 
; the north of the Pang Chong Tso (lake) and Pang Chong La (pass) 
; considerable plains, 14,000 to 15,000 feet above the sea, arid and rain- 
less, often not presenting a shrub for several marches ; high deserts 
on which roam a thin population of nomade Turkomans who graze 
shawl-wool goats on the scarce and far-between Aghil or grassy 
vales of these inhospitable regions. 

There is no doubt that these high plateaux are similar in origin, 
age, and appearance to the great Thibet plateau through which runs 
the Sutlej, to the north of the Niti pass, and described by Colonel 
R. Strachey ; and also to the Chang Tang and Rong plateaux of 
Ladak. All these high plateaux present a horizontal stratification ; 

* " On the Glaciers of the Mustakh Range," by Captain H. G. Austen, 
F. R. G. S., &c., read before the Royal Geographical Society, London, on the 
Llth January, 1864. 

46 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1, 

and it appears therefore impossible to regard them otherwise than 
as accumulations of debris washed from the ranges into the great 
troughs between these ranges, and therefore posterior to the great 
final upheaval of the Himalayas. 

Very little is known of the nature of the rocks forming the ridges, 
ranges and spurs in Saltoro, Nuha and Shayokh. Dr. Thomson,* 
on native information (Izzet Ullah), tells us that the rocks of the 
Shayokh and Nuha valleys are in great part primitive limestone. 
" The limestone continues towards Rodok and the water of the Pang 
Gong Tso (lake) hold a sufficient quantity of lime to form a cal- 
careous deposit which cements the pebbles together in patches of 
concrete at the bottom of the lake." The water of the Pang Chong 
Tso is sufficiently brackish not to be fit for drink, and it has a bitter- 
ness probably due to sulphates of Soda and of Magnesia. From the 
examination of a specimen of the calcacerous incrustation which is 
formed on the shore of the lake, I found that Magnesia is about as 
abundant as lime. 

An extremely pretty species of Limnea or rather Physa once lived 
in the lake, and dead shells of it are abundantly found in the band 
of tufaceous deposit, a few feet above the present level of the water. 
These shells no longer exist in the lake (Austen). They have pro- 
bably been destroyed by the diminution and concentration of the 
brackish water. 

G-eneral Cunningham informs usf that the rocks of all the high 
ranges and peaks of Rodok are granite and gneiss, and this appears • 
to be highly probable. Metamorphic rocks also abound ; the ! 
mountains near the Pang Chong Tso containing a great deal of | 
mica-schists ; and crystalline marble is also found on the shore of the ! 
lake, apparently in immediate contact with granitoid rocks. 

In the northern portion of Rodok some hot springs exist in a 

locality called Chong Chin Mo ; there water deposits largely a grey ' 

tufa which is composed of carbonate of lime, sulphate of lime and 

sulphate of soda. Such tufa is common near the warm springs of 

the saliferian in the Punjab. Its composition is also that of the 

saline impurities of the brackish lake of Tso Moreri in Rukshu, and 

# '* Ladak," by General Cunningham, E. E. 
f " Ladak," by General Cunningham, R. E. 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 47 

of the efflorescence which accompanies the borax at Pnga. From 
the extensive beds of gypsum and impure salt found in Rukshu, little 
doubt can be entertained that the saliferian is there well developed, 
and by analogy it is to be presumed that the same formation is 
also to be seen in Rodok. Borax is said to be exported from Rodok 
in large clean crystals, but I do not know whence they are obtained ; 
that it does come from Rodok appears however pretty certain ; and 
that is another resemblance with Rukshu, and another reason for 
believing that the saliferian is probably well developed in Rodok, and 
is there accompanied by hot springs and fumaroles exhaling boracic 

I have never seen any fossil which had been brought from Rodok, 
Shayokh or Nuba ; it is impossible therefore to say to what age 
belong the beds of limestone mentioned by Dr. Thomson. The beds 
are called " primitive limestone ;" but as Jacquemont, Vigne, Thom- 
son and others speak sometimes of fossiliferous limestone (such as the 
Manus Bal limestone in Kashmir) as " primitive," it is difficult to 
know for certain what is meant by that somewhat antiquated term. 

79. The Korakoram Chain is a range of very great extent, begin- 
ning at the Pamer Steppes and reaching to the S. E. as far as the 
centre of Thibet in longitude E. 94° and as low as latitude N. 30°. 
The plateau near its south-western slope is from 15,000 to 17,000 feet 
high, and is an arid tract of horizontal alluvian covered with loose 
stones and supporting very little vegetation ; more to the north it is 
a labyrinth of wild valleys. Near the Mashabroom mountain (above 
26,000 feet) the soil of the valleys between the spurs is to a great 
extent covered by glaciers ; where not so covered, it is often an 
indurated clay strewed with debris of pale limestone a good deal 
worn and weathered, and with globular cystidese in very great 
abundance. Mr. Ryall, of the Great Trigonometrical Survey, gave 
me one of the pieces of limestone and some of the fossils. The lime- 
stone is an argillaceous dolomitic limestone, pale yellowish brown, with 
a few patches pale blue, weathering like frosted glass, and resembling 
a good deal of the rocks of the Weean and Kothair groups of 
carboniferous limestone. The sphctronites, however, point to a silurian 
epoch, these echinoderms having not been found as yet in formations 
posterior to the Wenlock limestone. 

48 Dr. Vercnere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 1> 

The spheeronites of the Mash ab room are probably a new species ; 
they were found in considerable variety, from the size of a small 
walnut to that of a large orange ; the largest were perfectly round and 
polished like a cricket ball, without warts, spines or facettes, pierced 
by numerous pores. Some of the smaller have the stems scarcely visible 
(fig. 6, PL VIII), and are covered either with large tracts set well 
apart or with smaller ones set closer ; some spines are depressed 
or lenticular ; all are pierced by innumerable pores, none shows traces 
of polygonal plates ; mouth not to be seen in any of the specimens I 
have examined. (See figs. 5, and 6, pi. VIII and plate IX fig. 1.) The 
discoverer, not being a geologist, did not look for other fossils : the 
cystideae were so numerous and so curious in appearance, that they 
gave quite a peculiar aspect to the ground. 

The Mashabroom is stratified to its very summit, the beds being 
limestone and shales, dipping towards the S., at a moderate angle. 
This stratification is so well marked, that it can be distinctly noticed 
from a long way off. These sedimentary beds repose on metamor- 
phic layers of mica-schist and gneiss. The limestone is extremely 
rich in magnesia, principally towards the base of the bed, where it 
passes into Steatite in patches (Austen). Some of the Serpentine 
and Jade (compact Tremolite) brought to Srinuggur and there 
worked into ornamental articles by the stone-cutters of that city, 
come, I believe, from the neighbourhood of the Mustak Range and 
of Mashabroom, though the greater quantity is supposed to be derived 
from the Yarkandkass valley and the Kuen-Luen Chain in Khotan. | 
There can be little doubt that the limestone of the Mashabroom is , 
the parent bed of the cystidese found in the valley between two of ; 
the spurs of that mountain ; and at least a portion of the limestone I 
of Mashabroom is Silurian, 

The following sketch-section embodies the information kindly 
given me by Mr. Kyall and Captain G. Austen. 


18G7.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 






1, granite; 2, gneiss and mica- 
schist ; 3, sandy shales and coarse 
slate without fossils; 4, pale dolo- 
mitic limestone containing patches of 
Steatite ; 5, pale ochre-coloured lime- 
stone, the probable parent rock of the 
Sphajronites found at the foot of the 

To the north of the great glacier 
Baltoro is that portion of the Kora- 
koram "Range known as the Mustakh 
and crossed by the Mustakh Pass at 
an elevation of 18,400 feet. The 
whole S. Western face of this Mus- 
takh is covered by enormous glaciers 
through which the rocky spurs of 
the mountains rise like islands and 
promontories. These rocks Captain 
Godwin-Austen found to be lime- 
stone dipping to the N. E., but he 
failed to find fossils in it, though he 
noticed traces and fragments of orga- 
nisms. It is so very probable that 
these beds are a continuation of the 
limestone of the Masha Brum, that I 
have not hesitated to colour them in 
the map as Silurian. Of course, tlr's 
requires confirmation. Unfortunately 
the difficulties of reaching even the 
foot of these gigantic mountains are 
nearly insurmountable. 

80. I could not get any informa- 
tion on the nature of the rocks form- 
ing the remainder of the Korakoram 
Chain. The few European travellers 
who ever saw the chain, agree, I 
believe, in representing it as being 
mostly composed of granite. 

50 Dr. V 'era here on the Geology of Kashmir. [No. 1, 

On the other side of the chain we find, between it and the next 
parallel, viz. the Kuen-Lnen Chain, the valley of the Yarkandkash 
(river), which extends from the Korakoram or Yarkand pass to 
Tashgurkhan, and the Akzai Chin or White Desert, which is con- 
tinued towards the S. E., nobody knows how far. The valley of 
the Yarkand river and the Akzai Chin are separated one from the 
other by a low ridge of mountains similar to the masses of mountains 
found between the other great chains of the Himalaya. All we know 
of the valley of the Yarkandkash is that some mines of rock-salt 
occur there, and that both in the beds of the Yarkandkash and Kara- 
kash and in the the ravines of the neighbourhood, some pebbles are 
collected and used for cheap jewellery ; and these pebbles are either 
quartzy stones or rocks decidedly volcanic. There is apparently 
some analogy between these mountains and those of the centre of 
Rupshu and of Ladak. The Akzai plain is also very similar to the 
countries just mentioned, in at least the one character of being an 
elevated, rainless desert, spotted with small lakes, some fresh, and 
others salt. 

It is superfluous to say that I know nothing of the Geology of the 
Yarkandkash and Karakash valleys and of the Aksai Chin ; neither 
is there anything known of the formation of the Kuen Luen or 
Piryukh Chain, except that it is reported to contain valuable coppe 
and gold mines. Another small chain or range, half way betweei 
the Kuen Luen and Yarkand seems to be the last parallel of the 
Himalaya. Yarkand is supposed to be in latitude N. 38° and about 
5000 feet above the sea. From the top of the Korakoram pass to i 
the foot of the hills, the distance is approximately 110 miles, and the'i 
descent 13,000 feet or about 118 feet per mile, a mild slope for a| 
mountainous country. 

(To be continued.) 

1867.]' Contributions to Indian Malacology. 51 

Contributions to Indian Malacology, No. VIII. List of Estuary shells' 
collected in the delta of the Ibawady, in Pegu, with descriptions 
of the new species. By William T. Blanford, A. R. S. 31., F. G. S. } 
Cor. Mem. Z. S. &c. 

[Received 14th November, 1866.] 

A short visit to Calcutta, and access to various works on conchology 
wliich have, for some years past, been beyond my reach, have enabled me 
to prepare the following list of the species of mollusca collected by 
me in the Pegu delta during the early portion of 1862. In March 
and April of that year, whilst engaged in the Geological Survey of 
the country south of Bassein, I was compelled to traverse the net • 
work of creeks which intersect the Irawaddy delta in every direction, 
and, in so doing, I had many opportunities of searching for the various 
mollusca inhabiting the channels of brackish and salt water. 

The western portion of the Irawady delta south of Bassein is of 
peculiar character. Instead of the endless alluvial flat which is usually 
alone met with near the mouth of large rivers, the country is frequently 
undulating, and even, in places, hilly ; the hills being surrounded by 
plains of alluvial soil intersected by tidal channels. llock not 
unfrequently occurs in these creeks, and affords a habitat for many 
mollusca which are not met with in the usual muddy flats. 

The Bassein river itself, one of the numerous mouths of the 
Irawady, like the Mutlah and other great channels of the Ganges 
delta, is at present rathei' an. arm of the sea than a river; as it 
receives no fresh water directly from the Irawady except during tho 
height of the rains. In the cold weather the water is perfectly salt 
for many miles above the mouth, and marine animals abound. Thus 
for many days, during the time I was traversing the neighbourhood, 
the water swarmed with Medusce. The volume of fresh water which 
pours into the Bassein river can at no time be very large, for the mollus- 
ca which inhabit the southern side of Negrais Island, some distance 
within the mouth of the river, are typically marine, comprising species 
of Parmophorus, Triforis, Trochus, Chama, &c, and not including any 
of the usual estuary forms Assiminia, Amphibola, Neritina, &c, whilst 
at Poorian Point and Pagoda Point, the two headlands Avhich form 

52 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

the entrance to the Bassein river, precisely the same mollusca occur as 
along the Arakan coast near Cape Negrais.* At the mouths of those 
channels by which the mass of fresh water poured down by the Irawady 
reaches the sea, I do not think that any typically marine animals are 
met with, nor could they exist, for, in the height of the rains, I have 
found the water outside the mouth of the Rangoon river perfectly 
fresh and drinkable, and yet this is only a minor channel compared 
to the Chinabuckeer and the neighbouring branches, down which the 
great bulk of the water pours. 

To the greater saltness of the Bassein river I attribute the presence 
of the numerous marine types mentioned in the following list. It 
will be seen that a few distinctly marine species were met with ; the 
number, however, was small. There are also in the list two or three 
genera, forms of which do not appear to have been hitherto found in 
estuaries, e. g. Tectum, Sphenia, Scalaria ; whilst, on the other hand, 
the genus Scaphula had previously only been met with in fresh water. 

The fauna and flora of the Irawady delta appear to be twofold.f 
Farther from the sea, where the water is more or less brackish, the 
creeks are mostly narrow and deep, with steep banks, which are 
covered at high water, and bordered by an unbroken belt of salt 
swamp, in which grow high trees, chiefly of Bruguieria gymnorhiza f 
The views along the creeks, with their borders of dense high forest, 
are often of great beauty. This belt of salt swamp and high trees 
varies much in breadth, from a few yards to half a mile or more ; inside 
it are either open plains, which, if uncultivated, are covered with high 
grass, or else rises, usually of gravel, occasionally of rock, which are 
covered with jungle. 

The mollusks of this tract comprise Neritina depressa, N. ootusa and 
N. Smithii ; the species of Tectum, Modiola, Martesia and Sphenia 
named in the following list are met with wherever rocks occur; 
ScopJmla is found under stones, Auricula and Cyrena inhabit the salt 
swamp. Teredo perforates the dead trees. Neritina cornucopia is 
principally met with in this region, but is also found lower down the 

* Amongst others, I found species of Dolium, Ricinula, Banella, &c. 

f I regret that my want of knowledge of botany and the paucity of the obser- j 
vations I was able to make upon the zoology, prevent me from entering fully j 
into this subject. I can merely point out the fact that a distinction exists between ' 
the fauna and flora of the delta nearer to the coast, and that found further in- ■ 
land, and illustrate it in the single instance of the mollusca. 

18G7.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 53 

estuaries : Littorina melanostoma also occasionally occurs, but its home 
is nearer the sea. 

Lower down where the creeks are broader, the belt of salt swamp 
is narrower in general, and a broad shelving muddy shore succeeds, 
the upper portion covered by a thick forest of Avicensia, while lower 
down Nipa palms frequently occur. The beauty of the wide creeks is 
greatly enhanced by the broad fringe of the bright green Avicensia, 
over the tops of which the summits of hills, covered with dense green 
forest, are frequently visible.* On the sloping muddy shore species 
of Potamides, Assiininia, Amphibola, Plecotrc?na, Haminea, Stenothy ra ; 
Area granosa, Nassa planicostata, and ColumheUa Duclosiana are to 
be met with. On the stems of the Nipa and on the mangrove bushes 
Neritina crepidularia and N. cornucopia, Littorina melanostoma and 
L. scahra are found in abundance. 

I have only included in the present list those shells from the Bas- 
sein river which are found above Negrais Island, for the reasons al- 
ready stated. I regret that the list is not more perfect, and that I am 
obliged to leave a few specimens undetermined. On the other hand 
the majority have been carefully compared, and the names quoted 
may, I think, in most cases, be relied upon. Immediately after 
leaving Pegu, I was in England for a few months ; and owing to the 
kindness of the late Mr. S. P. Woodward, of Mr. Arthur Adams, and 
especially of the late Mr. Hugh Cuming, who allowed me to compare 
my shells with the original types in his unrivalled cabinet, I was 
enabled to determine, not merely my estuary collections, but also a 
much more numerous series of marine species from the Arakan coast, 
in a manner which would have been simply impossible in India. 

Unfortunately, during the years which have elapsed since these shells 
were compared, a few have been mislaid or lost during constant tra- 
velling in various parts of India. Still I hope that this list may have 
some value as a contribution to our knowledge both of the geographi- 
cal distribution and of the habitats of mollusca. Several of the. species 
named, and some of the genera have, so far as I am aware, never before 

* So great is the height of the trees fringing the upper creeks, and so com- 
pletely do they shut out all the surrounding country, that I was working amongst 
them for several days in ignorance of the existence of hills nearly lUOO feet 
high within 15 or 20 miles of me. 

54 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

"been shewn to inhabit the estuaries of India or Burma. Our estuary 
lists have hitherto been almost as imperfect as our catalogues of marine 
species ; almost all that is known of the molluscan inhabitants of our 
deltas being due to the labours of Mr. Benson, who has described many 
of the forms found in the Granges. 

It is, of course, highly improbable that the present list is nearly 
complete. Only a very small portion of the Irawadi delta was ex- 
amined, and that imperfectly. Still the number of species is consider- 
able, and probably includes ail those which are most abundant. A few 
forms since found by Mr. Theobald and Mr. Fedden will be noted in 
their place. 

The classification employed is mainly that of Messrs. H. and A; 
Adams, in the Genera of Recent Mollusca. I have not, however, fol- 
lowed those authors in employing the obscure and forgotten generic 
terms of Klein, Montfort and others I have only deviated from their 
arrangement in one essential particular, viz., the transfer of Assiminia 
from the vicinity of Helix, from which it differs in every point of 
structure, to that of Littorina, to which it is closely allied. If it be 
objected that Assiminia is as closely related to Cydostoma as it is to 
Littorina, I can only suggest that Cydostoma be also relegated to the 
same position in the neighbourhood of Littorina. 

Sub-class Peosobranchiata. 
Family BUCCINID^]. 
No. 1, Nassa planicostata, A. Adams. 

Estuary of the Bassein river, creeping upon mud between tidemarks; 
No. 2, Purpura bitubercularis, Lam. 

Not common. Found in the lower part of the delta, with the next 

Family MITRIDiE. 
No. 3, Columbella Ducloziana, Sow. 

Found in abundance at one spot in the estuary of the Bassein river, 
amongst stones with mud. The specimens were unusually fine. I 
also met with this shell on the mud flats of Ramri Island, coast of 

18G7.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 55 

Family SCALARIADiE (Scalidce, H. and A. Adams.) 
No. 4, Scalaria, sp. 

A minute species, apparently new. As I possess but a solitary 
specimen, which is not in the best possible order, I hesitate to de- 
scribe it. It is one of the smallest forms known, measuring only 3 
millimetres in length. It was found under stones in the Myittaya 
creek. % 


No. 5, Cerithium (Vertagus) obeliscus, Born. 

A single specimen was found at Port Dalhousie. 
No. 6, Potamides (Tympanotonos) alatus, Phil. 
No. 7, Potamides (Tympanotonos) enriptera, A. Ad. 

Both this and the last species are met with abundantly on mud 
between tide marks, not far from the sea. They also occur on the sea 
coast where it is muddy. 
No. 8, Potamides (Telescopium) fuscus, Chemn. 

Common on mud between tidemarks, where the water is completely 

Besides the above, a species of Cerithidea has been found by Mr. 
Theobald in the estuaries of Burma. I did not meet with it. 

No. 9, Littorina melanostoma, Gray. 

Very abundant upon " mangrove" trees, close to high water mark. 
No. 10, L. scabra, L. 

Occurs with the last, which appears to pass into it. Two varieties 
of this form occur, one more coarsely sculptured and more stoutly 
keeled than the other. 
No. 11, L. zic-zac, Chemn. 

Syn. L. undid 'at a, Gray. 

This species is frequently found on the sea coast, especially near 
mouths of rivers. In the estuary of the Bassein river, it occurs to- 
gether with true estuarine forms. It is met with on stones and dead 
wood, close to high water mark. 

No 12, Assiminia rubella, W. Blanf. pi. II. fig. 11. 12. 

A small roundly ovate, dull red species, which occurs abundantly 

56 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

near Port Dalhousic, on mud between tidemarks. It is a characteristic 
Assiminia, though much shorter and rounder than the Bengal species 
A. Francesics, Gray, and belonging in fact to a different section of the 
genus. It is closely allied to some Singapore species and also to A, 
niarginata, Leith, which inhabits Bombay, but may be distinguished 
from all by the double marginal impressed line below the suture. 

The animal is deep red, with a black spot upon each of the lobes 
into which the proboscis is divided. The eyes are at the top of the 
short tentacles. 

Family RISSOID^E. 
Iravadia, n. g. 

Testa imperforata, turrita, spiraliter costata, solicla, epidermide tccta i 
apertura ovata, integra, antice obsolete effusa ; peristomate recto, extus 
variciformi-incrassato, intus dilatato. 

Animal"? Operculum f 

Shell imperforate, turrited, spirally ribbed, rather thick, covered 
with an epidermis. Aperture ovate, without a canal, slightly effusa 
in front ; peristome straight, not sinuate, with an external varix, and 
slightly expanded within. Animal and operculum unknown. 
No. 13, Iravadia ornata, n. sp. PL II. fig. 13. 14. 

Testa turrita, decollata, subcylindrica, (junior elongato-conica), 
solida, spiraliter costata, inter costas confertim verticaliter costulata, sub 
epidermide olivaced vel ferrugined albida. Anfr. superst. 3-4, rotun- 
dati, superi tribus, penidtimus quatuor, ultimus sex costis spiralibus 
ornati, hoc juxta aperturam paulo ascendente. Apertura sub-verticalis, 
elliptica, intus alba, (in testa juniori postice angidata), antice subangu- 
lata et in testa adidtd obsolete effusa, in juniori subcanaliculata ; 
peristoma extus incrassaticm, nodoso-variciforme, nodis costis spiralibus 
congruentibus, intus vix expansum. Operc. f 

Long. 4J, diam. 2J mill. 

Shell turrited, decollated (the young shell elongately conical,) thick, 
spirally ridged, with close vertical costulation between the ridges, 
white, with a brownish or olive epidermis. Whorls apparently about 
6, when perfect, but only 3 or 4 remain in all the specimens collected ; 
body whorl with 6 spiral ribs, of which 4 only appear on the penul- 
timate whorl, and 3 on the upper whorls, the lower ribs being con- 
cealed. On all the upper whorls the 2nd and 3rd ridges are the 

1867.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 57 

strongest. Those near the suture, both above and below, are less strong- 
ly marked, and are occasionally obsolete. On the last whorl the up- 
permost ridge near the suture is alone fainter than the others. The 
body whorl ascends a little towards the aperture, which is subvertical 
and nearly elliptical. The anterior canaliculation is obsolete in the 
adult, but it is well marked in the young shell. Peristome much 
thickened, externally variciform, the varix being nodose in consequence 
of the spiral ribs of the body whorl being continuous upon it. In 
young specimens the lip is grooved inside, the grooves corresponding 
to the external ribbing, and slight remains of this grooving may be 
traced in the adult shell. 

I had at first classed this shell as a Rissoina on account of the 
obsolete canal, although it differs in essential characters from any 
species of that genus. I am indebted to my friend Dr. Stoliczka for 
calling my attention to the great distinctions which exist between the 
present form and Rissoina, and some of which equally serve to dis- 
tinguish it from Rissoa and all other genera of the group. Iravadia 
differs from Rissoina in possessing an epidermis, in having spiral 
sculpture, in the peristome neither being sinuate above, nor projecting 
below, and in the columellar margin being simply curved in front and 
not excavated. From Rissoa it is distinguished also by its epidermis and 
sculpture, by the obsolete channel in front of the aperture, which, in 
young specimens, is quite as distinct as in Rissoina, and by the ab- 
sence of any tendency to the columellar tooth or fold, which is so con- 
spicuous in the typical species of the genus. The characters of the 
sculpture, epidermis, and aperture serve equally to separate the 
present form from Alvania, Onoba, Ceraiia and other genera of 
Rissoidce : Eydrobia and Amnicola alone have an epidermis, but both 
are smooth shells without a variciform peristome. 

It is unfortunate that no specimen of the operculum has been pre- 
served. The few shells found were collected during a hurried journey 
in a boat. The species was only met with at one spot, under stones, 
amongst some rocks in a creek leading into the Myittaya, a branch of 
the Bassein river. Several specimens were obtained, but when an 
opportunity was afforded of examining them at leisure, the opercula 
had disappeared. In the absence of the operculum, I should be dis- 
posed to consider the genus as more nearly allied to Rissoina than to 


58 Contributions to Indian Malacology , [No. 1, 

any other, and such naturalists as may refuse generic rank to Iravadia, 
may perhaps best class it as a subgenus or section of that genus. It 
may have affinities with a curious species from Peru (Rissoina sulci- 
fera, Trosc.) figured by Schwarz von Mohrenstern in his monograph of 
Rissoina in the Denksch. k. k. Akad. Wien, xix, 182, Taf. 10, fig. 83, 
and the differences between which and all other Rissoince are pointed 
out by that author. 

The curious little shell dredged by Mr. A. Adams in the seas of 
Japan and described by him as Vanesia sulcatina in the Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History for 1861, Ser. 3, vol. viii, p. 242, may 
also possibly have some affinities with Iravadia. 

No. 14, Stenothyra monilifera, Bens. PI. II, fig. 15. 

I found two specimens of this species at Port Dalhousie in the 
Bassein river. The type was first obtained by Mr. Theobald at Mer- 
gui and Rangoon, and the shell has since been found in Cochin China. 
As the species does not appear to have been figured, I add an illustra- 
tion of it. 


No. 15, Neritina Peguensis, n. sp. PI. I. fig. 1 — 16. 

Testa globosa, oblique ovalis, solida, confertim oblique subsinuate 
rugata, interdum spinigera, - epidermide fusco-olivaced, minute flavo- 
punctulatd, aliquando maculis oblongis subcurvatis flavis infra sutu- 
ram ornatd, vel fasciis subobsoletis spiralibus circumdatd, indiUa, sub 
epidermide ccerulea vel rubella, albido-macxdata. Spira vix exserta, 
plerumque erosa, sutura elevato-compressa. Anfr. circa 3, superi pla- 
nulato-concavi } ultimus superne ad suturam appressus, supra peripheri- 
am aut carinatus, spinisque distantibus munitus, vel obsolete angulatus, 
subtus rotundatus. Apertura intus lactea ; peristoma semiovale, area 
columellari planulatd, luteold v. sordide albidd, minute denticulatd, 
plied unicd majori intrante supramediand munitd, antice edentatd. 
Operc. extus planum, albidtim, margine externa nigra, intus rubrum. 

Maj. diam. 19, min. 15, alt. 19 mill. Hab. in rivulo ad Promon- 
torium Negrais. 

Var. minor testa magis rotundatd, spinis omnino carcntibus 7 fig. 
13 — 16. Maj. diam. 14, min. 11, alt. 15 mill. 
Hab. ad Portum Dalhousie. 

1807.] Contributions to Indian Malacology, 59 

Shell globose, obliquely oval, solid, closely obliquely and rather 
sinuously wrinkled, sometimes bearing spines, covered with a dark 
epidermis. Colour generally dark olive with minute yellow specks, 
occasionally with oblong splashes of yellow below the suture ; these 
generally curve backwards, and are sometimes, but rarely, of large size. 
Some shells are surrounded more or less obsoletely with yellow bands. 
Beneath the epidermis the shell is pink or bluish spotted with white. 
Young specimens are frequently pink, with yellow specks, in front of 
each of which is a black streak like a shadow. The spire is barely 
exserted, apex obtuse, and generally eroded, the erosion extending 
frequently down the spire, and often a portion of the outer surface of 
the last whorl itself is wanting ; suture raised, compressed. Whorls 3, 
the upper ones frequently wanting, but when present, flattened or sub- 
concave. Last whorl concave and compressed against the suture above, 
then either carinate above the periphery and bearing short subdistant 
spines, or else obtusely, more or less obsoletely angulate. Below it is 
always rounded. Aperture milky within, peristome semioval, columellar 
area flat, yellow or dirty white, minutely denticulate, except in front, 
and having a prominent re-entering tooth just above the middle. 
Operculum pinkish white outside, exterior margin black, red inside. 

The nearest ally to this form with which I am acquainted in N. 
obscurata, Rccluz, which has a more expanded mouth, and more deep- 
ly emarginate columellar area, the whorls appear also rather different- 
ly shaped above. 

The present species is eminently variable. The type occurred in abun- 
dance close to the beach in a small stream which descends from the 
hills close to Cape Negrais ; specimens were especially abundant in a 
brackish pool at the beach, spinous and spineless shells occurred mixed 
together, and the presence or absence of spines is evidently of no im- 
portance. The spineless variety from Port Dalhousie was found in the 
salt water of the Bassein river, abounding along the strand between 
tide marks. 

To illustrate the variation of this species, several specimens have 
been figured. 

Specimens collected by Mr. Theobald in Arakan illustrate the gra- 
dual passage, by absolutely insensible gradations, of this form, into the 
very distinct N. relifem, Bens, of the Ganges delta. 

60 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

No. 16, Neritina obtusa, Benson. 

Scarce. I obtained two specimens on limestone rock at Thaman- 
dewa in the Bassein river. 
No. 17, Neritina Smithii G-ray. 

Less common than in the estuary of the Granges. 

I have another species of Neritina belonging to the typical section 
from the estuary of a small stream running into the sea just north of 
Cape Negrais. I have been unable to identify it with any known 
species, and it may possibly be new.* 
No. 18, Neritina (Dostia) depressa, Benson, pi. I, fig. 17,18, 19. 

There are specimens of this shell amongst my Irawaddy collections : 
I think they are from Rangoon. The species is generally found in 
fresh or slightly brackish water, while Neritina crepidularia and N. 
cornucopia are chiefly met with nearer the sea, where the water is 
more salt. In Bombay Island, however, I have met with N. depressa 
on the sea shore. 
No., 19, Neritina (Dostia) crepidularia, Less. PI. I. fig. 20, 21, 22. 

This shell and the next are found rather abundantly upon trees 
growing in places covered by water at each tide, and especially upon 
Nipa palms. N. crepidularia frequently occurs upon the sea shore, as 
well as in estuaries. 
No. 20, Neritina (Dostia) cornucopia, Benson, pi. I. fig. 23, 24, 25. 

Locally abundant. The shells found by me in Pegu differ slightly 
from the type, which is scarce in the Hoogly at Calcutta. In the 
latter, the apex of the shell is very nearly in the same plane as the 
edge of the peristome, sometimes actually so and touching it. In Pegu 
specimens, the peristome is free from the apex. The difference is very 
trifling, and there is slight variation in this character in specimens from 
the same river. In other respects, the shells appear to agree excel- 

I learned from Mr. Benson some years since that Neritina melano* 
stoma, Troschel, is identical with N. cornucopia, the latter name having 
priority.! The figures of the former in Philippi's Abbildungen 

* Further examination shews it to be one of the forms already referred to 
as intermediate between N. Peguensis and N. retifera, B. It is smooth like the 

f N. m.elanostoma was published in Wiegman's Archiv for 1837, p. 179; 
N. cornucopia was described by Mr. Benson in this Journal for 1836. 
Vol. V. p. 748. 

1867.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. GI 

are poor, but the specimens were from Bengal, and they present 
no essential difference from immature shells of cornucopia, so Mr. 
Benson is doubtless correct. Beeve in Conch. Icon, quotes N. 
melanostoma as a synonym of JV. crepidularia and ignores N. cornu- 
copia altogether. Von Martens (Malakoz. Blatter, 186S, X, 127.) 
shews that the colour of the columella and lip is sometimes white 
and sometimes black in several Neritince of the Dostia section. 

The fact very probably is, that we have in this case an example of 
a phenomenon not uncommon in the animal kingdom. Two distinct 
races spring up side by side, arising from one type, and in the original 
locality do not change their form, but although they breed truly, they 
are only distinguishable by some slight constant distinction. As both, 
however, migrate into distant regions, the difference becomes greater, 
and at length both become so diverse, that no question can remain as 
to their being in common natural history talk, " distinct species.'* 
Thus while Neritina cornucopia and N. depressa, inhabiting the Ganges 
delta, are scarcely distinguishable from each other by any more im- 
portant character than the colour of the aperture, the same shells in 
Pegu have varied so much, that each differs from the other at least as 
much as it does from their congener N. crepidularia. In other places 
the race representing N. cornucopia may be perfectly undistinguish- 
able from N. crepidularia, as appears to have been observed by v. 
Martens in Singapore. It is highly probable that the origin of species 
through variation takes place in space as well as in time. More ob- 
servations on this question are desirable. 

Figures of the three forms occurring in the Pegu delta are added. 
No. 21, Larina ? Burmana, n. sp. PL II, fig. 1. 

Testa ovato-globosa, imperforate, tenuis, castanea, striatula, nitidula. 
Spira conoidea, apice erosula, sutura valde impressa. Anfr. 5, rotunda- 
ti, sensim descendentes, ultimus tumidus, subtus rotundatus. Apertura 
vix obliqua, subelliptica, superne angidata ; peristoma rectum, tenue, 
marginibus callo tenui junctis, columellari expansd. ? Operc. corneum. 
Long. 11, diam. 8 mill. Apertura 7 J mill, longa, 6 lata. 

Shell ovately globose, imperforate, thin, translucent, smooth, brown- 
ish, horny. Spire conoidal, apex eroded, suture deep. Whorls 5 
(perhaps more in adult specimens), rounded, obsoletely striated, regu- 

62 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

larly descending, the last tumid, rounded beneath. Aperture nearly 
vertical, subelliptical, angulate above. Peristome thin, straight, mar- 
gins united by thin callus, columellar margin narrowly expanded. 

The operculum of this peculiar species was unfortunately lost, and 
the animal was not observed. In the hurry of travelling, the speci- 
mens were placed in a box and forgotten, until the fleshy portions 
were too much decayed for examination. About half a dozen individuals 
were found under stones in the Myittaya creek, in the same place which 
yielded Iravadia ornata and other forms. 

Mr. A. Adams, who very kindly aided me in determining some of the 
species contained in my Pegu collections, suggested that this shell 
might possibly be a second species of the genus Larina, established by 
him for an Australian shell, the animal of which also is unknown. In 
appearance this shell somewhat resembles a Lymnea. It is not impos- 
sible that it may have affinities with Amphibola. I have a distinct 
impression that the shells possessed a horny operculum, or I should 
have been disposed to class them in the Velutinidce. 

No. 22, Teetura fluviatilis, n. sp. PI. II, fig. 2, 3, 4. 

Testa depresso-conica^ rotundato-ovalis, tenuis , epidermide fusco- 
olivaced induta, lineis radiantibus, st?'iisque confertis minutis conceutri- 
cis decussata, intus cceruleo albida, interdum fascia concentricd lacted, 
vel etiam omnino hoc colore versus marginem saturata } ad apicem 
ferruginea. Apex subcentralis, erosa. 
Major diam. 21 J min. 20 alt. 6 
20 „ 17 „ 5J 
14 „ 12 „ 4 

Shell much depressed, conical, subcircularly oval, thin, covered with 
a very dark olive epidermis, always eroded at the apex, marked with 
fine radiating raised lines and with close and minute concentric strise 
of growth ; inside the shell is bluish white, sometimes with one or 
more milky concentric bands, or the whole interior is milky, except 
the apex which is invariably ferruginous, the area so coloured having 
some correspondence to the amount of external erosion, and the i 
colour being evidently due to a deposition of shell inside to protect 
the animal as the external portion is corroded away. 

This species is found on rocks, rarely on trunks of trees, in many of 

1867.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 63 

the creeks near high water mark, in brackish water. It was not met 
with near the sea, where the water was very salt. 

The foot is large, filling the cavity of the shell, muzzle broad, ten- 
tacles long and fine, mouth not notched beneath. It does not appear 
to keep to one place and form a hole for itself like some Patellae, but 
it is very sluggish in its movements. 

Sub-class Opistiiobranchiata. 
Family BULLID^E. 

No. 23, Haminea tenera, A. Ad. 

Not common. In Bombay this species abounds upon mud flats. 
The animal is red. 


No. 24, Auricula Judae, L. 

This species is completely blind, as has been noticed by von Martens 
(Ueber die Landschnecken der Molukken, Malakoz. Blatter ; 1863, 
X. 126) and as is shewn in Eydoux's drawing copied in Mrs. Gray's 
mollusca. The same is the case with all other species of the same 
group which I have examined. In sonic instances, e. (j. the Bombay 
species, which has received, I believe, a MS. name from Mr. Benson, 
the eyes may be detected beneath the skin by looking very carefully. 
(Von Martens observed this in one instance in A. Judce.) Such 
eyes can, however, be of but little use as percipient points to the ani- 
mals. There is, however, one group of true Auricxdce^ typified by A. 
subula, Quoy and Gaimard, in which the eyes are normally developed, 
the same as in Melampus, Cassidula, and other Auriculidce. A small 
species of this type inhabits Bombay. The forms belonging to this 
sub-division appear also distinguished by a more elevated spire. 
Further observations are, however, necessary before a division of the 
genus can be proposed on these grounds, as there appears great proba- 
bility that the two forms pass into each other. 

I found specimens of A . Judce alive under the bark of dead trees, 
on muddy banks of creeks, in places overflowed by the tide. Unques- 
tionably, so far as my experience goes, none of the Eastern Auriculidce 
(Auricula, Cassidula, Melampus, Pijthia, Plecotrema) are land shells, 
all are met with in places overflowed by salt or brackish water at 
every tide. They are in fact true estuary shells. 

64 Contributions to Indian Malacology, [No. 1, 

Some of the specimens of this species collected by me shew an al- 
most complete passage into A . dactylus Pfeiffer, as described and figur- 
ed in Novitates Conchologicce I, 15, pi. V. fig. 15. 16. This species 
is stated by Mr. Theobald to be found at Mergui (J. A. S. B. 
for 1857, xxvi. 253.) 
No. 25, Auricula nitidula, n. sp. PI. II. fig. 5, 6. 

Testa non rimata, subfusiformi oblonga, solida, nitidula, sub epider- 
mide olivaced alba, lineis impressis confertis verticalibus minutissime 
rugata, aliis spiralibus granulato-decussata, sculpturd infra suturam 
magis impressd. Spira conoidea, apice eroso, sutura impressa. Anfr. 
5 convexi, ultimus vix descendens, § longitudinis subcequans, basi ro- 
tundatus. Apertura verticalis, plica; parietales 2, supera parva, profun- 
da, alia obliqua, plica columellaris baud valida, diagonalis : perist. 
crassum, marginibus callo tenui junctis, dextro superne vix sinuato, in- 
tus callo elevato incrassato. 

Long. 28, diam. 12J mill. Apertura c. perist. 19 mill, longa, intus 
5 lata. 

Shell not rimate, subfusiformly oblong, solid, smooth, having a 
greasy lustre, white, epidermis olive, covered with minute granula- 
tions produced by the intersection of vertical and spiral impressed lines, 
both very close and the former sinuous, the sculpture being most 
strongly marked below the suture. Spire conoidal, apex eroded, suture 
impressed. Whorls 5 convex, the last nearly § of the whole length, 
scarcely descending, rounded at the base. Aperture vertical with 2 
parietal plica?, the upper one small, far inside ; the lower strong, 
oblique ; columellar plica moderate in size, diagonal ; the peristome 
thick, the margins united by a thin callus which is somewhat ex- | 
panded upon the penultimate whorl, the right margin scarcely sinu- 
ate above, and thickened inside. 

This species which is found very rarely with the last, exactly re- 
sembles it in general form, but has rounded whorls and finer sculpture, 
besides being of much smaller size. The animal is white, while that 
of A. Judce is mottled. A. nitidula somewhat resembles A. Chinensis ; 
Pfr. which, however, is much less attenuate below, and differs in the 
form of the aperture, &c. 

But two or three specimens of this form were met with. In Mr. 
Theobald's lists of Burmese shells ; A. glans, Bens, is mentioned. I can 

1>G7.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 65 

find no description of this species, and cannot therefore say if it be the 

present form or not. 

No. 26, Plecotrema Cumingiana, n. sp. PI. II. fig. 16. 

Testa subrimata, subellipttco-ocata, solida, punctis impressis crebris, 
lineas spiralis confertas f unnantibus, striisque incrementi obliquis ornata, 
ferrugineo-fusca, Spira conoidca, lateribus vix convexiuscidis, apice 
erosa, sutura Icaoi lineari. Anfr. 4 superst., superi planulati, vix 
discreti, side is spiral ibus punctatis 4 notati, idtimus ad peripheriam sub- 
angulatus, subtus compressiusculus. Apertura vix obliqua, plicis parie- 
talibus 2, superiori brevi obliqua, altera intrante, extus bifida, plied 
columellari subobliqud ; peristoma rectum, pone limbum acutum intus 
callosum, margine dextro tridentato. 

Long. 5, diam. 3 mill. Apert. 3 J mill, longa. 

Shell subrimate, subelliptically ovate, solid, marked with close spiral 
lines, formed of thickly set punetiform impressions, and with oblique 
stri;e of growth ; reddish brown in colour. Spire conoidal, the sides 
barely convex, apex eroded, suture Hat. Whorls 4 remaining, the 
upper Hat, scarcely distinguishable, marked with 4 spiral dotted lines, 
the last whorl subangulate at the periphery, somewhat compressed 
below. Aperture very slightly oblique, with two parietal folds, the 
upper short, oblique, the lower re-entering, externally bifid, the colu- 
mellar fold sub-oblique ; peristome straight, margin sharp, but inside the 
sharp edge thickened and bearing 3 teeth within the right margin. 

This species was rather scarce, crawling on mud in company with 
Assinunea rubella. It is distinguished from its allies, P. striata, Phi- 
lippi, and P. punctostriata, II. and A. Adams, by its low spire and 
minute sculpture. In naming it after the late Mr. Hugh Cuming, 
I adopt the only means in my power of acknowledging my obligations 
to that gentleman for the very liberal manner in which he allowed 
me access to his collections, for the purpose of comparing and identi- 
fying my Pegu shells. 

Besides the above Auviculidm, I have received a Pytliia which ap- 
pears to be a variety of P. trigona, Troschel, from Mr. Theobald and 
Mr. Fedden, who both met with it on the Arakan coast, not far north 
of Cape Negrais. It is singular that I did not meet with species of 
either Cassidula or Melampus, as I have reason to believe that both 
inhabit the Irawadi delta or its immediate vicinity. Mr. Theobald 
has sent me Cassidula aurisfelis, Brug. from Arakan. 


66 Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 


No. 27, Amphibola Bm-mana, n. sp. PL II, fig. 7 — 10. 

Testa aperte umbilicata, naticoidea, tenuiuscula, castanea, periom- 
phalo plerumque saturation, nitidula, suhsinuate striatula, infra sutu- 
ram dense peroblique striata, lined una elevatd spirali, interdum obso- 
leta, superne hand procul a sitturd signata. Spira conoidea, apice vix 
obtusa, sutura profunda. Anfr. 4 rotundati, ultimus tumidus. Aper- 
tura ovata, superne rede angidata ; peristoma vix interruption, breviter 
adnatum, tenue, marginibus approximatis, callo tenui junctis, dextrali 
superne sinuatd, basali recta, columellari breviter reflexo, umbilicum 
partim tegente. Operculum corneum, paucispirale, nucleo basali, 

Alt. 10, diam. 9 J- mill., apertura 7 J- longa, 5 J lata. 
Shell openly umbilicated, naticoicl, rather thin, orange-brown, dark- 
er around the umbilicus, smooth, marked with subsinuate lines of 
growth, closely and very obliquely striated just below the suture, with 
a single raised spiral line, which is sometimes obsolete, on the upper 
portion of each whorl. Spire conoidal, apex subacute, suture deep. 
Whorls 4, rounded, the last swollen. Aperture ovate, rectangulate 
above ; peristome scarcely interrupted, free, except for a very short 
distance, from the last whorl, thin, margins closely approximate, united 
by thin callus, right margin rather deeply sinuate above, basal straight, 
columellar turned back near the umbilicus, which it partly conceals. 
Operculum horny, paucispiral, nucleus basal, sinistral. 

This is, I believe, the first instance in which the presence of Am- 
pliibola has been indicated in the Indian or Burmese seas or estuaries ; 
nevertheless, it is very common. I found, in Mr. Cuming's collection, 
specimens of the same form as that above described, which were 
collected in Malacca by Dr. Traill, and a smaller form, scarcely separable 
as a race from the above, abounds in Bombay harbour. 

The present species is nearly allied to A.fragilis, Quoy and Gaimard, 
but is thinner, with a lower spire. It was found abundantly crawling 
on mud, between tidemarks, in company with Assiminea rubella and 
Plecotrema Cumingiana. The animal was difficult to make out. as it 
consisted of an indistinct translucent mass. There were no tentacles, 
and the eyes were on very short lobate pedicels. The animal differs 
considerably from the figure of that of Amp. fragilis, as copied from 
Quoy and Gaimard by both Adams and Mrs. Gray. 

l^iiT] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 67 


Family PHOLADID^. 

No. 28, Martesia fiummalis, n. sp. PL III, fig. 1, 2, 3. 

Testa ovata-conica, valde incequilateralis, anlice liemispherica, postice 
scusim acuminata, extremitate membranacea, albidd, tenuis. Valves 
versus margines epidermide crassd } coriaced indutce, pagina antica jux- 
ta cardinem costulis confertissimis, sinuatis, concentricis, lineisque 
radiatis elevatis decussantibus pulchre ornata, subtus glabra, postica 
concentrice striata. Galium tril <>bato-peltatum ) medio divisum. Yalvuui 
dorsalis rudimentaria, cornea. 

Lat. 12 J, long. 6, alt. 5J mill. 

Shell ovately conical, white, thin, inequilateral, anterior extremity 
hemispherical, posterior regularly acuminate and membranaceous at 
the extreme end. Valves near the edges covered with a thick coriace- 
ous epidermis, which in places, and especially towards the posterior 
extremity, extends beyond the margin and forms a membranaceous 
fringe, uniting the valves more or less. Each valve is divided into two 
parts by a line passing obliquely from the hinge to the ventral margin 
and inclined slightly backwards ; in front of this line the shell near 
the hinge is decussated with very close sinuate concentric and subdistant 
radiating costulation ; near the ventral margin it is smooth. Behind 
the oblique line the valves are concentrically striated, more or less in- 
distinctly. The callus covering the hinges is trilobate and divided by 
a iissure in the centre ; dorsal valve rudimentary, horny, commencing 
at some distance from the hinge, increasing in breadth backwards, but 
very narrow throughout. 

This species appears most nearly allied to M. rivicola, Sow., which 
was found perforating floating logs in a river in Borneo. The pre- 
sent species is blunter and shorter, and M. -rivicola is destitute of the 
sculpture on the anterior portion of the valves. 

M. fluminalis was found boring in soft argillaceous sandstone, in 
creeks far from the sea, where the water was brackish. The external 
orifice in the stone is very minute, and must have been made by the 
shell when very young. Inside, the burrow exactly fits the shell, so that 
the only possible motion is rotation upon the longest axis of the shell. 

The epidermis appears normally to cover the posterior subdivisio 
of the valves, but it is always deficient, except towards the margins. 

6$ Cordr Hut ions to Indian Malacology, [No. 1, 

No. 29, Teredo ? sp. 

All the dead trees in creeks in the Irawady delta are perforated 
throughout by a species of Teredo (?) I either omitted to take speci- 
mens, or else have lost them since, and I can now find none to which to 
refer. It is possible that this shell may be the Teredo thoracites of 
Dr. Gould,* described in Vol. VI, of the Proceedings Boston Society 
of Natural History, and on which he subsequently, in Vol. VIII, pro- 
posed to found the subgenus Calobates, characterized by the " pallettes" 
(stylets) being " stilt shaped, bony." Dr. Gould's specimens were 
from Tavoy, but he does not mention if they were fluviatile or 

No. 30, Sphenia perversa, n. sp. PL III. fig. 4, 5, 6. 

Testa oblongo-ovata, parum incequivalvis, valvd dextrd majori, 
tenuiuscula, alba, concentrice irregular iter striata, antice rotundata, 
postice acuminata, demum transverse truncata, ad extremitatem ejiider- 
mide coriaced, rugatd induta ; mar go dor salts subrecta, ventralis antice 
convexa, postice vix concavd. Processus cardinalis valvce sinistrce (non 
dextrce) e longato - lamelliform is. 

Lat. 11, long. 6, alt. 4 mill. 

Shell oblong, slightly inequivalve, broadest at the umbo, somewhat 
acuminate posteriorly, and very much more so in young specimens ; 
thin, white, irregularly striated, the posterior end covered with a thick 
coriaceous epidermis which is vertically furrowed. In the young 
shell the epidermis covers all the shell except the beaks ; it is thin 
except along the dorsal and posterior margins, where it is thick and 
vertically sulcated. The dorsal margin is nearly straight, the ven- 
tral rounded in front and slightly concave behind in old shells, straight 
or nearly so in young specimens. There is a lamelliform process in 
the hinge of the left valve, in front of the cartilage. 

This shell was met with in burrows in stone, apparently the holes 
of Martesia which had perished, at least they did not appear to have 
been formed by the present species. It was met with at a considerable 
distance from the sea, in company with Martesia fiuminalis. 

In every respect, except the position of the lamellar tooth in the hinge 
of the left valve instead of the right, the shell appears to be a true 
* Otia Conchologica pp. 222, 241. 

J s 'n ] Contributions to Indian Malacology. GO 

Gphenia. I scarcely think that the exceptional character justifies the 
creation of a new genus, as the characters of the animal unfortunately 
were not noted. The practice of establishing genera for single species 
on insufficient grounds is so objectionable, that it will be better to 
err in the opposite direction. When the animal has been examined, 
should it shew distinctions from Sphenia, it will be easy to propose 
a new generic or subgeneric appellation. 
No. 31, Corbula, sp. 

A single valve of a very thin species of Corbula was found on mud 
above Port Dalhousie. 

No. 32, Sanguinolaria diphos, L. 

This shell lives at a depth of about 4 feet in the mud. I found it 
abundantly in a marsh overflowed by every tide and where I should 
never have suspeeted its existence, had not my Burmese coolies point- 
ed it out and shewn me how to capture specimens. Burmese, being 
omnivorous beings, are far better acquainted with the hiding places of 
various animals than the natives of India are ; amongst other dainties 
they eat Sanyuinolarice, and the process for catching them which they 
shewed me was ingenious. The first thing was to cut a very thin 
slip of bamboo, about 5 feet long and not more than ± inch in diame- 
ter, and to make a small barb at the end. This they thrust down all 
the small holes in the mud, many of which corresponded to the si- 
phons of the Sanguinolaria below. Now and then the bamboo went 
through a Sanguinolaria, as he lay vertically with his valves open below 
the mud ; of course the bivalve immediately closed his valves upon 
the intruder, and was ignominiously dragged out by the bamboo, his 
exit being aided by digging when he approached the surface. The 
only objection to the plan is, that most of the specimens are slightly 
injured, as the shell closes with such force upon the bamboo as to break 
the thin ends of the valves. Some specimens were brought up in 
which the bamboo had been absolutely thrust down the siphon, thus 
literally impaling the Sanguinolaria. The siphons are of great length, 
considerably exceeding the shell. 
No. 33, Macoma ala, Hanley. 
No. 34, Scrobicularia angulata, Chem. 

I find both the above shells recorded in my list. I cannot now come 

TO Contributions to Indian Malacology. [No. 1, 

across the specimens, and I am under the impression that they were 
found dead in salt water marshes on the Arakan coast, and not in the 
delta, but they are both so common in all Indian estuaries, that it is 
equally probable that I found them in the Bassein river. 
Family VENERIDiE. 

No. 35, Chione Ceylonensis, Sow. 

I have mislaid my notes as to the exact locality of this species also. 
I think it was found at Dalhousie. In a backwater on the Arakan 
coast, I found an allied, but undescribed species of the same genus. 
No. 36, Artemis, sp. 

Of this I have a single immature specimen. It may be the young 
of A. excisa i Chem. but has not the sculpture of that species, nor its 
angulate posterior slope. 

Family CYRENIDiE. 
No. 37, Cyrena Bengalensis, Lam. 

Mangrove and other salt water swamps along the edges of creeks, 
amongst roots of trees and brushwood, common. 

I am inclined to refer the shells I obtained to the above form, of 
which I suspect some others since described are merely varieties. 
Cyrence vary greatly with age, besides being eminently variable in 
form. Thus some of my specimens exactly agree with G. turgida 
Desh., but I cannot help believing that they are merely immature 
specimens of the thicker form which I refer to G. Bengalensis. 

Family MYTILID^l. 
No. 38, Mytilus smaragdinus, Chem. 

Found in creeks below low water mark. I do not think it is gene- 
rally known that the flesh of this species is very delicious. Some 
were brought to me along with a quantity of oysters, and the Bur- 
mese told me that the mussels were the better eating of the two. 
Not having much faith in Burmese palates, I preserved the shells and 
threw away the soft parts of the Mytili ; but as a trial, I had two or 
three cooked with the oysters. I found that the Burmese were quite 
right, though the oysters were by no means unpalatable. 
No. 39, Modiola emarginata, Bens. 

A dwarf variety of this species occurs in salt water creeks. 
Family KRCIDM. 

No. 40, Area (Anomaloeardia) granosa, L. 

This very common species was only found at one spot in the Bas- 
sein river. It was living in mud close to the surface, under stones and 

1807.] Contributions to Indian Malacology. 71 

roots of plants. The same species abounds in mud, amongst stones, 
in Bombay harbour, and is collected for food by the natives. 
No. 41, Scaphula deltse, n. sp. PI. III., fig. 7-10. 

Testa tunuda, perelongato-rJiomboidea, sub epidermide crassd, fused, 
postice radiatim liratd albida, lineis minutis elevatis confertissimis 
decussata, ante carinam eostd unicd lata, planulatd, aliquando obsoletd, a 
natibusad marginem decurrente, munita, intus ccerulescens, antice rotun- 
data, postice oblique truncata, mavgine ventrali antice concexd, postice vix 
concavinscidd (tested junior is recta). Carina per elevata, acuta, vulvas 
in paginas duces dividens, untied tumidd, posticd concavd. Area 
nitida, sub lente striatula, Ugamento rhombeo solum antice induta. 
Denies cardinales postici breves, obliqui, ab extremitate remotiusculi. 

Lett. 10 long 3J alt. 6£. 
>j 8 „ 3 ,, 5. 

Shell very tumid, elongately rhomboidal, (the ventral and dorsal 
margins being parallel as in S. celox) covered with a thick, dark epi- 
dermis, which is rather rough and radiately ribbed behind the keel. 
Beneath the epidermis the shell is white, and decussately very minutely 
sculptured, one flat broad rib, scarcely raised, and occasionally obsolete 
in old' specimens, passing from the umboncs to the margin just in front 
of the keel. This is scarcely distinguishable until the epidermis is 
removed. The valves are bluish within, rounded in front, obliquely 
truncated at the posterior margin ; the ventral margin is convex an- 
teriorly, subconcave posteriorly, being straight for the greater part of 
its course in young shells, but' becoming slightly concave, at the spot 
where the byssus passes out, in old specimens. The keel is very high 
and sharp, separating the valves into two subdivisions, the anterior of 
which is tumid, the posterior concave. The area is polished and stria- 
ted rather obliquely, the ligament diamond-shaped and covering only 
the anterior portion, about \ to J the length, of the area. The hinge 
teeth are oblique, but less so than in either S. celox or S. pinna, and 
the posterior teeth are much farther from the extremity of the shell 
than in either of those species. 

The great distinction between this species and the other two pre- 
viously described is in the far greater tumidity of the valves, which 
are nearly twice as broad in their diameter from side to side (of the 
closed valves) as they are from the dorsal to the ventral margin. 
The proportion of the two diameters in the present species averages 

7.2 Contributions to Indian Malacology^. 

about 12 : 7. In 8, celox it is 12 : 10J and in S. pinna 12 : 9|.* The 
last named species is of a totally distinct form, being much wider 
posteriorly than in front, so that it is sub-trigonal in shape instead of 
rhomboidal. Its posterior hinge teeth, also, are near the extremity, 
and so oblique as to be almost parillel to the hinge line, while in its 
smooth, thin epidermis, marked concentric sculpture, and convex 
posterior subdivision of the valves, it differs widely from S. delta?. 
The ligament of S. pinna covers a greater proportion of the length of 
the area, (about § ,) than does that of S. delta. It is much narrower 
in proportion to its length, as is indeed the entire area, corresponding 
to the smaller tumidity of the valves. S. celox approaches more near- 
ly to the present species, but is thinner and much less tumid, has its 
posterior hinge teeth more oblique and nearer to the extremity, and 
differs widely in sculpture. 

S. deltcB was found under stones in creeks, adhering by a byssus. It 
was not met with near the sea. It is the first species of the genus 
that has been found in brackish water, both of the forms described by 
Mr. Benson being from large rivers far above the influence of the tide. 

Mr. Benson mentions the occasional occurrence of a raised rib in 
front of the keel in 8. celox. I have several specimens, which I received 
from Mr. Theobald, shewing this peculiarity. It differs entirely from 
the flattened subobsolete rib of S. deltce. 

Figures of all 3 species are added to illustrate the difference between 


No. 42, Anomia, sp. 

The specimens of this shell have unfortunately been mislaid. I 
only obtained two or three specimens, and it is extremely difficult to 
make out the species of this genus. 
No. 43, Anomia (JEnigma) senigmatica, Chem. 

Occasionally found adhering to stumps of trees in salt water creeks. 
Family OSTREID^E. 
No. 44, Ostrea, sp. (? 2 sp.) 

A large form occurs in the creeks below low water mark. A 
smaller kind is met with between tide marks in mangrove swamps and 
creeks, attached to wood or stones. I unfortunately omitted to take 
►specimens of either. 

* Measured from authentic specimens of each species. 




No. II.— 1867. 

On the Junyle products used as articles of food by the Inhabitants 

of the districts of Manhhoom and Hazaribtujh. 

By V. BaU, Esq. B. A. 

Geological Survey of India. 

It is perhaps not generally known that throughout Manhhoom 
and Hazaribagh, as well as in many of the adjoining districts a 
considerable number of the poorer classes of the people depend solely 
upon the jungle to supply them with the means of subsistence for 
from two to three months of every year. In time of famine tho 
number so dependent is of course greatly increased. 

In some of the more jungly parts of these districts, where the 
cultivation round the villages is very limited and deficient, nearly the 
whole of the inhabitants who have survived the past famine, can have 
had little else but the roots and fruits of the surrounding jungle upon 
which to subsist. While passing through some of these villages last 
season, I was told that but few deaths had occurred in them. 

On the whole I am inclined to believe that people living in such 
villages are more independent and less affected in every way by famine 
than those, who residing in the centre of cultivation, have no jungle 
readily accessible. Were a census to be taken, it would probably b6 


74 On Jungle Products used as articles of food. [No. 2, 

found that the relative proportion of deserted houses and villages, the 
result of the famine, to those still inhabited, would be much greater in 
the open, cultivated parts of the district than in the densest jungles. 
Indeed the jungles may be regarded to a certain extent as the saving 
of the lower races of the population ; did they not afford nutritious 
food in abundance, the result of a famine like that of 1866-7, would 
probably be not merely decimation, but utter depopulation through- 
out extended areas. 

It is not to be supposed that even those who are in the habit of using 
this description of food regularly, for a greater or less portion of every 
year, regard it as in any degree an equivalent to rice. Many have 
spoken to me of eating Mhowa, which is by far the best of these 
products, as being only better than suffering from absolute famine, and 
they always consider themselves legitimate objects of charity, when 
they can say they are living on it alone. 

The list which is appended to this paper, includes nearly 80 
distinct species of plants which furnish articles of food. Owing 
to the difficulty of identifying the fragmentary specimens which were 
all that I could in some instances obtain, it has been impossible to 
make it fully complete. I believe, however, nothing of importance has 
been omitted. 

To S. Kurz, Esq. curator of the Herbarium in the Botanic gardens, 
I am indebted for considerable assistance which has enabled me to 
bring forward this paper sooner and in a more correct form than 
would have been otherwise possible. 

The species mentioned are of course of varying importance, some 
being merely edible, and in a few cases injurious if eaten in large 
quantities ; while others, as the Mhowd, Sal, Bier. Bur, Pipdl, Singdrd, 
Chehur, various roots of the species of Dioscorea, and many of the 
varieties of Sag (leaves) may be considered as bond fide staple articles 
of food. 

Bassia latifolia, Roxb. Mhowa, H. & B. 

The Mhowa is found in Bombay and Bengal ; those who have 
not visited the more remote portions of one or other of these presiden- 
cies, can hardly realize the importance of this tree as a source of food 

1867.] On Junyh Products used as articles of food, 75 

to the poorer classes of the natives, more especially to such improvi- 
dent races as the Bheels, Coles and Sonthals. 

In the districts of Manbhoom and Hazaiibagh, Mhoiva groves 
as well as stray trees in the jungle are on the whole abundant. All 
the trees, with the exception of a few in the neighbourhood of roads, 
are the property of the zemindars, and are rented out by them at 
prices varying chiefly with the bazaar nirik or price of rice. 

As the crop of Mhowa approaches ripeness, the corollas, becoming 
fleshy and turgid with secreted juices, gradually loosen their adhesion 
to the calyx and fall to the ground in a snowy shower. The duty of 
collecting the fallen blossoms is chiefly performed by women and 
children'; at dawn they may be seen leaving their villages with 
empty baskets, and a supply of water for the day's use. 

Before the crop has commenced to fall, they take the precaution to 
burn away the grass and leaves at the foot of the tree, so that none of 
the blossoms may be hidden when they fall. The gleaners generally 
remain under the trees all day, alternately sleeping and collecting the 
crop ; the male members of the family, visiting the trees once or twice 
during the day, bear off the produce in bamjliys. 

It often happens that the people who collect come from a consider- 
able distance, in which case they erect with the branches of Sal a 
temporary encampment of huts in which they live until the crop is 
all gathered in. In front of each of these huts a piece of ground is 
made quite smooth and hard, for the purpose of spreading out the 
crop to dry. 

When perfectly dry, the blossoms have a reddish brown colour, and 
in size they have lost three-fourths of their original dimensions and 
about half their original weight. It is the custom with some of the 
natives, before spreading them out to dry, to pull off the little ring of 
foliaceous lobes which crowns the fleshy corolla. 

It is very difficulty to collect trustworthy statistics regarding the 
amount of yield of the Mhowa trees. I have been told, and it has been 
repeated to me several times, that a first class tree will yield as much 
as thirty cutcha maunds of 12 chittacks to the seer, or about |th of a 
ton ; in other words, an average daily fall of two maunds is said to 
continue for 15 days. This estimate I believe is more than double 
what it ought to be. 

76 On Jungle Products used as articles of food. [No. 2, 

The rent of the trees varies much with the abundance of them in 
the district, the quality of the previous rice crop, and various other 
circumstances affecting the demand and supply. In parts of Hazari- 
bagh, I have known ten small trees to be let for a rupee, while a fine 
large one would sometimes alone bring that amount. In Manbhoom 
I have been pointed out trees for which a sum of from two to three 
rupees was charged, but I have also heard of trees being hired in the 
same district for four annas. 

As do the trees, so the saved crop varies much in price, the limits 
being, as far as I can make out, from 2 to 8 maunds for the rupee ; but 
when, as is perhaps most frequently the case, the exchange is in kind, 
the mahajuns only give a small quantity of salt and three or four 
seers of rice for a maund of Mhowa. In parts of Manbhoom, I have 
been told that during the famine, the price of Mhowa was from 12 
to 20 seers for the rupee. 

Two maunds of Mhoiua are stated by some to furnish a months' food 
to a family consisting of a father, mother and three children. It is, 
however, seldom eaten alone, being much more frequently mixed with 
the seeds of Sal, Shorea robusta, Boxb. } or with some of the leaves of 
the plants mentioned in the accompanying list which are collectively 
called Sag. The cooking is performed as follows. The Sal seeds, 
having been previously well dried in the sun, are roasted and then 
boiled alone ; the Mhoiua flowers are then also boiled, and the water 
is thrown away ; so far having been cooked separately, they are then 
mixed and re-heated, sometimes a small quantity of rice is added. It 
is the custom to cook but once in a day, and each member of the 
family helps himself whenever he feels hungry. 

When fresh, the Mhowa has a peculiar luscious taste with an odour 
somewhat suggestive of mice ; when dried, it possesses some resem- 
blance to the inferior kinds of figs. Cooking renders it vapid and 
utterly devoid of flavour. On distillation the newly dried flowers yield 
an highly intoxicating spirit called daru ; this, before being sold, is 
diluted with ten times its quantity of water, and is then sold at the 
rate of two pice for about a quart. 

Considering the really useful nature of this tree, it would be most 
desirable that whenever new lines of road are being made through 
any of the districts in which it thrives, it should be planted on either 

1867.] On Jungle Products used as articles of food. 77 

side, so that the poorest might avail themselves of the crop without 
having to pay rent to a zemindar or landlord. 

If the yield of an average tree amount to 6 maunds, that is to say, 
enough to supply a small family with food for three months, there can 
be no question of the immense amount of food which in time of 
famine a row of trees planted along a road passing through the 
country would afford. Although the natives rigorously protect such 
trees as exist, I am not aware that they do anything to increase the 

SlIOREA ROBUSTA, Roxb. S('d, H. & B. 

Under the head of Mhowa, the seed of this tree has already been 
alluded to. Where possible, the Mhowa and Sal are mixed in the manner 
above described, but in some places even Mhowa is not to be obtained, 
so that the Sal seeds are roasted and eaten alone. With many of the 
Sonthals, Sal is probably a regular article of food, and not merely a 
" dernier ressort" to be used in such a year as 186G-7. 

Ficus Indica, Roxb. Bur t B. & II. — F. religiosa, Linn. Pipal 
B. & H. 

The figs of both these species especially those of the former 
are eaten every year by the poorer classes of natives. In one 
place last year I observed a number of wretched half-starved ill- 
clothed women and children, with a few still more wretched men, 
picking up the figs which had fallen from a banyan tree : they did 
not even knock the fruit off the tree, but were become so poor-spirited 
by hunger, that they were contented to collect the windfalls. 
Zizyphtjs jujuba, Linn. Bier, B. & H. 

The fruit of this tree though not at all to be compared in importance 
with Mhowa as an article of food, is nevertheless much used in 
parts of these districts where Mhowa is not abundant ; it may frequently 
be seen spread out to dry on the roofs of cottages. There are two 
varieties at least of Bier ; one is a small bush with the appearance of 
which few who have travelled in India can fail to be familiar ; the 
other is from the same original stock, but has been vastly improved by 
cultivation and is always found near villages. 

This fruit is sold in the bazaars, and when not quite ripe, has the 
pleasant acidity of an apple. 

78 On Jungle Products used as articles of food, [No. 2, 

Bauhinia Vahlii, W. & A. Chehur B. & H. 

The pods of this gigantic creeper which, passing from tree to tree, 
forms the festoons peculiar to tropical jungle scenery, are most 
eagerly sought for by the natives, so much so, indeed, that it was 
with difficulty that I succeeded in obtaining botanical specimens. 
They are plucked just before they become ripe ; so that in order to 
open them, it is necessary to place them in a fire ; on being sufficiently 
heated, they open with a loud report, and the carpels at once twist 
into curls which no amount of pressure can remove. The seeds are 
easily detached and are eaten at once. 

Trapa bispinosa, Roxb. & T. quadmspinosa, Roxb. Singlidrd, 
B. & H. Punboje, Sonth. 

Both these species of Singhdrd are well known to many Europeans. 
With the natives they form a favourite article of food. I have frequently 
seen from 20 to 30 persons, men, women and children groping in a half 
dried up tank for Singhdrd, Paludinas, and small sluggish fish, which 
latter are caught by dragging on shore the weed in with they lie 
concealed. From the produce of a morning's collection of these 
miscellaneous substances a tarhdri is made, which is perhaps the only 
food upon which a family have to subsist for the day. 

In drawing up the following list, two systems of arrangement were 
possible, either to enumerate the species under their respective natural 
orders, or under headings indicating the part of the plant used ; this 
latter form has been adopted, as it renders the list more accessible 
to those not familiar with botanical terms. The order in which the 
species are arranged is approximately that of their relative importance. 


On Jungle Products used as articles of food. 



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1867.] Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir. S3 

Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains, a — « 
A Geological paper, by 

Albert M. Verchere, Esq. M. D. 

Bengal Medical Service, with a note on the fossils by 

M. Edouard de Verneuil, 

Membre de l'Academie des Sciences, Paris. 

(Continued from page 50, of No. III. 1867.) 

Chapter IV. — General Remarks, Geognostic History, and Conclusion. 

81. In the preceding chapters I have often insisted on the 
parallelism of the several chains of the Himalaya ; this parallelism is at 
once evident by reference to the map. Between the great parallels, we 
have seen that smaller, catenated chains make their appearance, filling 
up, as it were, with their spurs and branches, the great troughs 
formed by the principal parallel ridges. All the peaks and sinuosities 
of these catenated chains appear to present the same arrangement, viz. 
a highly crystalline and porphyritic variety of volcanic rock, passing 
gradually into others less crystalline, such as Trachyte, Felstone and 
Greenstone, and finally covered by ash, cinders, agglomerate, laterite, 
and compact azoic slate : these beds of ejecta, together with their 
intcrstratified layers of slate and sandstone, are all conformable to the 
fossiliferous strata by which they are covered, and have behaved like 
those at the final upheaval of the great system. But the more crystalline 
rocks, the several porphyries, the hornblende rocks, &c. do not appear 
to have been displaced laterally in any way to the same extent as the 
stratified layers; they rather seem to have been upheaved from 
underground as a solid mass, breaking through the beds of superficial 
trap and of volcanic ejecta. A similar disposition is likewise usual 
in granitic mountains, the granite supporting gneiss, schist, me- 
tamorphic slate and marble, and these being covered by fossiliferous 

To explain the cause of this arrangement, let us consider what 
is the section of a volcano, as far as it is known at present 
from a study of active and extinct ones. We have under the surface of 
the country, in which the volcano occurs, enormous masses of trachyte, 
becoming more and more crystalline and prophyritic as we proceed 
deeper, and probably passing gradually into granite. In some 

84 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

volcanoes this mass is perhaps upheaved during their activity, but 
what is upheaved above ground is certainly but a small proportion of 
what remains underneath. This mass is covered by the materials 
which have flowed out and have spread themselves on the surface, either 
under the sea or in the open air. A great deal of this fluid material 
does never reach the surface, but finds its way into the cracks and fis- 
sures of the trachyte and porphyry. The portion which flows on the 
surface, whether in the air or under water is a lava ; on the top of and 
interbedded with the lavas, scoriae, ashes, cinders, dust, broken rocks 
and mud, thrown into the air or into the sea by volcanic discharges, 
are arranged in gentle slopes on the sides of the volcanoes and in flat 
strata further off. Now, let us suppose that the volcanic activity 
becomes dormant or ceases : we shall have under the spot where the 
volcano once broke out, great masses of melted and metamorphosed 
matter solidifying into various sorts of trappean rocks, while on the 
surface, stratified and fossiliferous beds will be deposited on the top of 
the lava and ashes. Should then the whole district be submitted to 
an expansive force acting from within outwards, this force will be first 
and most intensely felt by the great mass of underground porphyry 
and trachyte, which will be forced up and break through what- 
ever covers it ; the beds of basalt and amygdaloid through which it 
is forced, will be displaced and thrown aside or on their flank, drag- 
ging with them the stratified beds of cinders and fossiliferous strata. 
If instead of one volcano, we have many, situated not very far 
apart, we shall have the superficial rocks thrown into endless confusion 
by the upheaval of the many masses of porphyry and trachyte, 
which once formed their bases. The surging up of these masses 
of crystalline rock will of course diminish very materially the space 
occupied by the lavas, the cinders and the fossiliferous rocks at the [ 
time of their deposition ; and these have therefore no other alternative ( 
but to be broken in pieces, and these pieces to be raised more or less 
towards a vertical position, according to the quantity of rocks to be I 
packed in a given space. Thus, for example, near the Kaj Nag range, ' 
we have vast deposits of felstone well hemmed in, on the south, by an | 
enormous thickness of passive terfciaries. When the huge mass of | 
porphyry of the centre of this system of mountains received its last 
upheaval, it took possession of a great extent of ground formerly 

1867. J the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 85 

covered by the felstone ; and this in its turn did its best to push the 
tertiaries further south, but this it only partially succeeded in doing ; 
and as there was much felstone and little room for it, the bed broke 
into pieces and these pieces became packed edgeways. 

82. Granite may be considered as the solidified matter of a volcano 
seated so far from the surface of the earth, that it never broke through 
its covering while the minerals were in a fluid or viscid state. It is 
the remains of a " blind volcano." Humboldt has described volcanic 
action, " the reaction of the interior of the earth on the external crust." 
This crust has to be broken through to allow of the escape of some of 
the internal matter; where the earth's crust resists the upward 
pressure, no crater is formed, no true volcano appears ; but the melted 
matter remains imprisoned under the crust, and there gradually 
solidifies under great pressure. The solidification will necessarily be 
made more slow at a great depth, than it would be near the surface 
and near a rent which allows of the evaporation of the intermolecular 
water to take place ; and it is the slowness of the cooling, the 
pressure sustained during the period of cooling, and the retention of 
intermolecular water and gases which cause the melted minerals to 
crystallise as granite and not as porphyry, greenstone or basalt. 

83. In regard to their geographical disposition, volcanoes can be 
classified into " central" and " linear." The " central" are those which 
arise by themselves and appear not to be connected with any other 
volcano; the "linear" are several outlets arranged along a probable 
fissure in the earth's crust, and the fissure is often parallel to one or 
many other fissures similarly indicated by a line of volcanoes ; or 
two fissures may cut one another obliquely, as we see in the Lipari 

84. Applying the above general remarks to the volcanic rocks of 
Cashmir, we first notice that previous to the carboniferous epoch, there 
existed linear volcanoes arranged in a direction parallel to the 
present general direction of the Himalaya, viz. N. W. and S. E. ; these 
volcanoes are now represented by the summits of Kaj-Nag and of the 
Kistwar and Badrawar and the peaks of the catenated chains of Cash- 
mir. These volcanoes vary much in importance, but no doubt can 
be entertained of their general great activity, if we remember the 
enormous amount of ejecta which they have thrown out. The well 

86 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

stratified arrangement of these ejected materials, especially those which 
are ejected in a loose and fragmentary condition, the amygdaloidal 
nature of nearly all the ash-rocks and some of the slates, and the 
existence of these slates interstratifled with the volcanic rocks, justify 
the idea that some of the volcanoes were islands and others subaqueous 
craters, in a sea of moderate depth, and it requires no great effort of 
the mind to picture to ourselves an archipelago of fire-emitting islands 
in the Silurian sea. 

At what time the volcanoes first out broke out, it is not at present 
possible to determine ; they appear to have subsided at the beginning 
of the Carboniferous epoch ; and though phenomena related to volcanic 
power, in the most general acceptance of that term, were not wanting 
during and after the Carboniferous epoch, yet it is certain, as far as 
we at present know, that no regular volcano ever existed in the 
western Himalaya after the great Silurian volcanoes had become 

85. It has been remarked in many parts of the world that, when a 
volanic district is, after the extinction of all craters, so disturbed that 
fissures are formed in the crust of the earth, these fissures do not pass 
through the old volcanic accumulations, but rather at a little distance 
from them. This has been explained by supposing that the masses of 
porphyry, trachyte and other once melted rocks,which have been ejected 
in the original volcanic fissures and amongst the rocks near this fissure, 
have so much strengthened the crust of the earth in the site of that 
fissure, that a new fracture takes place anywhere rather than across or 
along the old crack. If instead of one old crack we have many parallel 
cracks, the new fissures will then naturally take a direction parallel to 
the old fissures and will be situated between them. This has been the 
case in the Himalayas, and the great lines of fracture which were formed 
at the last upheaval, are none of them along the catenated volcanic 
chains, but between and parallel to these chains. But the catenated 
chains or lines of linear Silurian volcanoes determined the direction of 
the great lines of fracture which were formed at the last upheaval. We 
see therefore in the Himalayas great lines of fracture running N. W. and 
S. E., these fractures present a downthrow on the S. W. and the 
beds of rocks north-east of them form the great parallel chains of the 
Himalaya. The general dip of all these chains, and indeed of all the 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 87 

great beds of rock in these mountains, is towards the N. E. ; an explana- 
tion of the cause of this dip will be given hereafter. 

86. We have said that granite may be considered as the consoli- 
dated materials of " blind volcanoes ;" that is, the cooled down masses 
of fluid or viscid matter propelled by internal tension towards the 
surface of the globe, but not with a force sufficient to overcome the 
resistance offered by the earth's crust. The soundness of this hypothesis 
appears supported by the metamorphic influence of granite over im- 
mense tracts of country : the conversion of shales, limestone, and sand- 
stones and other rocks into gneiss, schist, marble and quartzite can only 
be explained either by supposing these shales, limestones, and sandstones 
to have been plunged deep into the bowels of the earth, there to be me- 
tamorphosed, — or else to have been the lid, covering and keeping under 
waves of fluid mineral matter. Now, the first supposition necessitates 
the assumption of very great disturbances of the earth's crust, of such 
disturbances as we cannot conceive or imagine by the analogy of any- 
thing we now see in the rocks of the surface of the globe. Neither is 
the idea of superficial stratified beds being plunged to a great depth 
into the earth, agreeable to the universal observation of a forcing-out 
power acting from the centre to the surface. The other supposition 
does not present the above-named objections : immense masses of 
melted matter may have approached sufficiently near the surface to 
have imparted great and continued heat to the deepest stratified beds, 
and may have underlaid great tracts of country, without disturbing, to 
a very great extent, the position of the strata which they metamor- 
phosed. Hence do we find beds of gneiss, schist and marble retaining 
great regularity of stratification for very many miles ; so much so, 
that it has been possible to classify these metamorphic rocks in regularly 
superposed formations, and to ascertain non-conformity between these 
beds, proving beyond a doubt their successive deposition.* It is 
impossible to understand how these beds could have preserved their 
relations, over a great extent of country, if it had been submitted, at one 
time, to a " oouleversement" so terrific and complete as to have plunged 
them under the solid crust of the earth, and, at another time, to the 
great upheaval necessary to bring them up again to the surface. 

* The great example of this is Sir W. Logan's Laurentian formations in 

88 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir , [No. 2, 

It is hardly necessary to add that the rolling of this great wave of 
melted minerals, under a certain part of the earth's crust, would set all 
the deep-seated waters to boil, would sublimate certain metals and 
elements, and that steam at a great heat, and occasionally impregnated 
with various vapours, would add its metamorphic influence to that of 
the heat disengaged from the molten granite underneath, and would 
here and their percolate and alter certain distant beds which would 
have otherwise escaped metamorphosis. 

It has been advanced that steam alone was sufficient to account for 
the metamorphism ; to me it appears inadequate to the work, when we 
come to consider the extensive beds of metamorphic rocks seen in 
several parts of the world. No Geyser, ever so hot, has yet been 
reported to have changed shales in its vicinity into gneiss or crystalline 
schists, though, I admit, the influence is often evident enough in beds 
of limestone. On the other hand, we know that dykes of greenstone, 
of basalt, or of amygdaloid have often converted sandstone into horn- 
stone or quartzite, and slate clay into flinty-state or jasper. It appears 
therefore evident, that heat is one of the most powerful, if not the 
principal agent of metamorphism ; it appears also necessary that the 
heat should be long sustained to produce such a great extent of metamor- 
phosed beds as those we are considering, and that it should be equally 
and uniformly distributed. It does not appear likely that this persistent 
and uniform heat was supplied by bursts of vapours, nor indeed have we 
any analogy in the present days of large tracts of country being sensibly 
modified by the permeation of steam. The slow cooling of a mass of 
molten mineral under pressure would be admirably adapted to the work 
of metamorphosing the superincumbent crust, over several hundred 
square miles of country. 

If the hypothesis advanced just now be accepted, we have no 
difficulty in understanding the graduating of granite into volcanic 
rocks ; it is indeed what we would naturally expect to see, wherever 
subsequent upheavals have exposed extensive granitic and trappean 

To facilitate the application of these remarks to the Himalaya 
mountains, let us make a theoretical section from the south-west to 
the north-east across the Silurian Archipelego of Kashmir and the 
sea to the north-east of it. 

1807.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 


•nreqo HTJUig 

•utimjq uon^j-noiiAj 

'nixjqQ utxj.iox ojtjg; 

•uniitf) sbiih 

' n J^HD po^no^Q 

•nreqQ itjfun j .uj 

•uiurio .ion $ *>S 





90 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kaslmvir, [No. 2, 

This theoretical section shows us a succession of volcanic islands or 
maritime or sub-aqueous volcanoes of which the base is a mass of 
melted matter, destined to solidify as porphyry, trachyte and other 
volcanic rocks, whilst the melted materials situated further from the 
vents are to solidify as granite. Over the granite, we find the crust 
more or less intact, though metamorphosed into gneiss, schist and 
marble ; over the porphyries and trachytes we find that it has 
been removed and torn up by the ejecting power of the melted 
mass making its way to the vents. Over and between the volcanoes, 
we find a very thick bed of ashes, broken stones, agglomerates 
and lavas. Over the granite we find, after the gneiss and schists, 
stratified deposits of Silurian shales and limestone. After the 
extinction of the volcanoes, we find the whole sea-bottom covered 
•with the fragments of animals of the Carboniferous period ; and thus 
"do we see in Kashmir the Carboniferous limestone resting confor- 
mably on the volcanic rocks, and not disturbed by their intrusion. 

Of course many changes, oscillations, denudations and depositions 
took place between the extinction of the Silurian volcanoes and the 
great final upheaval of the Himalayas ; but these changes do not 
appear to have been on a sufficiently grand scale to have affected, to 
any great degree, the lithological features of the earth's crust, in the 
portion of the globe we are considering. At the final upheaval, a 
series of new fissures were formed and are represented in the diagram 
above, and the position assumed by the several slices, between these 
fissures, is represented by the dotted outline. There are many more 
parallel fissures, I have no doubt, but they did not cause a great up- 
throw of one of their edges, and have therefore little to do with the 
general configuration of the Himalayas. 

The position of the fissures, hetiveen the old volcanic lines, and not on 
them, has produced the phenomenon that nearly all the highest peaks 
of the Himalaya are not situated on the chain to which they belong, 
but a little distance from it. The fissures, taking place in the weakest 
parts of the crust, followed the old valleys between the lines of volcanoes, 
and the volcanic masses are therefore superior to the chain formed by 
the edge of the fissure by the height these volcanic masses originally 
possessed. It is also reasonable to admit that the movement of up- 
heaval was more powerfully felt by huge masses of prophyry, trachyte, 

1SG7.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 91 

granite, gneiss, &c, which cannot be easily compressed or folded, than 
by the flat beds of dusts, slates, lavas, ashes and fossiliferous rocks. 

87. Glancing now at the Afghan mountains, we find that their 
chains have a steady direction from the north-east to the south-west. 
We find also that, as far as has been ascertained, the dip is invariably 
N. W. or W. N. W. ; that is, presents the same phenomenon as in 
the Himalaya, of the beds of rock rising towards the plains of India. 
This dip is that of all the rocks of the trans-Indus districts ; it is that 
of the beds in Verziristan, and of most of the nummulitic strata 
in Hazara, and indeed, wherever it has been possible to examine 
it, it has been found to be north-westerly. We cannot therefore refuse 
to admit, that the strike of the Afghan mountains meets the strike of 
the Himalayas, and the dip of the latter being North-easterly and 
that of the former North-westerly, we are justified in concluding, that 
the whole of these huge mountains forms one and the same system of 
upheaval ; that a tremendous dome or swell did surge up in the region 
of our Silurian volcanic archipelagoes, anil that the Himalayas on one 
side and the Afghan mountains on the other are faulted slopes of a 
gigantic oblique anticlinal ! 

A true anticlinal it cannot be called ; it is more properly the result 
of an incalculable force pressing outwardly the crust of the earth and 
endeavouring to raise it into a dome ; and as such a dome could neither 
be raised nor settled down again without much fracturing of the crust 
of the earth, the lines of fracture followed the direction of the old 
volcanic lines, and on one side ran N. W. — S. E. (Himalayas) and on 
the other N. W. — S. E. (Afghan mountains). 

No good explanation has yet been advanced of the general N. E. 
clip of the Himalaya; none has even been attempted of the N. W. 
dip of the Afghan mountains. By placing the axis of the dome 
between these two masses of mountains, and considering these moun- 
tains as the opposite jambs of an oblique anticlinal, the singular dip 
of both is satisfactorily explained. 

88. PL XI. is intended to give an idea of the great fissures of the 
Afghan-Himalayan system of mountains, 

92 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

We must not forget that the fissures went through portions of the 
crust, having a much greater power of resistance in some places than 
in others, being here brittle, there tenacious, here rigid and there easily- 
bent ; and we must not expect too much regularity in the fissures, 
but be prepared for occasional deviations from the general direction. 
The Miocene beds, which present the greatest uniformity of formation, 
have everywhere the most regular strike, in spite of their numerous 
foldings and faults ; the great beds of felstone are also tolerably 
regular in their general dip, and so are the great beds of Carboniferous 
limestone in Kashmir, though of course the smaller beds, especially 
those close against high summits, have a local dip and strike. The 
interminable masses of metamorphic schists, described by travellers in 
several parts of the Himalayas, have also a steady N. E. dip, and 
Captain E. Strachey tells us that in that portion of the Himalayas which 
he examined, the N. E. dip was the general one. On the Afghan 
side of the oblique anticlinal the Miocene again presents the greatest 
regularity, and the Nummulitic formation nearly equals it ; the dip of 
both these formations is very steadily towards the N. W. 

Another cause which has no doubt contributed to break the uni- 
formity of the parallelism of the chains is the pressure, in some places, 
of such enormous accumulations of volcanic porphyry as we see at the 
Kaj-Nag and in Kistwar and Badrawar. These centres of volcanic 
rock appear to have been very huge ; they were undoubtedly solidified 
long before they became upheaved, as they were formed during the 
Silurian epoch, and did not receive their upheaval until the Tertiary 
period had been nearly run out. They were, therefore, raised up 
bodily as solid masses, and they had been too huge to arrange themselves 
in the general parallelism of the fissures. I have represented them in 
the plate as huge centres of volcanic action, regarding them as too 
enormous to be displaced by even the force which has uplifted the 
great dome of the Afghan -Himalayan system ; they were merely 
forced up. The Sufed Koh and the Koh-i-Baba in the Afghan moun- 
tains occupy a similar position in relation to the parallel chains ; the | 
first named is probably a volcanic mass, and I have assumed that the 
other is likewise a porphyry centre. It is probable that certain ! 
granite masses have acted in a like manner ; but it would be of little 
profit to speculate about those masses, knowing at present nothing 
positive regarding them. 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Jfylian Mountains. 93 

The fissures just described being once formed, we have no difficulty 
in understanding how the slices of crust between them were compelled 
to remain in an oblique position, viz. dipping N. E. and N. W. 
respectively, when the settlement took place, if we remember, that a 
great deal of granite, lignite, porphyry, trachyte, &c. buried under the 
surface before the upheaval, had now been forced up and occupied 
a great portion of the room ; unable to find space enough to resume a 
horizontal position, these bands of the earth's crust became impacted 
in the position we now see them. 

89. Coming down from the high regions of the Himalaya and of 
the Afghan mountains to the Salt Range and the hills of the district 
of Bunnoo, we notice the interesting phenomenon of the tilting up of 
the angular extremity of the piece of crust that had been broken off, 
between the converging fissures of the Sub-Himalaya and the Sub- 
Afghan hills. This crop-fracture is just such as we see near the 
point of an angular piece of a window-pane which has been starred 
by a blow. The dip of the Salt Range and the Bunnoo hills is 
consequently disposed in a somewhat converging manner, such as is 
indicated by the arrows in PI. XI. ; the crop fracture is not a straight 
line ; it is a succession of segments of a circle, and the dip of each 
segment is converging more or less towards the centre of its circle. 

It is, however, possible that this breaking of the tip of the triangular 
piece of crust is only apparent, and that the segmentary and converging 
dip of the beds may be due to a complexity of resultant forces, at the 
place where the N. W. and N. W. dips meet. 

To the south of the Salt Range extend the vast plains of the Punjab, 
Ajmeer and Marwar, covered mostly with clay and sand, often a desert 
without a hill or even a mound to relieve the monotony, and with 
hardly a pebble to be found for some hundreds of miles. So far south 
as Lat N. 27° these great plains extend without a break, and then 
we find the volcanic rocks of Central India, supporting here and there 
beds of sandstone with mammalian bones* similar to those which are 
so. well developed in the Sub-Himalaya and Sub-Afghan ranges. 
Whether the wdiole, a portion, or none of the volcanic rocks of Central 
India are contemporaneous to those of the Himalaya, I know not, 

, * Bones of extinct mammals have been found in the Valley of the Nerbudda, 
South of Lat. N. 21°, no Miocene has ever been found. 

94 Dr. VercMre on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

•though it is highly probable that some at least belong to the same 
epoch. I think it would be a most interesting point to study, 
whether the Central Indian 'Mountains participated in the great 
upheaval of the Afghan- Himalayan system, and to what extent they 
did so. Such a subject is not, however, to be discussed here, en 
passant. We must know more of what is buried under the alluvial 
sands and clays of the Punjab and the desert of Ajrneer, before we can 
decide on the relations of the Himalaya and Central Indian Mountains. 
The study of the Miocene beds appears the most likely sort of research 
to lead to interesting results. Could we once show satisfactorily 
that the plains of Northern India have been one day, and that not long 
ago (geologically speaking) a rugged country covered with Miocene 
hillocks and ridges, we should soon get an insight into the participa- 
tion of the Central Indian Mountains in the great Afghan-Himalayan 
upheaval, and also into the nature of the soils and sub-soils of. 
Upper India. 

90. Let us now endeavour to sketch a geognostic history of the 
Afghan-Himalayan system of mountains, in accordance with the 
observations and hypotheses recorded in this paper.* 

In the days of the Silurian epoch, the centre of Asia may be assum- 
ed to have been a sea uniting the Arctic to the Indian Ocean. In 
the middle of this sea, an archipelago of volcanic islands and subaqueous 
volcanoes existed, displaying great activity and ejecting into the sea 
an immense quantity of matter. 

The position of these volcanoes and subaqueous vents is now 
represented by the porphyritic masses of Kaj-Nag, of Kistwar and 
Badrawar, by the summits of the catenated chains of Kashmir, 
&c, &c. The volcanoes were linear in their arrangement ; one line, 
that of Kaj-Nag, Badrawar and Kistwar being continued far towards 
the south-east; and it is probable that the peaks of Chor, of Dodatoli 
and others in the same districts, are volcanic peaks on the same 
fissure. Another line or rather series of lines is that of the catenated 
chains in Kashmir, with a probable S. E. extension in the range 
of mountains which separate Lahool from Chumba. Another line 
again is that of Brass and Karghyl, at the back of the Ser and Mer 

* A few unavoidable repetitions which occur in this portion of the paper will, 
I hope, be excused, 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 95 

chain, and which is continued far towards the S. E., forming numerous 
and considerable volcanic mountains which appear as islands and 
promontories above the flat plain of the great Thibet plateau, through 
which the Sutlej runs. 

These lines or fissures had a direction N. "W. — S. E. and were 
all parallel, but the activity of the volcanoes was not the same 
on all the lines or in different parts of each line. Thus, in the line of 
Kaj-Nag and Badrawar, Chor and Dodatoli, the north-western end of 
the line is eminently distinguished and marked by very numerous and 
very long volcanoes, whilst the eastern one only gave passage to a few 
vents separated from each other by considerable intervals. On the 
other hand, (on another line) in Ladak, the volcanoes appear to have 
been small and few, whilst the eastern ends of the fissures appear to 
have been marked with many volcanoes of great size and activity. 
No volcanoes appear to have existed in that portion of the Silurian 
sea, where we now have the high mountains of Kailas and Karokoram ; 
but where the Kuen Luen chain was at a later age to appear, it 
seems, that one or two lines of linear volcanoes did exist at the begin- 
ning of the Paheozoic epoch. 

How long, how many thousands of years these volcanoes kept at 
their work, it is impossible even to guess. Their activity was immense, 
and it appears that in the waters which bathed the shores of the volcanic 
archipelago, too many outlets kept continually pouring out hot cjecta 
and noxious vapours to have allowed life to be present. We have seen 
that there is considerable evidence of the sea-bottom having been 
frequently heated enough to become cellular and amygdaloidal, and a 
reference to the section of the Tukt-i Suliman in Kashmir will, T think, 
leave little doubt of the frequency, the violence and the abundance 
of the discharges of lava, of lapilli, of ashes, and of hot liquid mud. 
We therefore find no Silurian fossils in Kashmir, and the slates and 
sandstones which are interbedded with the volcanic ejecta are complete- 
ly deprived of fossils. This want of organic life did not, however, 
affect those portions of the sea which were sufficiently distant from the 
subaqueous craters and volcanic islands to escape the destructive effects 
of ejected materials ; and we find, therefore, in the Karokoram chain 
and also in the Himalaya, between the Sutlej and the Kali, large beds 
of Silurian rocks with the usual fossils. These rocks are, as we have 

96 Dr. Verchere on tlie Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

seen, slates and shales which have until now proved azoic, but covered 
in by limestone rich in forms of the older Pakeozoic period. 

I need hardly say that the azoic slates, shales and sandstones which 
are interbedded with the ashes and amygdaloids in Kashmir are of 
Silurian date ; if we wish, therefore, to colour a map of Kashmir 
solely in regard to the age of the rocks, we should have to colour 
all the ashes, slates, &c. Silurian. As the volcanic ejecta much 
predominate in quantity over the azoic slates and sandstone, I have 
not coloured the mass solely by age, but rather in view of the nature 
of the rocks. 

But the Himalayan lines of insular volcanoes were not the only 
ones in that portion of the Silurian sea which we are considering ; 
other linear volcanoes were directed from the N. E. to the S. W. 
in the longitudes and latitudes where we now find the great 
Afghan mountains. We know very little of these mountains : 
we have seen, however, that volcanic rocks of a granitoid appear- 
ance form the ranges of hills between Yeusofzaie and Bonneyr, and 
that clinkstone, granular and porphyritic, is quarried at Jellalabad. 
Dr. Bellew also tells us that he noticed volcanic rocks amongst the 
southern spurs of the Sufed Koh.* He also mentions that sharp 
earthquakes are frequent in the valley of the Korum, and it is re- ! 
ported by the Povinclas who trade through the Grulwaira Pass, that 
a city situated at the back of the Suliman chains has been destroyed 
by a terrific earthquake. I need not point out the usual relation of 
severe earthquakes with accumulations of volcanic porphyries, in ; 
countries where no active volcanoes have been known to exist for 
several geological ages past. Then we have seen that the summits 
of the main chain of mountains, in the Vuzeeri country, are mostly i 
composed of volcanic rocks ; but the greatest amount of evidence is 

* After crossing the hill-pass of Hazrah-Shutur-Gardan, the road lies through 
a gorge, and a stream or rivulet flows to the westward ; in the bed of this rivulet 
pebbles of porphyry, hornblende and syenite (?) were seen ; the surface of the ; 

soil was also covered with similar pebbles Near the top of the Shinghai i 

Kothul, the volcanic rocks were again seen : Dr. Bellew says : " The surface 
was strewed with great blocks and fragments of porphyry and syenite, 
the latter was of various shades, from yellowish-green to greenish-brown, 
and its fragments shone with a vitreous lustre and broke with a similar frac- ! 
ture." Chapter II. Narrative of a Mission to Kandahar. The above descrip- 
tion of syenite does not look much like syenite, it is nearly certain that tho 
rock observed was a hypersthene rock. 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 97 

derived from the boulders brought down by torrents and from those 
formerly carried down and now imbedded in the Miocene conglo- 
merates which fringe the base of the Afghan mountains. These 
boulders and pebbles are mostly greenstone, felstone, trachyte, and 
porphyry identical with the Himalayan hornblende rock ; and that- 
peculiar variety of amygdaloidal greenstone, pierced with gas-vents, 
which has been described at No. 4 of the section of the Tukt-i-Suliman 
in Kashmir, para. 18, occurs in great abundance. (See also PL x. 
figs. 1. la.) 

There can be, therefore, no possible doubt that the Afghan mountains 
were at the Silurian epoch an archipelago of volcanic islands and 
subaqueous volcanoes ; indeed, they were merely another group of the 
same great archipelago ; but the fissures or lines on which the vents 
were situated had a direction N. E., S. W. 

Towards the end of the older Palaeozoic epoch, the volcanoes appear 
to have subsided in violence, and allowed the waters of the neighbour- 
ing sea to cool. They did not do so, however, until they had ejected 
so much lava, scoria?, lapilli, ashes, and debris of the inside of the 
earth that a great bar, a bar going from the North-west to tho 
South-east and studded with the island-cones of half extinguished 
volcanoes, had been formed across the sea. A similar bar was 
produced by the Afghan group of volcanoes, directed N. E., S. W. and 
the two bars formed a gigantic V, with the angle pointing to 
the north. On these bars the sea was shallow ; neither was it likely 
to be very deep between the two branches of the V. The end of the 
great activity of the volcanoes appears to have been marked by the 
breaking out of a great number of fumaroles or hot springs, depositing 
an immense quantity of silica, and forming thick beds of quartzite, some- 
times pure and clear as glass, sometimes white and opaque as porcelain. 
We must not forget also, that all analogy points to a general rising 
of the sea bottom at the north-cast of the Himalayan volcanic bar, 
not as a break, but as a gradual and slow upheaval of the earth's 
crust under the pressure of viscid granite. 

But even these last efforts of the great volcanoes, these bursts of 
vapours and hot waters, became rare and intermittent, and animals 
made their appearance in the creeks and bays of the sea between the 
islands. It was then the dawn of the Carboniferous epoch, and all 


98 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

over the great bars of volcanic debris a calcareous mud was deposited, 
teeming with the remains of animals, with the glimmering shells of 
the Producti, with large flat Orthidce, and innumerable Bryozoa and 
numerous Encrinites which grew luxuriantly on the half chalky, half 
clayey, foetid bottom of well protected island seas, gulfs and channels. 
And so it went on for years and years, until the sea became too shallow 
for Producti and Orthidce to live in, and too easily disturbed to its 
very bottom to suit the delicate Bryozoa. These animals retired to 
greater depths on either side of the great bar, and in their stead 
appeared small Gucullce, globular Terebratulce, with here and there, 
on sandy banks, colonies of large Cardinice or Anthracosice, gibbose 
and smooth Aviculo-pectens, or radiated ones of great size. In calm 
waters, flat and large species of Goniatites basked in the sun in company 
with small Orthoceratidce and large species of Bellerophon. Earthquakes 
were, however, frequent and terrible, raising and depressing large 
tracts of sea-bottom, folding and undulating the newly formed beds of 
limestone, so that most of the shells are found broken, and many of 
them are deformed to a wonderful extent. 

Many changes occurred in the sea : clay and sand had been brought 
down in large quantities from the volcanic islands, and many of the 
creeks and inland seas were turned into swamps. Long shelving , 
coast-lines extended from island to island, and many groups of the 
great archipelago were probably united by a low land into larger 
insular countries. ' The genera Gucullcea, Cardinia and Aviculo-peden, I 
and small Brachiopoda disappeared ; and in their stead myriads of 
Gasteropoda, especially the Pyramidellidce, living with numerous corals, i 
made their appearance. As the islands joined more and more into larger 
dry lands, and approached nearer to a long strip of land supporting 
numerous peaks of extinct volcanoes, the rain-fall increased more 
and more, sand, mud and gravel accumulated in thicker beds at the 
mouth of the mountain torrents which now became rivers, and on the 
swampy shores forests of calamites and other trees grew up, whilst, 
out at sea, the mollusks and other animals continued to thrive at various 
depths, according to their kind. What has now become of these forests ; 
of calamites ? Have they been buried in sands by oscillations of the | 
coast and converted into coal ? If they have, has the coal been denuded 
at a subsequent period ? or has some portion of it escaped removal and 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 99 

does it now lie concealed under newer formations? There is no doubt 
that great denudation has taken place repeatedly in the Himalaya and 
subordinate hills ; yet basins nicely protected by eruptive or metamor- 
phic rocks, bottoms of valleys or down-thrown beds might have escaped 
removal. Not a trace of true coal has yet been found in the Himalayas, 
the Punjab or the Afghan mountains, excepting (geologically speak, 
ing) the few grains of coal which fill in the cellular tissue of the 
lepidodendron-like plants described in para. 43, as having been found 
in one of the layers of the Wean group. This is not very encourag- 
ing ; but any person who has observed what a thick mantle the 
Miocene sandstones and the old and new alluvia form over the older 
formations, would not expect to find coal cropping out in a conspicuous 
manner. If coal does exist, it will be one day discovered, no doubt ; 
but the discovery will be made by patient and careful study, and not 
by digging at random with a pickaxe wherever something black is 
observed. It may be said with truth that the means hitherto employed, 
by Government or persons interested in the search for coal, have been 
such that not the smallest reasonable chance of success could be anti- 
cipated.* But all this is foreign to our subject. 

91. The end of the Palaeozoic epoch or beginning of the Secondary 
period was marked by new volcanic action, trifling indeed, if we 
compare it to the intensity of volcanic power displayed during the 
Silurian time, but yet highly interesting. I allude to these local out- 
bursts of hot vapours, gases and waters, charged with several minerals, 
which have taken place in many distant places of the Himalayas 
and their dependencies. The action is geyserian rather than volcanic, 
as no true volcanic rocks, that is, no lava, no scoriae and no ash appear 
to have been discharged by these vents. The existence of this force 
is mostly manifested by the metamorphism it has caused in some of 
the upper beds of the Carboniferous limestone, and by the peculiar 
way it twisted rocks, then soft, in a manner which appears now 
incomprehensible, and totally abnormal to the surrounding layers. 
In some localities, however, it seems that the waters, erupting through 
the calcareous mud, were so rich in felspars, that this crystallised in 

* This remark applies only to the Punjab and the mountainous districts 
studied in this paper. 

100 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

minute crystals which now form a sort of intrusive band of a friable 
incoherent rock. 

When this geyserian action subsided, the Palaeozoic animals had 
died out. 

92. I now enter upon debatable ground. I have said before, that 
the salt, gypsum and red marl of the Salt Kange — and I need hardly 
say the gypsum and red marl of Spiti, the gypsum of Rukshu 
(and that of Rodok ?), and most probably the salt of the Yarkandkash 
valley, and also that of the Lataband mountains in Badakshan, all 
belong to the same epoch and have probably a common origin. 
I have said before that, this Saliferian formation has been placed by 
Dr. A. Fleming in the Devonian. Dr. Jameson makes it superior to 
the Carboniferous ; Major Vicary and M. Marcadieu believed it to be 
Miocene or Pliocene ; some will have it volcanic, others sedimentary • 
but nobody gives a good and well defined section of the relations 
of this formation to the rocks above and below it.* This is much to 
be regretted, and I will not increase the confusion by discussing here 
the reasons which make me believe that the salt and gypsum of the 
Himalayas belong to the Trias or the Permian. My opportunities 
of observing the Saliferian formation have been few and of short 
duration, and I have no good section to give in support of my opinion. 
I shall therefore refer the reader to the note to para. 64, and proceed 
with the next formation. 

93. Whatever had taken place beeween the end of the Carboni- 
ferous epoch and the beginning of the Jurassic, it appears tolerably 
evident that the Jurassic sea bathed the shores of a long strip of 
land or succession of large islands, very similar to those which the 
Carboniferous sea had bounded. The Jurassic sea does not appear to 
have been much deeper than the Carboniferous one had been ; the same 
impurity of the limestone is noticed, the same admixture of sand and 
clay with the calcareous matter, the same rarity of clean drifted sands, 
the same prevalence of thin-bedcling, false-bedding and continual 

* Br. A. Fleming gives some sections in his Eeport on the structure of the 
Salt Range ; but only two of these show the relations of the salt marl to the 
Carboniferous limestone, and in one, sect. No. VIII., a number of more or less 
theoretical faults are introduced which, if placed at the base of the mountain ! 
limestone escapements, would then make this rock inferior to the salt. Another 
section, No. VII. shows an anticlinal across a ravine, and then the salt marl 
appears indeed to be placed under the Carboniferous limestone, 

18 07.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 101 

change of the nature and weight of materials. All these conditions, and 
the frequency of ripple marks, indicate a shallow sea easily influenced 
by heavy outpours of muddy waters from the land. The thickness of the 
Jurassic rocks vary veries much, and the extent of the beds is limited 
to very small areas, compared to those of the Carboniferous. This is 
probably due to the deposition taking place in creeks of a deeply 
indented coast, and in great part to the oscillations of the land and sea 
bottom, causing in some localities repeated denudation of materials 
newly deposited, and in others a steady sinking and consequent thick- 
ness of formation. The fossils being frequently much deformed, is a 
good evidence of these oscillations having taken place. 

The Jurassic beds have always been considered conformable to the 
Carboniferous. I am inclined to believe that this conformity is only 
apparent. The dip of both formations is generally great, seldom 
under an average of 45°. In such highly up-tilted beds, a difference 
of a few degrees is not easily appreciated, unless a careful measurement 
is taken, and I fancy that most writers have been satisfied with an 
approximation. However this may be, there is no doubt that the 
Jurassic limestone presents, in very many places, indeed in most, 
the appearance of having sustained very sharp local upheavals, 
soon after the end of the Secondary period, but of little extent ; 
and here again we find the salt, gypsum and red marl always 
underlying these sharp and dome-like anticlinals. We remember how 
Sheikh Bodeen is thrown into a succession of short, gothic, arch-like 
anticlinals ; and that under the Jurassic beds the Saliferian are to be 
seen, perfectly conformable to the limestone and following it in all its 
oscillations. At Marec on the Indus, a similar appearance occurs : 
thick masses of salt, gypsum with bi-pyramidal crystals, quartz, 
red marl and magnesian mud stone more or less cellular, support 
a very sharp anticlinal of Jurassic limestone ; and the Saliferian and 
Jurassic are conformable not only in general dip, but in all the details 
of the fold. Moreover, both the Silurian and Jurassic dip S. 
(2 or 3 degrees E.) and N. (2 or 3 degrees W.) on both sides 
of the anticlinal dip, which are not the usual ones of the other rocks of 
that portion of the Salt Range, the Nummulitic and the Miocene dip- 
ping N. E. 

Whether these local upheavals are merely due to the swelling of 

102 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

the gypseous beds from the change of anhydrite into common gypsum 
by absorption of water, is more than I can say. The Saliferian beds 
would naturally break, dislocate and lift up the superincumbent 
Jurassic when swelling itself into undulations. We should thus obtain 
undulated beds of Saliferian and Jurassic. Let such undulated layers 
be submitted to the lateral pressure which must have accompanied the 
great upheaval of the Afghan-Himalayan system, and we have the 
undulations folded into arches and sharp bends. 

The Saliferian and Jurassic have been very much denuded, their 
debris being extremely abundant in some beds of conglomerate and 
sandstone of the Miocene, especially on the western side of the 
Indus, in the districts of Kohat and Bunnoo. 

94. There are but few traces of the deposits which may have 
taken place between the Oolite and the Nummulitic, and I have never 
myself seen any cretaceous rocks in the western Himalaya* or the 
Afghan mountains, neither have I found any pebbles with cretaceous 
fossils in the conglomerates of the Miocene, From the development 
of considerable vegetation in the shales near the base of the Nummulitic 
formation, it is evident that a steady rising of the land went on during 
the time of the upper Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, and with such 
a rising we would naturally associate the great denudation of the 
Jurassic beds, soon after their deposition. Little doubt can be 
entertained that during the Cretaceous period, the Himalayan and 
Afghan islands had become united into a continent of considerable 
extent, traversed by chains of extinct volcanic ridges, and therefore 
receiving an abundant rain-fall which caused great denudation. We 
know how quickly volcanic mountains decay, when once they have 
ceased to receive fresh supply of ejecta. I believe that the cretaceous 
beds which have been found in and near the Himalaya are very 
limited in extent, even more so than the Jurassic beds. The small 
horizontal area of these Secondary beds contrasts widely with the great 
superficial extent of the Carboniferous, the Nummulitic and Miocene 
formations ; and yet when they do occur, the Jurassic beds at least 
have considerable power. A continent with a deeply indented coast 
appears to be indicated by these peculiarities of the Secondary beds. 

* Dr. Stoliczka has found Cretaceous rocks in the mountains of Spiti. 

Editor's note. 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 103 

95. The Nummulitic epoch must have been a long one, if we can 
judge by the thickness of its deposits. There does not appear to have 
been any violent volcanic action, nor any great and sudden movement 
during the period, but there was a great deal of very slow and 
probably imperceptible oscillation. Thus we first find the base of 
the Nummulitic to be generally a sandstone without fossils,* this 
is gradually impregnated with calcareous matter, becoming a sandy, 
very impure limestone, full of shallow water fossils and containing 
only a few very small species of Nummulites. This has been therefore 
a period of slow and trifling sinking of the land, and it is probable 
that the sea never covered it by more than a few feet. Then the 
oscillation went the other way, and the land appeared again, and was 
covered by forests. Another slow sinking brought on a fresh incursion 
of the sea, which soon covered the forests (lignite) with a layer of 
limestone, full of large Nummulites and other shells. The depth of 
the sea was greater than before the growth of the forests, but it 
probably did not much exceed 20 fathoms. Another movement upwards 
again exposed the land, and again forests grew and formed thin seams 
of lignite. Again the land sank and the sea covered in the lignite-beds 
with calcareous mud. At first the depth was trifling, little exceeding 
20 fathoms, but the sinking continued to the end of the Nummulitic 
period, and the limestone assumes more and more the appearance of a 
deep-sea formation as we get higher up the series. It is, however 
improbable that the volcanic mountains of the great bars of the 
Himalaya and Afghan mountains were ever covered by the Num- 
mulitic sea, as no nummulite has ever been found amongst the 
central chains ;f but that sea filled up the whole of the space between 
the arms of the great everted V formed by the Himalayan and the 
Afghan chains, and probably also bathed the outside shores of the arms 
of the V. This slow, gradual and long continued sinking of the 
land, during the deposition of the Upper Nummulitic formation, 
accounts for the appearance of no great depth in rocks which have 

* Sometimes a fragile limestone with Planorhis, and probably fresh- water. 
See note to para. 66, chap. iii. 

t Dr. T. Thomson reported having observed Nummulitic Limestone in Little 
Thibet at an elevation of 16,500 feet. But I much doubt the accuracy 
of the observation, and cannot help imagining that the Thibet nummulites are, 
like those of Manus Bal, weathered encrinite rings. See "Introduction," 
page ii. 

104 Dr. Vercliere on the Geology of Kashmii; [No. 2, 

a very considerable thickness ; the sinking was, however, greater than 
the amount of deposit could compensate, and the rocks have therefore 
the appearance of a tolerably deep sea formation at the top of the 
Nummulitic series. Then again, we have a long and steady rising of 
the land, and in consequence a great denudation going on, a denuda- 
tion which has caused the removal of a great deal of the Nummulitic 
formation, in localities where sea-currents, high-tides and other un- 
favourable circumstances assisted in the work of destruction. It is 
curious to notice on the top of the Nummulitic limestone, how the 
surface of the rock has been broken by the waves ; how the fragments 
have been rolled and rubbed and then glued together again. This 
appearance is always seen as a bed of transition between the Num- 
mulitic and the Miocene. A considerable time must have elapsed 
between the end of the deposition of the bed and the breaking 
up of it, as we must allow time for its solidification. But at any rate, 
here, at the beginning of the Miocene epoch, we had the Nummulitio 
limestone forming a nearly horizontal and far-reaching sea-coast, 
covered with a very thin sheet of water, rolling and polishing pebbles. 
But this conglomeratic layer is thin, and we very soon see a large 
quantity of mud and sand, and pebbles of far distant rocks, brought 
down to the sea. 

96. Let us consider the kind of map we have at the beginning of 
the Miocene epoch, and we will have no difficulty in understanding 
the formation of the Miocene sandstone and conglomerates of the Sub- 
Himalayan and Sub- Afghan chains. We have an immense expanse 
of sea, north of the tropic of Capricorn, between the latitudes 90° W. 
and 90° E., for, in these days, the Andes had not yet surged up and 
most of South America was under water, as well as nearly the whole of 
Africa, Arabia, Persia and India. There were probably groups of islands 
where these continents now stand, but the immense, dry, thirsty 
plains and plateaux of these countries were then under the sea. 
There was therefore no impediment to the regular play of the Trade 
Winds, no monsoons or winds deviated by the rarifying power of arid 
deserts, but especially no chains of mountains to dry the S. E. 
trade-winds before their arrival at the equator, and their ascending 
to become upper currents with a direction to the N. E. At the 
tropic of Cancer, these winds, still charged with the whole of the 

1^07.] the Western Himalaya and Afyhan Mountains. 105 

humidity they had sucked from the sea in the Southern Hemisphere, 
descend again and become under or lower currents, keeping their 
N. E. direction.* Before proceeding far, these winds meet a couple 
of ranges of mountains forming a great everted V, opening to 
the south, and on these ranges they poured such a quantity of rain 
that a denudation began to take place to an amount nowhere else 
exemplified. The only approach to this rain-fall is that now observed 
in Patagonia, a high country which happens to be situated in the 
Southern Himisphere, somewhat in a position analogous to that of 
the Himalaya in the Northern Hemisphere during the Miocene epoch. 
In Patagonia " Captain King found the astonishing rain-fall of 
J nearly thirteen feet (151 inches) in forty-one days ; and Mr. 
f Darwin reports, that the surface water of the sea, along this part of 
" the South American coast, is sometimes quite fresh, from the vast 
11 quantity of rain that falls. "f 

We are now therefore prepared to anticipate a formation composed 
of coarse debris of the older mountains, washed down by violent 
torrents ; we understand how it is that the waters of the sea lost their 
saltness, and that marine shells deserted these regions, and are therefore 
not to be found as fossils, or are at any rate excessively rare. The 
continual and violent rushing of streams, charged with mud and 
boulders, did not allow of the development of fluviatile animals; and thus 
we find the lower Miocene a mass of clay, sand and large boulders, in 
beds considerably false-bedded and totally free of fossils, with the excep- 
tion, in a few protected localities, of some bulrushes imbedded in salt. 
These torrents occasionally tore up forests from the mountain sides in 
their headlong course, and thus it is that we find here and there 
small niduses of semi-carbonized wood, interred in the sandstone. The 
masses of conglomerate, accumulated in certain places, are of tremendous 
size, and probably mark the exit from the hills of the principal torrents 
of the Miocene Himalaya. The deposit of this coarse debris of the 
old volcanic chain and of the several deposits which had become 
gradually accumulated round it, attains a thickness of no less than 
5,000 feet, and probably in some places much more. This mass of 

* See for a general explanation of the routes of the winds and the causes 
which alter these routes, the work of Captain Maury, L. L. D., U. S. N. entitled, 
" The Physical Geography of the Sea and its Meteorology." 

t Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea and its Meteorolgy. Page 129 


106 Dr. Vevchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. % 

clay, sand and boulders could not fail to convert the sea, which we 
have seen was shallow, into dry land, and thus we have this overlap- 
ping of the Upper Micoene on the edge of the Lower which is represented 
at para. 11. The Lower Miocene was itself exposed to the denudating 
influence of the rain, and boulders of Lower Miocene sandstone are 
common in the Upper Miocene. 

The Upper Miocene appears to have been altogether a fresh -water 
formation ; I mean, an accumulation of materials brought down by 
rivers of large size, which, in all probability, wandered through the flat 
plains of the lower Miocene, and extended in deltas and marshes and 
creeks, just as the Granges and the Indus are observed to do now-a- 
days. We may fairly imagine these Miocene tracts to have resembled 
closely a modern Indian plain traversed by large inundating rivers — 
a thick jungle of high grass and small trees for the elephant, the 
mastodon, the monkey, and a host of other animals to dwell in, and on 
the sides of the large meandering rivers, wastes of sand and clay, shallow 
pools and quicksands for the delight of the crocodiles, the tortoises and 
the hippopotamus. On sands left dry by changes in the course of the 
rivers, or piled up in undulating hillocks by the winds, grew thinly 
planted trees, such as we now see in the sandy tracts of Scinde, to feed 
and shelter the camel, the giraffe, and innumerable deer of various 
species ; and on intermediate lands, good pasture supported the horse, 
the ox and sivatherium. 

In the districts of Rawul Pindee, of Jheelum, of Bunnoo, of Kohat, 
the Upper Miocene has a thickness of more than 2,000 feet ; but 
in the Bajaori and Poonch provinces of the Maharajah of Jummoo's 
kingdom, the bed attains a much greater thickness. 

Any one who travels through the plains of the Punjab will 
notice the great quantity of cows, of oxen and horses seen loose on 
the sand near every village, and will remark at the same time, that 
when a stream has cut through the sand and thus exposed a section, 
not a bone is seen buried under the surface. If, however, he comes 
to a marsh, such as the one near Guriwall, in Bunnoo, he will 
observe that the bones will remain perfectly preserved in the 
thick mud, saturated with kullur* which forms the bottom of the 

* Impure Sulphate of soda, with a little carbonate of soda and chloride of 
sodium, which impregnates, more or less, nearly the whole of the soil of the Pun« 
jab, and effloresces on the surface after rain or irrigation. 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 107 

marsh. Now this hullur appears to have existed in the soil of 
the Upper Miocene, as the sandstones of that age are often covered 
with an efflorescence of that salt ; and, indeed, that now seen in 
the alluvium is derived from the disintegrating, decaying and 
washing away of the Miocene beds. The fossil bones are always 
found either in a dark clay-stone, which has a bitter taste when 
applied to the tongue, or in a light-coloured sandy claystone. It 
is therefore highly probable that the existence of a marsh or swamp 
is necessary to the preservation of bones and their fossilification. This 
accounts for the bones being found in beds of limited extent, whilst 
for many miles not one is to be discovered ; but it also brings 
additional evidence that the Upper Miocene was deposited as a growing 
delta, similar to the Sunderbunds of the Ganges and to the creeks of 
the mouths of the Indus. 

What a singular landscape this belt of land must have presented ! 
If we remember that at least seven different species of elephants 
roamed in these jungles, some much larger than the living one, and 
with tusks nine feet and a half long ; that the dinotherium had a skull 
three feet and nine inches in length ; that the mastodon was 17 feet 
Jong from the tail to the end of the tusks; that the sivatherium was a 
gigantic four-horned antelope-like animal ; that the crocodiles were 
much larger than they are at present, and that the tortoises had a shell 
measuring 20 feet across ; we may wonder indeed at the strange 
appearance which the jungles must have presented ! ! 

I have called this fossilifer,ous formation Upper Miocene. In placing 
it in the Miocene, I have adopted the general opinion of geologists, 
but it may be Pliocenic and not Miocenic. I have not succeeded yet 
in discovering shells in these beds, and without shells it is impossible 
to fix with certainty the age of the formation. 

I have forgotten to notice, that during the whole of the Miocene 
epoch there was a slow and steady sinking of the land. This sinking- 
allowed of the accumulation of materials to the great thickness I have 
indicated, but unlike that which took place during the Eocene period, 
it was not sufficient to keep the country under the sea, the quantity 
of sand and clay and boulders, deposited by the rivers, being more than 
adequate to compensate for the sinking. The country, however, by 
the sinking was kept to a very little height above the sea level, and 

108 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

the inundations of great rivers added continually to the thickness of 
the deposit. 

97. There is no evidence of any violent action having taken place 
during the Eocene and Miocene epochs. There had been risings 
and sinkings of the whole country, but these were imperceptible to 
the senses, and were probably not more active than the same pheno- 
mena which now occur in many parts of the world, unknown to the 
inhabitants. The belt of flat land had increased to a good breadth, 
and the coast had become sufficiently distant from the mountains to 
enable the animals to live in peace and plenty, away from the storms 
and torrents of the hills, when the whole of the portion of the 
earth we have been considering was raised into an immense vault, by 
the forcing up of granite assisted by gases. When the gases con- 
densed or escaped, the arch settled down by fracturing its sides, and 
these faulted sides of the arch are now, what we call the Himalayas 
and the Afghan chains of mountains. 

When the settle-down began to take place, and the sides of the arch 
or vault were being broken, the direction of the linear volcanoes of 
the Silurian epoch compelled the new fractures to conform to it. On 
the eastern slope of the vault, the fractures ran from N. W. to 
S. E., on the western slope from N. E. to S. W. As is generally 
the case in an anticlinal, the highest portion of the vault settled 
down again to a level much lower than the sides, and we have there- 
fore, in the northern Punjab, low hills, whilst on each side we have 
mountains towering to the sky. 

It is not necessary to enter here into all the details of the complica- 
tions which the masses of porphyry, trachyte, granite and other 
rocks, which had been cooling ever since the middle of the Palseozoic 
epoch, caused in the upheaval of the Afghan-Himalayan vault and in 
its settle-down. These details have already been sufficiently indicated 
in paras. 81 to 87. But I will insist on the effect of these masses 
being forced up like wedges through the rocks which covered them, 
and by their filling up a great deal of the space once occupied by 
these covering rocks, they compelled these last to be either folded or 
broken into pieces and packed edgeways. 

It is not necessary to imagine that the top of the vault was raised 
to the same height as we now see the great peaks of the Himalayas < 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 109 

In the settle-down, the parallel zones, into which the sides of the vault 
were broken, would naturally assume an angle of dip much greater 
than was that of the vault previous to its fracture, as the sides of the 
vault, in coming down again, would be submitted to considerable 
pressure, and therefore much redressed. It is not unlikely, therefore, 
that it is the effect of this pressure which has caused, in man}' mountains 
of the Himalayas, the appearance of younger rocks dipping under older, 
of felstone under porphyry, of schist and gneiss under granite. 

The geologist must naturally expect to find a great many com- 
plications amongst these immense mountains. The view I have 
endeavoured to explain is a general one, and will, I hope, be better 
substantiated when we know more of the countries of the Afghan- 
Himalayan system. With a little thought, I entertain a hope that 
the geologist, in finding apparent contradictions to what I have 
advanced, will always be enabled to discover the cause of the com- 
plication, at first apparently irreconcileable to my hypothesis. 

There is one more remark to be made. The direction of the 
Silurian linear volcanoes of the Himalaya not being parallel to that 
of the Afghan chains, we have not a true anticlinal, but an oblique one. 
At the northern end of the axis of this oblique anticlinal, we have 
therefore a pressing of the sides one against the other, whilst at the 
southern end, we have a wide divergence of the ridges : at the northern 
end of the axis, we have the chains abutting one against the other, and 
thus supported at a great height ; at the southern end we have the 
central beds unsupported and sunk down very low when the settle- 
down took place ; hence the high plateau of Pamer at one end and 
the low plains of India at the other. Again, when the Himalayan slope 
of the anticlinal was settling down, many of the great masses of por- 
phyry, schist and gneiss resisted the general tendency to dip N. E., and 
caused a local fault to take place. This fault acted as the axis of 
an anticlinal for the locality immediately surrounding the mass of 
porphyry, schist or gneiss ; and we find therefore such huge masses as- 
suming the dip of the western branch of the Afghan-Himalayan 
anticlinal, or dipping N. W. Hence, the singular phenomenon, 
long ago noticed by Captain R. Strachey, that some of the great peaks 
of the Himalayas dip N. W., whilst all the beds round them dip 
N. E. It is also this same obliquity of the anticlinal which has 

110 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 2, 

caused these numerous transverse faults observed in the Himalaya, 
which have a general direction from N. to S., and with the beds 
crushed one against the other at the northern end, whilst the fault 
gapes at the southern extremity. 

All these phenomena, and several others which strike the naturalist 
as he travels through these mountains, appear to me to prove without a 
doubt, that the upheaving force was not applied at one certain point or 
along one certain axis, but that the whole country, now covered 
by the Afghan and the Himalayan mountains, was forced up into 
an immense dome or arch, which broke along certain lines determined 
by pre-existing volcanic zones, and settled into an oblique anticlinal, 
of which the slopes are sliced by a succession of parallel faults.* 

98. It is a question of considerable interest to determine, with 
some precision, the epoch at which the great and last upheaval of the 
Himalaya occurred. We know that it was after the great mammals 
had become developed ; and the extraordinary number of mammalian 
species found in the Sewalik hills would naturally induce one to 
consider a portion at least of what I have called the Upper Miocene as 
older Pliocene. The Aralo- Caspian formation or steppe limestone, a 
brackish water deposit, has been placed by Murchison and DeVerneuil 
in the older Pliocene ; and one cannot help thinking that these shallow 
but immense inland or inter-insular seas must have existed previous to 
the final upheaval of the great mountains of Central Asia, and that it 
is indeed movements connected with this final upheaval, which have 
dried up the steppe-limestone and reduced these great seas to their 
present dimensions. 

On the other hand, we have seen, that there exist in Thibet and in 
Ladak great beds of horizontal deposits, unconformable to the beds on 
which they abut, and containing fossil bones. Captain R. Strachey 
appears inclined to believe these beds to have been deposited previous 
to the upheaval of the Himalaya ; but I think the hypothesis is not 
tenable, as it is impossible to understand how a " true sea-bottom 

* The hypothesis (advanced, I believe, by Professor Ansted in his " Ancient 
World") that the rising of Central Asia caused a depression in the Indian Ocean, 
marked by the coral islands of the Lacadives, the Maldives, the great Chagos 
bank and some others, is ingenious ; the depression, however, requires proving 
by actual observations. 

18G7] the Western Himalaya and Afyhan Mountains. Ill 

could have been uplifted from under the sea to an elevation of 15,000 
feet," without losing its horizontality, whilst not only the beds on 
which the " true sea-bottom" rested, but the probable contemporaneous 
beds of the Sewaliks (according to Captain Strachey's hypothesis only,) 
are dipping N. E. at a high-angle. Captain H. Strachey describes 
the same bed, where it extends into Ladak, as old alluvium, and men- 
tions its containing fossil bones of extinct mammals, Captain God- 
win Austen calls these beds, in Ladak, Rodok and Skardo, a fluviatile 
deposit. The bed is not limited to the belt of country situated 
between the Ser and Mer (Snowy Peak Range) chain and the Kailas 
chain. It is well developed in Rodok, near the Pang Chong Lake 
and up to the foot of the Korakoram chain, and it is very probable 
that the great Desert of Aksai Chin is a similar bed. I have said, in 
another place, that 1 believe these horizontal beds to be identical to 
the Ragzaier or elevated plateaux of the Afghan mountains. How 
were they formed ? 

In order to answer this question, let us consider what was the 
physical topography of the Himalayas soon after their final upheaval. 
There was not much difference in the configuration of the great ocean 
between the tropics ; if we are to believe the geologists who have 
studied the Andes, these mountains had not yet appeared ; the great 
plains of Africa, Arabia, Persia and India, were still under water ; the 
mountains of the Indian peninsula may have appeared (and did pro- 
bably appear at the time of the Himalaya's last upheaval) but were 
separated from the Himalaya by a considerable sheet of water ; the 
great inland sea now represented by the desert of Gobi was not yet 
dry, — in short, there was little cause to diminish the humidity of the 
winds which blew from the south, and there was nothing to change 
their old direction. But the Himalayan and Afghan mountains 
were very different from what they had been. Instead of low 
ranges with volcanic peaks which did not probably soar above 5,000 or 
6000 feet, we have now an immense wall, some hundred miles broad 
and 25,000 feet high, with deep longitudinal valleys offering no 
exit and much embarrassed by detached rocks and debris. The 
humidity of the winds which produced the tremendous rains of the 
Miocene period was now deposited as snow. Huge glaciers appeared 
and filled the longitudinal valleys, and the rivers which ran from them 

112 Dr. Verdure on the Geology of Kashmir ^ [No. 2, 

began to deposit a sediment which, in time, formed the great flat 
plateau of Thibet, Rodok, Aksai Chin, &c. &c. Thus we see the 
altered physical conditions which were brought about by the difference 
of elevation of the Himalaya, before and after its final upheaval. 
Before the upheaval, the humidity was collected as rain, and the 
mountain debris was washed to the coast by boisterous torrents ; but 
after the upheaval, the humidity was collected as snow, and the 
mountain debris was quietly collected in the great valleys, under the 
cover of glaciers.* 

All the while, a different action was going on in the outer or low 
Sub-Himalayan ranges. There the humidity continued to fall as rain 
and great denudation was the result. The same process of land 
gaining over the sea, which I have described at the Miocene epoch, 
began to form the plains of India ; this process is still in operation 
now-a-days, but necessarily its power diminishes in intensity as the 
sea-coast becomes more distant from the hills and the course of livers 
becomes longer. It is the process which is now anxiously watched 
by the pilots of the Hooghly, and which no engineering skill can 
avert : the sandbanks advance in the sea, the river-bed fills up, more 
dry land appears and what was yesterday a dangerous shallow out at 
sea, to-day is the shore of the delta, and to-morrow will be far inland. 

As the plains of India extended, the rain-fall of the Himalaya 
diminished. Even if we suppose the humidity of the winds to have 
been the same as before, we must deduct from the Himalayan rain-fall 
the amount of rain which fell in the plains. But we know that the 
humidity of the rains had also become less ; the Andes had surged 
up and the South- American continent had appeared ; the plains of 
Africa, Arabia, Persia and Central Asia were gradually appearing 
above the waters, and instead of the trade winds, the monsoons were 
establishing themselves. There was therefore a great diminution in the 
snow-fall on the Himalayas, and the glaciers began to decrease and to 
expose a great deal of the plateau on which they had gradually raised 
themselves. It is easy to understand how this decrease of snow-fall 

* The filling up of the great parallel valleys of the Himalayas by 
mud and boulders, under the cover of the glaciers, is analogous to the filling 
up of depressions of the surface by the glacial drift in some parts of Europe. 
The glaciers of the Himalaya, soon after the great upheaval, were too huge and 
too general to have had a ploughing and scouring action on the valleys. 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 313 

must have been very gradual, if we keep in mind what brought on 
that decrease ; and as the glaciers retreated, animals advanced and 
soon populated the high plateau of the Himalaya. These animals 
have left their remains interred in the clayey grits of these elevated 
lands. It may appear strange that elephants once lived at such a great 
height, and in a climate so cold, but the osseous remains found in the 
elevated plateau of Mexico belong to true elephants of extinct 
species,* and the Siberian mammoth which was covered by a warm fur, 
lived on the leaves of conifers and roamed over the ice-drift. There is 
therefore no doubt that these animals had a great plasticity of organism, 
and could adapt themselves to very extreme climates. 

The mammals discovered in the plateau of Thibet and Ladak, all 
belong to extinct species. On the other hand, all the shells which I 
have been able to collect in the old alluvium found near the foot of 
the Sub-Himalaya belong to living species, and it is therefore most 
probable that the older alluvium of the plains of India, and the high 
plateau of the Himalayas belong to the post-pliocene epoch. 

From the above considerations, and the present state of our know- 
ledge, it appears that the Afghan and Himalayan mountains suffered 
their last upheaval during the pliocene period. 

99. — The description of the deposition of beds subsequently to the 
great upheaval has been given incidentally in the preceding paragraph ; 
the glaciers began to melt, great lakes were formed in several localities. 
The Kashmir valley is a good example, Rukshu is another, and so is 
Abbottabad valley. These lakes at first fed large rivers, and both lakes 
and rivers had a considerable power in carrying mud, sand and boulders, 
and thus raising their beds by several hundred feet ; but as the water- 
fall diminished, the lakes and rivers diminished also, and the rivers 
soon began to cut for themselves deep ravine-like beds in the middle 
of their ancient bottoms, leaving on each side a great river-terrace. 

Before the rivers had lost their great volume, however, and while 
they filled the whole of their original beds, they floated icebergs of 
sufficient dimensions to carry blocks of stone of great size. The Salt- 
Range for a time intercepted the free passage of the waters towards the 
south and a shallow lake filled the whole country between it and the 

* Cosmos, tie's translation, Yol. I. page 280. 



Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir^ 

[No. 2, 

Munee Range.* On this lake floated the icebergs brought down by 
the rivers, drifting gradually to the south, and finally grounding near the 
Salt-Range or averted by it. Thus we see between Jubbee and Nikkee 
large erratic blocks, being porphyry, resting on the top of the old alluvi- 
um ; and we find similar but smaller blocks imbedded in horizontal taluses 
of debris which have been piled up in horizontal layers against the hills 
of Maree on the Indus. These blocks are not water- worn, but present 
either flattened or scratched surfaces ; the ground all over that 
district is covered with boulders of porphyry, greenstone, felstone, &c. 
but these boulders are well rounded and are easily traced to dis- 
integrated beds of Miocene conglomerate. The erratic blocks are very 
different in appearance, and have the striking, or somewhat odd and 
deplace aspect peculiar to erratics. One of them, three miles south 
of the village of Thrapp, measures 6 feet 4 inches by 7 feet 4 inches 
and 5 feet. There are four or five smaller blocks near it, but none 
ars rolled ; they are all of the gneissoid porphyry of the Kaj-Nag. 
The largest presents the very singular appearance of having its 
greatest flat surface (not vertical) marked with a number of cup-like 
holes of various size, from 6 inches across to the size of a walnut, and 
from 1J to 2 inches deep. There are from 70 to 75 of these cups. 
They resemble wide rounded holes or cups, as water would make by 
dropping. Whether these cups are a glacial effect, or have been made 
by a race of men for some unknown purpose, is, what I am unable to 
decide. I am inclined to the first hypothesis. 


Erratic blocks near Thrapp. 
The oldest indications of Man having become an inhabitant 

* The damming of the water behind the Salt Eange and the Chitta Rang 6 
was the cause of that thick deposit of silty mud now cut by ravines, which ha s 
been the source of so much difficulty and expense in making the great Trunk 
Road between Jheelum and Attok. A similar damming occurred in the Huneepor 
valley and several other localities, but to a less degree. 

1867.] tlie Western Himalaya and Afyhan Mountains. 115 

of the Himalayas is, at present found in the Upper Lacustrine deposit 
of Kashmir (see note to para. 44). This deposit contains a very great 
many fragments of pottery, bones of goats, and pieces of charred wood. It 
is much older than the Buddhist ruins of Avantipoor, and attests the 
presence of man in the valley during the period which elapsed between 
the first and the second lake. The Buddhist ruins were not built 
until after the second lake had been drained . But though we may 
call the race of men who lived in Kashmir before the second lake 
historically ancient, they cannot be considered so geologically : a 
cowry has been found* in the deposit, and this evidence of a currency 
indicates at once an amount of civilization and trade far removed from 
the state of the primitive races. 

(To be continued.) 

Experimental Incest iyations connected witli the supply of water to 

Calcutta, Part III. 

By D. Waldie, Esq., 

F. C. S. &c. 

(Continued from page 8.) 

[Received 1st March, 1867.] 

The present communication is intended to give an account of the 

results obtained in prosecuting the investigations indicated by the 

title, the first of which have already appeared in this Journal. To 

some of the results given in the original paper objections were raised, 

Which were examined in a subsequent article, entitled, " Supplementary 

Observations, &c," these being founded on experiments made during 

the month of September last. Since that time the enquiry has been 

continued, with the view of more fully examining these objections, of 

supplying certain deficiencies, of correcting some errors, clearing up 

some obscurities, and generally rendering the enquiry more complete. 

I propose also to endeavour to correct some misapprehensions which 
seem to have arisen, and indicate points of importance which do not 

* The cowry was discovered by Captain Goilwiu-Austen while we were ex- 
amining these lacustrine beds together. I saw Captain Austen dig it out of 
the clay with his penkuiie. 

116 Mr. Waldie's Investigations connected [No. 2T, 

appear to have attracted the attention that was due to them. I shall 
also draw my own conclusions from my results, stating at the same time 
with what amount of confidence they are made. 

Inorganic constituents. 

In the original communication, on account of an unforeseen and 
unexpected source of error , which vitiated some of the results and 
therefore rendered the series incomplete, only a general view of the 
relative proportions of alkaline and earthly salts at the different 
seasons, taken from the tables in Dr. Macnamara's Report, was given. 
It may he of interest to state the nature of the source of error, then 
only hinted at. It occurred in the case of the waters of December 
and February, greater part of which had been kept in green glass 
stoppered bottles till the month of April, which, on analysis, gave 
results so peculiar as to excite surprise. The same peculiarities were 
found in some of the analyses of the river water of August, in even 
a more marked degree. After not a little perplexity and trouble, 
it was ascertained that this arose from the action of the water on the 
glass, dissolving the glass in such proportion as altogether to vitiate 
the result as regards the proper constituents of the water ; it having 
been ascertained that the silica, the alkalies, and the lime of the glass 
were all added in notable proportion to the constituents of the water. 
It was the very large proportion of the silica obtained that first drew 
attention to the subject. Not being specially connected with the 
object of this paper, it is not necessary to notice it more particularly 
than to observe that there can be little doubt, but that it is due in 
great part to the increased activity given to the solvent action of the 
water by the high temperature of the climate, though indeed it occur- 
red to a sufficiently decided degree even during the coolest months. 
There is probably little doubt that this circumstance has in many cases 
introduced error into water analyses unobserved. The analyses, in 
the present case so vitiated, were rejected and new ones instituted as 
the season gave opportunity. 

For the purpose of comparison, the most complete plan would be, 
to ascertain the amount of each basic and acid constituent and state 
these in detail. A very general, or rather the general plan hitherto 
followed by chemists, has been to allot the acids and bases to each 

1867.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 117 

other, it may be by some conventional plan or according to some 
favourite theory, and represent them in the state of neutral salts. 
And as each chemist may follow his own particular plan, the same 
analysis may be represented in very different ways. As it is simply 
impossible to say in what way the acids and bases are united to one 
another in solution, it is very much better to state them separately ; 
and I was glad to find that Professor Dr. W. A. Miller expressed the 
same opinion in his paper formerly referred to. But for general 
purposes a full statement of each constituent is unnecessary, and when 
numerous samples have to be examined, is very laborious. It is 
generally sufficient to classify them, or select a few of the most 
important and characteristic constituents or properties. In the case of 
the mineral constituents, their total amount, the quantity of chlorine 
or of sulphuric acid, the proportion of earthy salts, that is, of lime and 
magnesia to the alkaline salte, are, singly or together, all more or less 
suitable according to the nature of the water to be examined. The 
soap test formerly noticed is a very favourite method, from the ease of 
its execution. I have applied it in some cases, though the nature of 
my enquiries led me generally to have recourse to other methods. 

The following table gives a view of the constitution of the river 
water at the various seasons, classified in a way that seems to me very 
suitable for comparing different samples. The principal mineral 
constituents are the alkalies, potash and soda, and the earthy, lime and 
magnesia, — soda being the most abundant alkali, and lime the principal 
earthy constituent. These bases are combined with carbonic acid in 
much the larger proportion, and in smaller proportion with hydro- 
chloric acid, sulphuric acid and perhaps organic acids. The carbonates 
of lime and magnesia are kept in solution by excess of carbonic acid, 
and when the water is boiled or evaporated to dry dryness, by far the 
greater part, indeed all except a very little of the lime and magnesia, 
are separated insoluble. These remarks apply to the river water 
proper ; during the hot season, when tidal influence prevails, the 
constituents of seawater make their appearance ; then sulphuric acid 
is increased a little and magnesia still more ; and hydrochloric acid 
and soda (or chlorine and sodium as common salt) are largely increased 
in quantity. 


Mr. Wuldies Investigations connected [No. 2, 

Table I. For 100,000 fluid grains. 




River Waters of 


salts as 

salts as 





9 tli June,Chandernagore 

, above 

tidal influence, 






14th June, at Baranagar, Ebb, 








34 25 


6th July, 






31st August, 1865, 





21st August, 1866, 






19th November, 






9th January, 1867, 






30th January, 






In Table I. the alkalies are exhibited as if they were all in the state 
of hydrochlorates of potash and soda, or more correctly chlorides of 
potassium and sodium, chloride of sodium or common salt being the 
best type of such compounds, a*id the one most familiar to us, and 
practically most important. The earths are exhibited as if they were 
all in the state of carbonates of lime and magnesia, these compounds 
being also the most familiar ones. By this arrangement, the relative 
proportion of these constituents at different seasons can be easily 
compared, I am not aware that this plan has been used before, but 
it seems to me a good one, particularly when combined with the 
results given in Table II. 

# Silica mixed with more or less clay. 

lbOT.] with the supply <>f water to Calcutta. 119 

Table II. For 100,000 fluid grain*. 



calc. as 


of sodium. 

River Waters of 

equal to grains of 



of Lime. 


Per mnt. 

21st August, 





10th November, 




19th November, 





9th January, 





5J )) 




30th January, 

| Ebb, j 
1 Deep, ) 




)5 >> 





20th February, 




> j ) j 





2nd May, 18G6, 





)> >) » 




This table shews the indications of the soap test already noticed 
in the first paper. The total hardness is the effect produced on soap 
by all the salts of lime and magnesia present, and all the carbonic acid 
and silica ; the permanent hardness is that left after boiling, and is pro- 
duced chiefly by the lime and magnesia not separated in the inso- 
luble state, but still remaining in solution. Another column exhibits 
the proportion of Chlorine calculated as if it were all in the state of 
chloride of sodium or common salt. The chlorine is in small quan- 
tity except when tidal influence prevails. 

So far as regards mineral constituents, the water of the Hooghly at 
Calcutta varies greatly according to the season. Compared with the 
waters supplying London, the solid contents during the rainy season 
are much smaller, and the total hardness much less ; and even in 
January and February, these are somewhat under those of the London 
waters. As regards permanent hardness, the Hooghly water is very 
decidedly superior to the London waters probably all the year round, 
except possibly during the hot season at flood tide, though that latter 
point is at present somewhat uncertain. But the temporary hardness 
is easily removable ; and for economical use, except during flood tide 

* It nmst be remembered that these results are for 100,000 grains water. 
For an Imp. gallon of 70,000 grains multiply by 7 and move the decimal point 
one place to the left. 

120 Mr. Waldies Investigations connected [No. 2, 

of the hot season, as regards mineral constituents, the product of the 
I-Iooghly may be considered very good water. It will be compared 
with the Calcutta tank waters afterwards. 

Organic constituents. 

The attempt made by experiments with artificial mixtures to 
imitate the composition of the waters of the hot season, and ascertain 
the probable amount of change in the organic matter by keeping, as 
narrated in Part II. " Supplementary Observations," was not continued, 
partly because all the circumstances of the case could not be imitated, 
and partly because the plan did not seem to be considered satisfactory 
to those who objected to the correctness of my results in this particular. 
It appeared to be better to continue the observations, taking care to 
avoid delay in the process for estimating the organic matter more 
particularly. Besides, recently the objections to the correctness of my 
results have been in a great measure withdrawn,* and it is hardly 
necessary for me to do anything more in the way of directly answering 
objections, as it was never my object to criticise the labours of others, 
but simply to state my own, carefully obtained by methods of procedure 
the most correct and reliable known, up to the present time. 

In the original paper I considered the various methods of ascertain- 
ing the nature and amount of organic matter in water, and discussed 
their several merits ; and a few further remarks will now be made on 
the same subjects. The amount of organic matter by weight came 
first in order, but I shall at present postpone it, until the plan of oxida- 
tion by permanganate of potash has been noticed. 

This plan has come greatly into favour, chiefly I suppose from its 
facility of application, a very valuable recommendation, provided its 
other merits be assured. In the original paper I gave it a qualified and 
guarded approval ; the result of numerous experiments made since 
has not increased my estimate of its value, nor has that experience, 
and reflection thereon, led me to concur in the generally favourable 
estimate in which it is held. It is said " that it is not improbable that 
" the substances most readily oxidised, are just those most likely to be 
"injurious in their effects upon those who drink the water." This is 
Dr. Miller's remark. Others " believe" that the most pernicious are 

* Indian Medical Gazette, Calcutta, 1st January, 1867, p. 14. 

18G7.J with the supply of water to Calcutta. 121 

those that are most easily oxidized. These, it appears to me, arc rather 
weak grounds on which to found the preference which is at present given 
to this "mode of estimating the degree of organic impurity in water. 
Others speak of it as indicating the amount of putridity in the water, 
and this, in my opinion, comes nearer the truth. By this I understand 
that the amount of oxygen required is in proportion to the amount of 
certain products of the putrefactive fermentation of the organic matter 
in the water. This, however, as Dr. Frankland has stated,* furnishes 
no indication of the amount of organic matter actually present in the 
water. The offensive smell and other properties of these products 
make it more than probable that they are injurious to health ; but 
even then it is not certain that there may not be other constituents, 
equally or even more injurious, but more difficult of oxidation. 
Nor is it even certain that these products of putrefaction are the only 
substances which are readily oxidized by the permanganate. 

Moreover, a portion of these products are evidently of a very 
unstable character and cpiickly disappear, or at least lose their power of 
deoxidizing the permanganate. This was first brought particularly 
to my attention by the objections raised to my determinations of 
organic matter in the original paper, and has been noticed in the 
supplementary observations. Since then, I have made numerous 
observations on this point, and give a few selected ones by way of 
illustration. The details of the mode of observation are given in the 
original paper. 

* Chemical News, March 23, 18G6. 



Mr. Waldies Investigations connected 
Table III. 

[No. 2, 

Kiver water of 5th October, 1866, Ebb 
tide, cleared by a little hydrochloric 
acid and filtered, 

R. W. of 10th October, Flood, filtered, 

R. W. of 10th Nov. Flood, filtered, 

R. W. of 19th Nov. Ebb, Surface, ... 


R. W. 15th Feb. 1867, Flood, 
Dalhousie Sq. Tank W. of 9th Oct.1866. 

General's Tank, of 6th Feb. 1867, .., 
Baranagar Tank, of 1st Oct. 1866, ... 
Ditto, of 15th Feb. 1867, 


Time of trial. 

req. for 




5th October, 




10th October, 


12th „ 


10th November, 


12th „ 


19th, \ hour old, 


20th „ 


23rd „ 


19th, J hour old, 


20th „ 


23rd „ 


15th, 2 hours old, 


16tb, 28 hours old, 


9th, 3 hours old, 


10th, 16 hours old 


2nd November, 


7th, 3 hours old, 


7th, 26 hours old, 


1st October, 


2nd „ 


15th, 1 hour old, 


16th, 25 hours old, 


This table exhibits very plainly the rapid diminution of the amount 
of oxygen required, by keeping even for one day, and the more gradual 
diminution afterwards. I have not observed that any notice has been 
taken of this circumstance by the English chemists. Dr. Macnamara 
first directed my attention to it, and since then I have not only made 
many observations of the fact, but have also made experiments as to 
the cause. The analyses of the London waters published monthly 
are of the waters supplied by the water companies, therefore, all 
probably two or three days old. It is evident that in the recent 
water, there must be substances possessing active deoxidizing properties, 
which speedily undergo certain changes by which they lose these 


ith the supply of water to Calcutta. 


properties. I have paid some attention to the subject, but am not at 
present prepared to discuss it. It will be matter for further examina- 

At present, however, it has been brought forward to justify so far the 
comparatively unfavourable opinion I have expressed, of the value of 
the permanganate process as a guide to enable us to judge of the 
quality of a water as respects its salubrity. I could bring forward 
other reasons and adduce experiments, but as I do not intend to apply 
the method to the matters under investigation in this paper, only one 
other instance as an additional reason for rejecting it will be adduced. 

I shall extract two or three numbers from the preceding table and 
place beside them a few others of waters from other sources, -namely, 
from the Circular canal which connects the river at the northern 
extremity of the town with the Salt Water Lake. Tiiis Circular canal 
receives much the greater part of the sewerage of Calcutta. Reference 
will again be made to it and to the Salt Water Lake. Dalhousie Square 
Tank is filled from the river and the water is considered good ; 
General's Tank is filled by the rains and is generally said to be the 
best drinking water in Calcutta. 

Table IV. 

Oxygen reqd, 

for 100,000 


Dalhousie Square Tank Water of 9th 

October, 1866, 

16 hours old, 


General's Tank Water of 6th February, 

3 hours old, 



26 hours old, 


Circular Canal Water of 23rd Novem- 

ber, 1866, 

20 hours old, 


Ditto of 20th February, 1867, 

16 hours old, 


Salt Water Lake water, flowing from 

Canal, 14th February, 1867, 

20 hours old, 


Salt Water Lake of 18th February, 

from Canal at Dhappa, 

19 hours old, 


From the Marsh, 

19 hours old, 


In his report on the London waters to the Chemical Society on 
March 13th, 1866,* Dr. Frankland is stated to have expressed surprise 
that the soft water supply from Loch required more of the 
permanganate than any of the waters of thj Metropolitan districts, 
but here is something more surprising still. The water of the Canal 
* Chemical News of 23rd March, 1866. 

124 Mr. Waldies Investigations connected [No. 2, 

which receives the greater part of the sewerage of Calcutta requires 
less oxygen to destroy the products of putrefaction than the best tank 
waters of Calcutta ; and the water of the salt marsh to the east of the 
town, called the Salt Water Lake, requires only about as much as that 
of General's Tank of the same age ; for taking the rate of improvement 
between 3 hours and 26 hours, General's Tank water at 19 hours old 
would require .1626 grain oxygen. Results like these have led me 
to set but a small value on this favourite process, and induced me to 
turn to others promising more trustworthy indications. 

The fundamental point with respect to the organic matter is the 
same as that connected with any other constituent, namely, its propor- 
tion by weight, ascertained as accurately as practicable. The method 
of doing this has already been detailed in the first paper, and I have 
only to repeat that, with a fine balance, patience, and care, it gives fairly 
satisfactory results. Attention to details is advisable to procure 
uniform results. Of the ordinary river or tank waters, I usually 
evaporate from 10,000 to 40,000 grains, according to the kind of water, 
contriving so as to have 4 to 6 grains of dry residue, beside 3 grains 
of dry Carbonate of Soda* added to the water, when put to evaporate. 
At one time I did not use the soda for some kinds of water, as 
unnecessary, but now I use it always. It makes the results more 
accurately comparable. These quantities are sufficiently large for the 
crucible, which holds conveniently about 200 grains of carbonic acid 
water, but requires to be twice or thrice filled up. A larger crucible 
would be more convenient, in which case once might do. 

The river water of the cold season of 1865-66 had been kept over 
from two to four months, and the results as to organic matter therefore 
were doubtful. These will now be replaced by new determinations, all 
made without delay. There has been no opportunity yet for making 
new determinations of the hot season and rainy season waters ; but I 
have already, in the u Supplementary Observations," given reason for 
believing that the delay of from 9 to 16 days in making these 
determinations, in the case of the hot season waters, cannot have been 
productive af any serious error. Additional reasons will be given for 
this opinion presently. There is greater doubt respecting the July and 

* Dr. Parkes in his " Practical Hygiene" recommends 30 grains Carb. of 
Soda ! This is surely a misprint. He also recommends to restore the carbonic 
acid lost by ignition by adding solution of carbonic acid or carbonate of ammenia, 
This is a mistake : the results by carbonate of ammonia are totally wrong. 

18G7.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 125 

Angus* waters, which stood in most cases about five weeks, to allow the 

fine clay to settle. This is a special case and will require further 

remark ; but at present, as I wish to present a view of the whole, they 

will be taken as they are in the construction of the following table. 

Many more determinations of organic matter were made, particularly 

of the waters of the rainy season, but these were made for special 

purposes and witli various modifications of the process, so that they 

were not comparable. Only those are given in the table which were 

made by the plan already specified, and so far as this is concerned, 

they are therefore comparable. These variations in plan were chiefly 

tried in September and October, and so unfortunately no results for 

these months can be introduced into the table. But as an illustration 

of these variations, I may instance the case of the water of 6th October, 

which, cleared by Hydrochloric acid, gave 1.05 grains, and cleared by 

sol. potash, gave 3.22 grains organic in 100,000 grains of water. The 

addition of a little of either of these causes the mud to settle, and 

admits of filtering the water clear in course of a few hours. ."But as 

there is much organic matter adhering to or combined with the clay 

or other earthy matter of the mud, the acid or alkali acts upon this and 

brings it into solution. 

Table V. 

Shewing the amount of Organic matter by weight Ebb. Flood. 

in 100,000 grains of the llooghly water. Grains. Grains. 

6th July, 1866, Neap, Surface, ... .80 

8th August, Neap, Surface & Deep, ... .84 

21st August, Neap, Deep, ... .86 

10th November, 1866, Spring, 1.28 

19th Ditto Neap, Deep, ... .94 

„ „ Surface. ... 1.28 

9th January, 1867, Spring, .' 88 1.50 

30th Ditto, Neap, Deep, ... .58 

„ „ Surface, ... 1.28 

Average, . . . .99 1.3 9 

2d May, 1866, Spring, 2.70 

30th Ditto, Spring, 90 2.60 

14th June, Spring, 90 2.20 

Average, 90 2.50 

126 Mr. Waldie's Investigations connected [No. 2, 

With reference to this table, a few remarks may be made. The 
rainy season waters were taken during Neap tides at ebb. Probably 
they would not have differed much, though they had been taken at 
spring tide during flood. Special remarks will be made on these 

The numbers attached to the waters of November and January, 
shew that the surface water contains more organic impurity than the 
deep, and that there is a very decided excess of this during flood tide 
as compared with ebb. 

The May and June waters are the old ones, — open to future 
emendation as to quantity of organic matter. But even these indicate 
a still larger excess of organic matter during flood tide. And com- 
paratively small though the amount of organic matter be, compared 
with those hitherto generally received, they shew the influence of the 
tides in bringing up organic matter, as has not been shewn before. 

I have already observed that the opposition, with which my state- 
ments as to the small amounts of organic matter originally met with, 
has been now in a great measure withdrawn ; yet it may be desirable 
to make a few observations on the subject. Having regard to 
the delay in examining the waters of the cold and hot seasons, 
I abandoned those in which the water had stood from two to four 
months, (the cold season samples) ; but did not think that the delay of 
from nine to sixteen days would materially affect the correctness of 
the results from the hot season waters. Reasons have already been 
given in the Supplementary Observations for this, to some probably 
not sufficiently conclusive, so I shall in the first place give the results 
of the examination of another class of waters, which may have some 
bearing on the subject. These are the waters of the Salt Water Lake 
and of the Circular Canal. 

The Salt Water Lake is a large salt marsh of about one-third of the 
degree of saltness of sea water, about two miles to the eastward of 
the boundary of the town. From Entally, near the Circular Road, a 
canal proceeds eastwards towards it, called the Baliaghatta Canal. At 
this extremity it forms a cul de sac, but is joined about half way in 
its course by another branch which proceeds from the river at the 
northern extremity of the town, and in its course, enclosing all the 
northern part of the town, at length joins the Entally branch. These 


with the supply of water to Calcutta. 


Canals, I am informed by the town surveyor, Mr. Rowe, receive by far 
the largest proportion of the sewerage of Calcutta, the course of 
drainage, except for a narrow space along the river, being towards 
the east, or from the river towards the lake ; so to these sources of 
supply I went for specimens of impure water, The Canal water flows 
eastward or westward according to the relative height of tide in the 
Hooghly or Bidyadurrea with which it communicates. The follow- 
ing table gives the results of the examinations. 

Table VI. 
For 100,000 fl. grs. filtered water. 

Salt Water Lake and Circular canal. 

Total solid 






Water flowing from the Circular Canal at 

Chitpore bridge into the river on 14th Feb- 

ruary, 1867, Neap tide, ebbing commenced. 



Water from Baliaghatta canal at Dhappa Toll 

House, 18th February, 1867, 



Water from the Marsh taken at same time, ... 



From Circular canal at junction with the 

Entally canal, water flowing from the river 

24th November, 1866. Filtered, 



„ „ Ditto, 


Cleared by pcr-chloride of iron and filtered, ... 





From Circular canal at bridge on Dum-Dum 

road, full tide, 20th February, 1867, 



From the mouth of the canal at same time, . . . 



The most remarkable thing exhibited by the table is the small 
quantity of organic matter in these waters. The excess in the case of 
the 14th February water, was, there can be little doubt, owing to the 
water having traversed the whole length of the circular canal, passing 
over its putrid mud and carrying with it the sewerage from the 
numerous drains which enter it. The small quantity of organic 
matter in the filthy looking water of the marsh, full of gelatinous 

* Probably some unobserved error in this case, 

128 Mr. Waldie's Investigations connected [No. 2, 

looking rank vegetation, is very striking. I got in June last 
year 20 grains organic in 100,000 ; but besides that I doubted the 
correctness of the result, considering it perhaps over-estimated, the 
difference of season must be taken into account.* Besides this is 
a strongly saline marsh. The comparatively small quantity in the 
canal water is also remarkable, and shews how difficult it is to 
increase greatly the amount in the comparatively pure water of the 
downward flowing stream. f 

And here it may be well to consider the amount of organic matter 
which the river can receive from the sewerage of Calcutta. First, we 
have to consider the amount of water carried by the Hooghly, for the 
data for which I have to acknowledge my obligations to Mr. Leonard. 
He estimates that at the lowest season, the river, through its tributary 
affluents, receives only about 2,000 cubic feet per second, but 8 or 
10,000 cubic feet more by percolation from its banks, or say from all 
sources 10,000 cubic feet of water per second, equal to 864,000,000 
cubic feet per day. Mr. Clark, in his report on the water supply, 
proposes to distribute 6,000,000 gallons per day or even ultimately 
12,000,000 gallons. Now let us take the highest of these quantities; 
at a rough estimate this is about 2,000,000 cubic feet, and its 
proportion to the volume of the river water is as 2 to 864 or z ^ ¥ part. 
The greatest amount of organic matter I found in the filthiest ditch in 
Calcutta at its worst in June was about 24 grains per gallon. Now sup- 
posing all this large quantity of water was daily poured into the Hooghly 
in the state of sewerage of this degree of concentration, it would be 
only z ^2" P art °f 24 grains of organic matter to each gallon of river 
water or about .05 to .06 grain per gallon. Even supposing that 
the amount of water carried by the river has been over-estimated, 
and that it amounts to only one-half or one-fourth of the quantity 
stated above, the proportion of organic matter added by the sewerage 
would not exceed one-fourth of a grain per gallon at most, during 
the hot season. 

# Dr. Parkes states that 12 to 40 or 50 grains per gallon is not uncommon. 
It would be necessary to know how such results were obtained, before admit- 
ting them. 

f Probably if the water of the canal, instead of having been collected at full 
tide, had been taken when the river water was beginning to flow into the 
canal, it would have contained more organic matter. An attempt indeed was 
made to get such water two days before (18th February), but the proper time 
was not hit. 

18G7.J villi the supply of water to Calcutta. 129 

It is unnecessary at present to say more respecting the quantity of 
organic matter in the Hooghly water near Calcutta. It does not 
appear to exceed two grains per gallon even in the most unfavourable 
circumstances of season and tide, and during ebb tide is only about 
half that or less. Dr. Parkes says that it should not exceed one and 
a half grain per gallon in drinking waters, and the London authorities 
seem to be endeavouring to reduce it almost to nothing. In view of 
the difficulty of judging of its nature, it is desirable to have as little 
of it as possible. 

In the original paper I have discussed the nature of the organic 
matter, and have not now much to add. The season of the year since 
that communication is the least favourable to the examination of the 
impurities in the water, as during these months — October to February 
— all the waters are at their purest. I formerly expressed an opinion 
on the amount of ammonia being probably a good indication of the 
impurity of a water, and gave reasons for it. The following are the 
results of some examinations of the river water, during these months, 
for ammonia. 

Table VII. 
Showing proportion of Ammonia in 100,000 11. grs. of water. 


18th September, 1866, River Water, 0620 

10th November, 1866, Flood tide, 0065 

9th January, 1867, Ebb, 0160 

Flood, 0145 

22nd January, 1867, Shore, 0260 

30th January, 1867, Ebb, Deep, 0090 

Surface, 0160 

20th February, 1867, Circular canal at mouth, 0170 

at 3rd bridge, 0190 

18th February, 1867, Salt Water Lake Marsh , 0250 

The quantities are small, yet consistent enough with the previous 
observations. Reference may be made to them in remarks that 

But the Ammonia is not the only thing to look to in connection with 
organic matter. As formerly observed, there are the products of 
oxidation of nitrogenised matter, including that of ammonia itself, 


130 Mr. Waldie's Investigations connected [No. 2, 

namely, nitric and nitrous acids, and there are nitrogenised substances 
in progress of decomposition, as well as non-nitrogenous substances, 
usually called vegetable, carbohydrates, and hydrocarbons more or 
less oxidised. Reasons have been given in the first paper for not 
attaching very much importance to the estimation of nitric acid, yet 
the enquiry is interesting, to account for the destruction of the 
nitrogenised matter. If the nitrogen is oxidised, it ought to be found 
as nitric or nitrous acid, unless it be supposed that it escapes in 
some gaseous form. Time has not permitted me to investigate this 
subject, but the few trials I have made for the detection of nitric 
acid have not been at all successful, — possibly it may be for want of 
sufficient care. On the other hand, the test recommended for nitrous 
acid, — Price's test by starch, acid, and Iodide of Potassium, at once 
gives indications of that acid. But unfortunately it equally has given 
me free indications in the distilled water used, though means have 
been taken carefully to free the water and all the re-agents employed 
from it. At present I can give no explanation of these difficulties : 
the point is reserved for enquiry. 

The most difficult part of the subject is the estimation of the nature 
of that more fixed portion of the organic matter which has undergone 
comparatively little change. The determination of the amount of 
nitrogen in this is one mode of examining it : I have not at present 
attempted this, as the waters have during the last four months been 
in the least favourable condition for such examination, and my time 
has been occupied with other parts of the enquiry. But I can only 
confirm what was before stated, that the organic matter evidently 
varies considerably in its nature : that of the rainy season resembles 
more that contained in tank waters; that of the dry season is more 
like that contained in sea water. The former evidently contains 
more matter of vegetable origin, but so far as I have been able to 
form a judgment, this only partially accounts for the difference. 

But before proceeding to discuss these points, it may be better to 
have the whole of the data before us, by including the composition of 
the tank waters as well as of the river water. In the first paper 
one table exhibited some of the principal characteristics : now, 
additional information can be given. It will be exhibited by the 
following tables. 

1867.] with the 

supply of water to Calcutta. 


Table VIII. 

Tank and well waters. For 100,000 fluid grains. 

Orga- j 

JXigci 1 

Date of col- 



•eq . t< 1 











General's Tank, 

7th Oct. 



24th Jan. 




Monohur Doss' Tank, ... 

9th Oct, 



25th Jan. 




Dalhousie Sq. Tank, ... 

9th Oct. 



21st Jan. 




Ramdhone G hose's Tank, 

18th Feb. 



Baranagnr Tank, 

15th Feb. 
22d Feb. 





Nyan Chund Datt's 

Lane Tank, 

22d Dec. 

22d Dec. 

16th Dec. 








Blaquiere's Tank, 

Manictollah Well, 

16th Dec. 




Puttureaghat St. Well.,. . . 

8th Dec. 





Nimtollah Street Well, .. 

8th Dec. 





River water from street 


16th Dec. 




The first three are well known tanks referred to in my first paper ; 
Ramdhone Grhose's Tank, Jaun Bazar, is that also noticed there,* near 
Mr. Dall's school, the water of which has since become much cleaner, 
and the Baranagar Tank is also that referred to there, the well being 
an old one on my own premises. 

As to the remainder, some explanation is necessary. I was 
requested by the Municipal authorities in December last to examine 
some waters in the northern part of the town, with reference to a pro- 
posed public tank to be excavated there, and the results are included 
in the table. Of these Nyan Chund Dutt's Lane Tank and Well and 
Blaquiere's Tank are old sources of supply ; the three latter " wells" 
were simply holes dug in the ground 8 or 9 feet deep to collect water 
for examination : the water from the aqueduct was supplied at my 
request for comparison. 

Another table will exhibit a few more points for comparison. 
* Called Dhurrumtollah Tank by mistake. 


Tank and well waters 

Mr. Waldies Investigations connected [No. 2 } 

Table IX. 

For 100,000 gr. water. 



Equal to 

that from 

calc. as 


of Lime, 


in g 





General's Tank of 18th Feb. 1867, 



Kamdhone Ghose's Tank of 18th Feb., 




Baranagar Well of 22nd Feb 





Nyan Chund Dutt's Lane Tank, 






Blaquiere's Tank, 




Manictollah Well, 


Puttureaghat Street Well, 




Nimtollah Street Well, 

1 127.5 



River water of street aqueduct, 




And to get a full insight into the nature of such waters, a complete 
analysis was made of two of them, of which this is the result for 
100,000 fluid grains of water. 

Table X. 

Street Well. 




30 49 













Sulphuric acid, 


Phosphoric acid, 


4 80 

Carbonic acid by difference, (including 
errors of analysis,) 


Organic matter, 





Nitric Acid, 

none detected. 

small quantity. 

1867.] With the supply of water to Calcutta. 133 

Phosphoric acid : very distinct indications of in both. 
This was also found in smaller quantity in the other four of these 
waters, and in still smaller quantity in the water of the aqueduct. 

The relative proportions of these constituents, so different from those 
of ordinary spring or even river waters, point clearly to their origin. 
The large quantity of alkaline salts, compared with those of Lime and 
Magnesia, and the large proportion of Potash and of organic matter, 
indicate that they are derived from the decomposition of vegetable 
and animal substances : the phosphoric acid and perhaps the chlorine 
being more particularly characteristic of their animal origin. In fact, 
it is the composition of sewage water, and differs from some other 
analyses of English town sewage* most remarkably in the large 
proportion of potash present, no doubt the product of the vegetable 
food of the mass of the population. It is indeed simply sewage water, 
deprived in great part of its bad smell by filtering through the earth. 
And the partial analyses of the other tanks and wells (except the 
three first tanks of the table) indicate that the waters all partake 
more or less of the same character, and contrast strikingly with the 
superior purity and different characteristics of the river water during 
the cold season. 

The large quantity of Ammonia as exhibited by Table VIII. in the 
two waters fully analysed is also very striking. 

Nov^to return to the consideration of the organic matter which has 
undergone comparatively little change, and for the proper examination 
of which we have no very ready or suitable chemical processes : the best 
means of judging of its nature and properties have already been 
discussed in my first paper. These are, chiefly, the general appearance 
and smell of the residue obtained by evaporating the water, the 
smell on burning, and the estimation of the amount of nitrogen by 
the Soda lime process. This last, for reasons already stated, I have not 
applied. But I may observe again, that these bad tank waters more 
resemble the river water of the rains than of the hot season, in the 
appearance and properties of their organic contents. No doubt this 
proceeds in part from the larger proportion of matter of vegetable 

* Lawes and Gilbert, Journal of Chem. Soc. Ser. 2, Vol. IV. p. 118 for 1866. 
Way's Report on Sewage of Towns quoted in Parkes's, Manual of Practical 
Hygiene, 2nd edition, 1866, p. 325. 

134 Mr. Waldie's Investigations connected [No. 2 

nature ; non-nitrogenised matter. It appears to me, however, that 
there is a tendency generally to make too much of this distinction 
between matter of vegetable and of animal origin, it being often 
spoken of as if the organic matter were of little importance, if it could 
be shown to be vegetable matter. Now it may be admitted that 
most probably water tinged by peaty matter consisting of the ordinary 
humous class of acids and salts, may be not at all even injurious to 
health, and .that water flowing over or percolating through the soil 
of mountainous districts or others bare of vegetation, where there is 
little herbage and much earth or rock, maybe very pleasant and 
wholesome. But citing such cases is only evading the question. 
It does not follow that water draining off cultivated fields or dense 
jungle, or flowing between banks covered with luxuriant and rank 
vegetation, will be equally harmless. Putrefying animal matter is very 
offensive, but putrefying green vegetable matter, though not so 
disgusting in idea, is scarcely less offensive. Nor, be it remembered, 
are the poisonous properties very much dependent or connected with 
a disgusting taste or smell, and the most powerful poisons come from 
the vegetable kingdom. 

In my first communication, the oxidising action of the atmospheric 
air dissolved in river water was brought forward as a powerful agency 
for purifying the water. And though Dr. Frankland's results were 
quoted as strikingly illustrating it in respect to the Thames ^Waters, 
yet such observations are by no means new. And it must again be 
observed that the high temperature of the climate will materially 
assist this action. No doubt it assists putrefaction, fermentation also, 
and in some cases this may take place in a river, when its course from 
any cause is rendered very slow. But in the case of the Hooghly 
the tides cannot fail to act beneficially ; twice every day damming 
back the water and again retreating, enabling the river to flow with 
increased velocity, increasing the motion amongst its waters and 
constantly changing the surfaces exposed to the air. This is just 
one of those agencies that escape general observation : it does not j 
exhibit itself to the senses, yet it must be remembered that it is | 
by the oxygen dissolved by water, small though that be in amount, I 
that animal life is preserved in the waters no less than in the ordinary; 

1867.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 135 

The organic matter remaining in the mother liquors, after having 
as well as practicable crystallised out or otherwise removed the 
mineral saline constituents, is, in the case of the hot season river water, 
of a pale brownish yellow colour, with a comparatively faint, somewhat 
urinous smell ; that from the tanks and river water of the rains is of 
a darker brown colour and a more excrementitious smell : a smell, in 
fact, similar to that of Guana. So far as sensible properties go, the 
latter is the more disagreeable, and according to the results of 
experiment mentioned in the first paper, probably at least equally 
nitrogenised. At present it would be difficult to speak more positively 
on the subject. 

In my first paper, and more particularly in the abstract of it 
furnished for the proceedings of the Society, I made some remarks in 
connection with some of the tanks which my own observations will 
not bear out. This was the result of haste and inadvertence, which 
will now be corrected. Some of the best tanks, General's Tank more 
particularly, are probably equal to the river water in purity at some 
seasons, and superior to it at others. Tank water deteriorates during 
the hot season from putrefactive fermentation ; the river water proper 
improves from oxidation, but near Calcutta deteriorates from sewerage 
and tidal water. Tank water improves during the rains by dilution 
with rain water, and the animal and vegetable life in it preserves the 
proper balance, removes decaying matters, and prevents putrefaction to 
any great extent : at least, this is the case in good tanks. General's 
Tank seems a well kept aquarium ; it abounds in animal life : though 
its water has often a slightly putrid flavour, this is easily removed by 
exposure. But even the water of that tank is not, in my opinion, 
equal in freedom from organic impurity to the river water proper, 
taken during the dry season at ebb tide. 

General Conclusions. 
Before closing this communication, it may be well to make a few 
general remarks as to the conclusions to be drawn from the data 
obtained. It must have been observed that there is some uncertainty 
connected with the subject of the organic matter. Persevering enquiry 
may in time enable us to remove much of this uncertainty, but at 
present we can only draw conclusions from the most certain grounds 
we possess. Probably all will agree that it is advisable to get 

136 Mr. Waldiea Investigations connected [No. 2, 

drinking Water containing as small a quantity of organic matter as 
possible, and more particularly as small a proportion as possible of 
that which is of recent origin. If, this being kept in mind, we take 
up the question which seems to have been considered of greatest 
practical importance by the Calcutta community, namely, can the. 
supply be safely taken from the river at Cossipore ? we can scarcely 
answer it in the affirmative. My results, as has been pointed out, 
show that there is a very distinct increase in the quantity of organic 
matter in flood over ebb tide, even during the cold, but still more 
during the hot season. How far this may be due to the proximity of 
Calcutta, could only be ascertained from extended observations ; but 
as the town must supply a considerable quantity of putrefying and 
putrefiable matter and that of recent origin, in the absence of evidence 
indicating the contrary, it would be desirable to avoid taking it from 
that locality. What is the smallest distance up the river at which 
this source of contamination is not appreciable, is a point that could be 
determined only by observations during the hot season in vario 
circumstances and places. But it is evident enough that the furth 
up we go, the more certain are we to avoid this source of contamination. 
But though this is an important question, it is not. the only one: 
it seems to have occupied almost exclusively the attention of that 
portion of the community who have taken an interest in the 
subject, while another, and in my opinion an equally important 
one, has scarcely if at all been noticed ; and that is, what is to 
be done with the muddy water of the rainy season ? If we look 
to the amount of putrefying matter as indicated by the permanga- 
nate test, or even as observed by the senses, the water, for the first 
two months at least of the rains, is worse than the flood tide 
water of the hot season ; if we look to the two as we have them, each 
with its suspended mud, the rainy season water is greatly the worst. 
If we consider the quantity of organic matter actually dissolved in the 
water, probably the hot season water contains most, though this at 
present is not quite certain, and it is also somewhat doubtful if it be 
so bad in quality as in the rainy season water. Of all points in the 
enquiry, this is the one involving the greatest doubt and difficulty, 
and I should feel it quite impossible to give a decided opinion on it, 
without again examining the water during that season. And what 

1867.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 137 

makes this point of chief importance is this, that though the town 
contamination may be avoided by going up the river, this cannot. 

That flood waters (that is, floods produced by rain fall) are most 
impure, as regards organic matter, is now a recognised fact in England. 
It is by no means a new observation. In the Report on the Metropo- 
litan Water Supply by Messrs. Graham, Miller and Hofmann, presented 
to the Secretary for the Home Department in June 1851, this 
point is repeatedly noticed and the remedy for it discussed, though 
from the nature of their remarks it is evident that the amount of 
finely suspended mud, and the degree of its putridity, have probably 
been much smaller than those of the Hooghly water in the rains. 
It must be remembered that while in England there are numerous 
small floods, here we have but one large flood in the year, washing 
down the accumulated refuse of seven or eight months. It is true 
that the large quantity of rain dilutes the muddy mixture, and, so 
far as matter in actual solution is concerned, improves the water. 
Still we have it loaded with mud, part of that in a very fine state 
of suspension, very slow in settling, and which cannot be separated 
by any ordinary filtration. And as the finely suspended clay 
contains organic matter, putrid or putrefiable, the water must be 
deprived of it to be rendered fit for use. 

The subject has engaged the attention of the Engineer to tho 
Justices, and in his Report on the works for the supply of water 
to Calcutta, he details the plan for meeting the difficulty alluded to. 
He admits the difficulty, for the says, para. 28, " The muddy character 
of the water to be dealt with is an unusual feature in works of this 
description and necessitates peculiar aud special arrangements being 
provided." Let us see what these are. 

It is to be settled in large tanks 6 or 7 feet deep for 36 hours ; 
then the upper portion, to the depth of 4 feet, is to be drawn carefully 
off to the filter, after passing through which it is conveyed to covered 
reservoirs for storage, whence it is to be distributed as required. 
The filter is composed of sand and gravel, and also, according to 
Mr. Clark's original proposal, a layer of " Spencer's magnetic carbide." 
The object of this is to purify the water from organic matter, and 
it is also said that it removes the suspended matter. 

But so far as lean gather from the Report, Mr. Clark seems to 


138 Mr. Waldie's Investigations connected [No. 2, 

consider that the settling of the muddy water of the rains for 36 
hours will put the water on an equality with that of the rest of 
the year as to the rapidity with which it will pass through the 
filter, and, I suppose, with or without the magnetic carbide, will 
supply it in an unobjectionable state. At least I cannot find in the 
Report any provision made in addition to this for the special case 
of the muddy waters of the rains, or a single arrangement made to 
provide against any difficulty in this case. 

My own observations on the waters of the rainy season are not at 
all in favour of the success of this scheme. On the contrary, I have 
experienced the greatest difficulty in getting the water freed from the 
finely suspended matter by either subsidence or filtration. After 
standing to settle for several weeks, it still contained much of this 
finely suspended clay, from which it could not be freed by filtration in 
the ordinary way. It seems therefore to be impossible to avoid the 
conclusion that through the ordinary sand filter the water will pass 
little changed; or if by any modification it be made effectual, it will 
pass with such extreme slowness as altogether to interrupt the 
ordinary supply of the water. And if it pass in its muddy state into 
deep covered reservoirs provided for it, daily it will deposit a portion 
of its mud, which will be daily more or less stirred up by the new flow 
of water into the reservoir, a state of matters which appears to be 
very well adapted to maintain the water in the state in which it 
entered, or even to tend to make it worse. Whether the water of this 
season then will be in a fit state for storage, after thirty-six hours 
settling and the short time longer necessary for its passing though the 
filter and being conveyed to the reservoirs, is a question deserving of 
serious consideration. My own observations lead me greatly to doubt 
it. It would be rather a serious error, if these fears should turn oat 
to be well founded ; for not only would the water be offensive during 
the rainy season, but, unless the reservoirs were cleaned out, would 
continue to be so. And in the plan there appears no arrangement 
for cleaning them, and no facilities for doing so. 

There are other and effectual plans for speedily separating the 
suspended mud from the water, and rendering it easy to be filtered 
perfectly transparent. These are by chemical precipitants, to some 
of which I have previously alluded ; one well known is alum, in daily 

1867.] with (he supply of water to Calcutta. 139 

common use. These have been observed sometimes to increase the 
quantity of organic matter in solution, but this is probably from 
imperfect knowledge of the proper way to apply them, rather than 
essential to their operation. 

This enquiry into the water of the Hooghly was commenced, as 
formerly stated, without any reference to the water supply of Calcutta, 
but simply as an investigation interesting in a scientific point of 
view. For even in the single point of the organic matter there is 
room for the expenditure of much labour and research. It is difficult 
and not very promising, but persevering enquiry often brings much 
of interest out of unpromising subjects. The high temperature of the 
country increases the energy of chemical action, and the comparative 
regularity of the seasons favours the simplicity of its operation ; and 
thus a country like India affords a field well adapted for the study of 
the influence of chemical changes on the phenomena of nature. Many 
of these changes may not be very obvious to those unaccustomed to 
study them, but they are not the less real on that account, and 
not the less powerful in their operation on the world around us. 

16th September 1867. 

Since writing the above, the enquiry has been continued, with the 
view of settling one or two points left in some degree of uncertainty. 
These were the amount of organic matter in the river water during 
the hot season and during the rains. The first of these was the point 
on which the greatest doubt was felt by many as to the correctness 
of the results given in my first paper, though little shared in by 
myself : the second was the point on which my own opinion was 
most undecided. The experimental results will be given in the tables, 
and comments and explanations will follow. 


Mr. Waldie's Investigations connected 

[No. 2, 

Table XI. 

Ilot season. 

For 100,000 grains. 
Total solid Organic 

River water of 20th May, 1867, 

Spring tide, Flood, 

Ditto of 6th June, spring, Flood, 

General's Tank of 10th June, 
Dalhousie Sq. Tank of 10th June, 

Rainy Season. 

River Water of 13th July, purified by 

perchloride of iron, 
Ditto by ditto in smaller proportion, 
Ditto settled 3 days and syphoned off, again 

settled 8 days, 
Ditto settled and sand filtered continuously ^ 














with new water daily till 26th, then y 

settled till 18th August, ) 

Biver Water of 16th August, Flood, 10.71 .74 

Ditto of 24th August, Ebb, 10 26 1.10 

The experiments on the hot season waters were made to decide the 
question involved in the objection raised to my first results, namely, 
that the organic matter had been decomposed and lost by the delay 
(of from ten to fourteen days J in proceeding to the evaporation. 
In the present cases the water was evaporated on the next day after 
collection. The result shews only from .90 to 1.70 grains organic 
matter in 100,000 grains of water taken at flood tide of the highest 
spring tides of the season ; less indeed than I had obtained in 1866. 
Many other experiments have shown me that there is very little 
change in the weight of organic matter sustained by keeping it even 
for several weeks, and least of all in the case of water containing so 
much saline matter as the river does at this season. The only thing 
that undergoes rapid change is the deoxidising power of the water as 
shewn by the permanganate test, but this does not appreciably affect 
the weight of the organic matter. 

1867.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 141 

One thing is to be noticed in connection with these, namely, that 
the amount of saline contents is very decidedly smaller than it was in 
the corresponding season of 1866. This may possibly have arisen 
from the correct time of full flood not having been caught, but if so, 
this must have happened on both occasions : and moreover the 
quantity of saline matter at Ebb tide is also much smaller than in 
1866. It appears to me more probable that the river water has 
contained less saline matter this year. It would be difficult to give 
an opinion as to the cause of this : besides, the observations were not 
sufficiently numerous to draw conclusions from with certainty. 

The results of the examination of the river water of the rainy 
season confirm those I have already given in Table III. of the first 
paper and in Table V. of this. The absolute amount of organic 
matter is somewhat less than in the waters of the hot season, but, in 
proportion to the mineral constituents, very much greater. It is to be 
observed that the waters which were simply settled, or even sand- 
filtered, still contained clay : the water, clarified by a little sesqui- 
chloride of iron, does not give the correct amount of saline matter, 
therefore in the table this is omitted in these cases, but it was only 
by such means that the water could be got clear and free from clay, 
at the beginning of the rains, without delay. The two samples thus 
clarified were evaporated next day after collection, the others after 
greater delay. 

The waters were also examined for ammonia by the process given 
in the first paper : the results are exhibited in the following table. 

Table XII. 

Shewing quantity of ammonia in 100,000 fl. grains water. 

Hot Season. 


River water of 13th May, Neap tide ...Ebb, .0350 

Flood, .0240 

20th May, Springtide ...Ebb, .0090 

Flood, .0155 

6th June, Spring tide Flood, .0190 

Average, 0205 

142 Mr. Waldie's Investigations connected [No. 2, 

General's Tank water, 0385 

Dalhousie Sq. Tank water, 0265 

Racny Season. 

River water of lOtli July, 0240 

„ „ „ 13th July, 0810 

„ „ „ 16th August, 0380 

„ „ „ 24th August, .0140 

Average, 0392 

These results exhibit great variations in the proportion of ammonia, 
and recent investigations throw some doubt on the trustworthiness of 
the method employed ; besides, it is confessedly an imperfect indication 
of the amount of nitrogenous matter : nevertheless, so far as they go, 
they are confirmatory of those already given in table IV. of Part I. 
The waters of the rainy season yield more ammonia than do those 
of the hot season, and the tank waters, even the best of them, 
yield more than the river water. And the previous table also shews 
that General's Tank, — probably the best of the tanks, or at least 
one of the best, contains more organic matter than the river water ; 
and the results given connected with Dalhousie Square Tank confirm 
the opinion expressed before, that the river water rather deteriorates 
by storage in tanks. 

I do not mean to say that these results, as to the quantity of 
organic matter and the proportion of nitrogenous matter, prove with 
certainty that the river water is at least equal, if not superior, to 
even the best of the tank waters ; but they are the best means of 
judging which chemical analysis affords of the quality of water for 
drinking purposes, and, in the absence of equally good evidence to the 
contrary, the results lead to such conclusions. 

Only in one point have I to say something in modification of the 
results of previous examination , and that is connected with the water 
of the rainy season. In the previous pages I have spoken strongly 
of the putrid flavour of the river water of the rains, particularly of 
the early part of the season. This respected the year 1866. In the 
present year, however, I have not found this putrid flavour, or at least 

1867.] with the supply of water to Calcutta. 143 

only to a comparatively very slight degree. At first I was inclined 
to attribute this difference to some local or accidental cause which 
had led me into a mistake as to the general character, but after 
further observation and consideration, I do not think that this is the 
explanation, but that the water is really different in this respect, this 
season, from what it was last. For not only has the putrid smell been 
absent, but the mud has been easier to separate from the water ; the 
particles are not so fine, or at least not so glutinous, and it has not 
been so difficult to filter clear as it was last year at the corresponding 
periods ; and the quantity of organic vegetable matter produced on 
standing in bottles has been decidedly less than it was last year. 
Indeed the river water of the rainy season of 1865 gave much more 
vegetable growth than that of either of the two succeeding years. 
Moreover the water of the river did not become muddy nearly so 
speedily after the setting in of the rains as it did last year: this was 
noticed particularly, as the muddy water was watched for. Neither 
after it had become muddy, did it exercise nearly so strong a deoxida- 
ting power on permanganate of potash as it did last year : only about 
one-third of the power; and this is a good indication of putridity. 
These facts, to which may be added the greater purity of the 
water of the hot season of this year, seem to indicate some o-eneral 
cause producing the variation. Both 1865 and 1866 were years 
of deficient rainfall, 62.40 and 60.32 inches ; while the year preceding 
1865, was one of large rainfall, there having been 84.22 inches 
in 1864. This perhaps may have some connection with the points 
noticed. The peculiarity is worth attention in the future. 

The subject of water analysis, in connection with hyo-iene has 
lately occupied much attention in London. Dr. Frankland has 
expressed opinions respecting the small value of the oxidation test by 
permanganate, in accordance with my own and on additional °- roun( j s 
and also proposed a fuller examination of the nitrogenous constitu- 
ents as the most important guide. Miles Messrs. Wanklin, Chapman 
and Miles Smith have also proposed some new methods for determining 
the nitrogenous constituents. The details of these plans, however have 
not yet been published, or at least have not yet come under my 
notice. The subject is also under experiment by myself, and will have 
further attention. 

144 Mr. Waldie's Investigations,. 

To sum up, it may be observed, that these extended enquiries, 
though leaving many points yet imperfect, still go to confirm the 
general conclusions arrived at in my first communication, favorable 
to the water of the Hooghly, compared either with the Calcutta Tank 
waters or the present London waters. I may repeat what I then said ; 
" Such are the conclusions I have arrived at, some of them unexpected 
even to myself, and which may be disputed by others." And I may 
add, that they can only be properly controverted by evidence of the 
incorrectness of the experimental results from which these conclusions 
have been drawn. 





No. III.— 18G7. 

On the Reproductive Functional Relation* of several Species and 
Varieties of Verbaeca. 

By John Scott, Esq., 

Curator of the Royal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta. 

In this paper, I purpose giving an account of a numerous and carefully 
performed series of experiments on the hybrid and cross-unions of several 
species and varieties of Verbasca, with the view of illustrating those 
functional relations, or differences existing between the results of unions 
of distinct species on the one hand, with those of different varieties of 
the same species on the other. I believe, the generally accepted view 
of naturalists on this point is, that a certain degree of sterility 
always results from the union of distinct species in their first hybrid 
produce, and that their progeny are absolutely infertile one with 
another ; while in the cross-unions of varieties of a species, the ferti- 
lity is in no respect affected in the first cross, and the progeny are, in 
every case, perfectly fertile, one with another. These relative differ- 
ences, then, in the products of hybridism and mongrelism are 
strongly maintained to be decisively demarcative of the factors, in- 
cluded under the terms " species" and " varieties," affording, so to 
speak, an unequivocal analysis, whereby nature's original and imniu- 


146 On the Reproductive Functional [No. 3, 

table units — species — may at once be discriminated from those diverged 
forms — varieties — to which they have given rise, and with which, 
from the important structural differences they frequently assume, they 
might be hopelessly confounded. Such, at least, is the opinion of 
those naturalists who regard species as the result of distinct creative 
acts. On the other hand, those naturalists who believe in derivative 
hypotheses, and look upon all existing organisms as the genealogical 
connections of other and earlier kinds, entertain the directly opposite 
view, and maintain that no such essential differences as those above 
stated exist between the results of hybridism and rnongrelisin ; though 
they readily admit a difference in degree. This point has been ably 
and philosophically discussed by Mr. Darwin, who, after a careful and 
impartial examination of all the evidence he could collate, considers 
himself justified in concluding, that " first crosses between forms 
known to be varieties, or sufficiently alike to be considered as varieties, 
and their mongrel offspring, are very generally, but not, as is so often 

falsely stated, universally fertile consequently that neither 

fertility nor sterility afford any clear distinction between species and 
varieties ; but that the evidence from this source graduates away, and 
is doubtful in the same degree, as is the evidence derived from other 
constitutional and structural differences."* 

Though Mr. Darwin thus clearly anticipates an essential accordance 
between the result of hybridism and mongrelism, it is to be observed 
that the extreme paucity of experimental observations on the latter 
phenomena prevents his illustrating the subject so fully and satisfac- 
torily as its importance demands. The want of such observations, 
and the importance of their bearing on that theory of the " origin 
of species" proposed by Mr. Darwin, has been frequently and strongly 
insisted on by Professor Huxley. Thus in his " Essay on Man's 
Place in Nature," p. 106, we find the following remarks : " Our 
acceptance of the Darwinian hypothesis must be provisional so long 
as one link in the chain of evidence is wanting, and so long as all the 
animals and plants certainly produced by selective breeding from a 
common stock are fertile, and their progeny are fertile one with another, 
that link will be wanting." Again in his Lectures on our knowledge of 
the cause of the phenomena of organic nature, Lecture VI. p. 147, after 
* Darwin's " Origin of Species," 3rd Edition, pp. 271 and 300. 


Relations of Ye flatten. 


discussing the obligations of a hypothesis, he remarks, that " Mr. Darwin, 
in order to place his views beyond the reach of all possible doubt, ought 
to be able to demonstrate the possibility of developing from a particular 
stock, by selective breeding, two forms which should either be unable 
to cross one with another, or whose cross-bred offspring should be 

infertile with one another," "Now it is admitted on all hands 

that at present so far as experiments have gone, it has not been found 
possible to produce their complete physiological divergence by selective 

breeding If it should be proved, not only that this has not been 

done, but that it could not be done, I hold that Mr. Darwin's 
hypothesis would be utterly shattered." Professor Huxley, however, 
though thus strongly insisting upon the absence of facts showing that 
any degree of sterility has resulted from the crossing of varieties 
known to have originated from a common stock, states that he does 
not know a single fact which would justify the assertion that such 
sterility could not be produced by proper experiment, expressing his 
belief that it may and will be produced. 

Considering then the as yet positively equivocal nature of the 
relations between the phenomena of hybridism and mongrelism, 
together with its important bearings on the converse theories which 
now divide the scientific world, I trust the reader will bear with me, 
while giving a somewhat detailed statement of my own experiments 
on the above phenomena. I venture to premise that they show pretty 
clearly the relative claims of the two views now held by naturalists 
on our acceptance, and illustrate also one or two other points of high 
interest in theoretical natural science. First, for the union of V. 
mhceniceum vars. roseum and album and V. nigrum. 






mcl Mixed Unions 










Table 1. — Kesults of Pure r 

of Verbascum pliceniceum 

var. roseum and 




album; and V. nigrum. 

o . 

6 ~ 

















1. Verbascum pliceniceum 

by pollen of V. 

phceniceum roseum, 







2. V. phceniceum, roseum 

by pollen of V. 









On the Reproductive Functional 

[No. 3, 











Table 1, (Contcl.) — Eesnlts of Pure and Mixed 





Unions of Verbascum phceniceum, var. roseum 




and album; and V. nigrum. 


* . 








CD "g 

g ft 



6 ~ 



> ° 












V. phceniceum, by pollen of V. phceni- 

ceum, album, 








V. phceniceum, album by pollen of 










V. phceniceum, album by pollen of 


phceniceum, roseum, 








V. phceniceum, roseum by pollen of 
phceniceum., album, 




V. phceniceum, by pollen of V. nigrum, 








V. phceniceum, album by pollen of 


nigrum, ... 








V. phceniceum, roseum by pollen of 


nigrum, ... 








V. phceniceum, by own pollen, ... 




V. phceniceum, roseum by own pollen, 





V. phceniceum, album by own pollen, 

" ' 


The following descriptive notice of the plants in Tab. 1, will show 
their close morphological relations. First, V. phceniceum ; stem somewhat 
downy, simple, producing upwards a racemose panicle. Leaves 
crenate, oblong-ovate, nearly glabrous above, deep green. Radical 
subcordate, ovately-acuminate, petiolate. Upper cauline crenulated, 
semi-amplexicaul. Bracteas lanceolate. Raceme elongated. Floicers 
lax, solitary ; pedicels longer than the bracteas. Corolla purplish-violet, 
beset with violet hairs at its base. Stamens ; filaments of the three 
shorter stamens covered w 7 ith long glandular purplish hairs, these of 
the two longer naked, except on the upper side, where there are a few 
similarly characterised hairs. Anthers of the three longer stamens 
nearly circular, and covered with purple and white glandulose hairs, 
these of the shorter stamens, reniform and nearly naked. Pollen 
copper-coloured. Second, V. phceniceum, roseum differs from the above 
only in the less elongated raceme and the rose-coloured flowers. Third, 
V. phceniceum, album is of a more robust habit than the other two. 

1867.J Relations of Verbasca. 149 

Radical leaves ovate-lanceolate, light green. Flowers white and 
rather larger than the others, wfth a few whitish glandulose hairs 
near the base of petals. Filaments and form of anthers similar to 
these of V. pkamiceum, hnt beset with white instead of purple, 
glandular hairs. Pollen similarly copper-coloured in each. 

Thus, judging from the characters of these three forms alone, there 
can be no doubt as to their being other than conspecific. In addition 
to this I may add, on the authority of Mr. Stirling of Edinburgh, 
that they have been raised from pure seed of the V. phceni- 
ceum, the rose-coloured variety frequently appearing amongst the 
seedlings of V. phceniceum, the white presenting itself more rarely. 

In the first part of Tab. 1, the number of flowers fertilised, and 
the simple results are shown, and in the right hand, for the sake of 
comparison, the calculated produce of the number of seeds from 20 
capsules of each is given.* If we compare the results, we see that 
reciprocal unions may be effected becwecn the V. phceniceum and 
varieties, with one exception, viz., V. phceniceum, roseum, by pollen of 
V. phceniceum, album, in which case 1 have found that though the 
pollen tubes are abundantly developed and freely penetrate the stigmatio 
tissues, the capsules nevertheless drop prematurely. The goodness, 
however, of both the male and female elements of the above varieties 
is nevertheless shown by their reciprocal unions with V. phceniceum^ 
The individual potency of the respective sexual elements of these 
varieties, in their reciprocal relations, is clearly shown ; whereas by 
those experiments given in the three last lines of the table, in which the 
stigmas of each variety were covered by their own good pollen, no 
unions were effected, each proving utterly self-sterile ! 

This absolute, or conditional, sterility of the three varieties of V. 
phceniceum, when treated by their own good pollen, led me to examine 

* From Mr. Darwin's suggestion m " The Origin of species" that the decreased 
fertility of mixed unions, as compared with that of the pure unions, might possi- 
bly be increased by the fact, that for perfectly satisfactory results, castration is 
necessary in the cross-unions ; whereas in the latter, in pure unions, this not 
being necessary, we may have indiscriminate comparisons, of the two results 
though clearly castration may have a direct sterilising influence. In view of 
this prudent suggestion, I took the precaution to castrate every flower both of 
the pure and mixed unions, from which I intended to draw results. The sole 
exception to this is that given in the first line of Table 2 of V. pliosniceum 
as I was unable to get any of the plants under me to produce seed by their own 
pollen. Whatever be the effects of castration then on the fertility of the plants so 
treated, in the present cases, all having undergone it, the results will be mutual. 

150 On the Reproductive Functional [No. 3, 

into the apparent cause, as in certain cases we find it arising from the 
non-emission or non-penetration of the pollen tubes ; the pollen through 
some mysterious cause being thus utterly impotent on its own stigma. 
The results of my present examination will, I trust, be found of sufficient 
interest to permit of my stating them here. They are as follows : first, I 
applied the pollen of each of the three varieties, reciprocally, to their 
stigmas; on dissecting these, I found them abundantly permeated 
by pollen tubes, many of which I distinctly traced into the ovary. 
Secondly, I fertilised several flowers in each variety, with its own 
pollen ; on examining the stigmas of a few of these flowers, I found 
that many of the pollen grains had emitted tubes, but comparatively 
few had penetrated the stigmatic tissue, and of these still fewer 
permeated the conducting tissues of the styles. Several of the latter, 
however, I traced into the vascular bundles of the placenta, the 
pistillary cords, and in one or two instances, I believe that I detected 
them in the nucleus of the ovule. Nevertheless we have seen that, 
though these pollen tubes are developed, they most ineffectively 
perform their deputed function, inasmuch as not one of these matured 
even a single ovary ! I have here to observe, however, that these 
pollen tubes do not seem utterly void of the fecundative influence, as 
many of the ovaries did undergo a certain degree of development ; and 
on examination of these, as they dropped off, I found that the ovules 
also had undergone a partial and variable degree of development. In 
general, the fleshy albuminous envelope of the embryo was largely 
developed, whereas the embryo had undergone a very slight develop- 
ment, judging from a comparison of other good seeds of a similar stage, 
not at all proportionate to the size attained by the albuminous parts. In 
nearly all the embryos which came under my observation, the develop- 
ment had ceased ere they exhibited any distinct separation of parts ; a 
few only had reached that stage in which the axial and lateral 
projections were visible. 

We thus see, that whatever be the real cause of the inveterate self- 
sterility of the three varieties of the V. phoeniceum, it does not arise, 
as has been shown in other cases, from the non-emission of the pollen 
tubes. In these, as I have elsewhere noticed it, in certain individual 
plants of different species of Oncidia, Maxillaria, and Passifloras, 
sterility apparently results from some slight differentiation of the male 

1867.] Relations of Verhasca. 151 

element with respect to its own female element. I liave also to remark, 
that the ultimate conditional sterility of these plants is not, relatively 
considered, an absolute but a graduated quantum ; this is shown 
by the different degrees of development the embryos had undergone, 
thus illustrating a most interesting, though as yet imperfectly known 
fact, namely, that the male element, even though reaching the female 
element, may nevertheless fail to communicate that amount of vital 
stimulus necessary to the complete development of the embryo. 
Furthermore, I may in passing briefly refer to the perfect parallelism 
between these phenomena, and those occasionally observed in hybridi- 
sation, at least in the zoological kingdom, for unfortunately we are as 
yet nearly void of information on this point in the vegetable kingdom, 
hybridists having, in most instances, satisfied themselves by attending 
to the ultimate results, without troubling themselves to examine into 
the nature or degree of embryonic sterilisation. From the published 
papers of the Hon'ble and Kev. W. Herbert, we find, as might 
indeed be expected, that this point did not escape observation : thus 
in one case he remarks, " It has, I believe, not been duly considered, that 
the fecundation of the ovules is not a simple, but a complicated process. 
There seems to me to be three or four several processes : viz., the 
quickening of the capsule of the fruit, of the outer coats of the seed 
itself, of the internal parts or kernel, and lastly, the quickening of the 

embryo." "It is further to be observed," he continues, "that there 

is frequently an imperfect hybrid fertilisation, which can give life, but 
not sustain it well. I obtained much good seed from Hibiscus paluslr is 
by H. speciosus, and sowed a little each year till it was all gone, the 
plants always sprouted, but I saved only one to the third leaf, and it 
perished then." 

To recur, however, to the above parallelism, of which we have here 
additional and important illustrations: it has been stated by Mr. Darwin* 
on the authority of Mr. Hewitt, that in the hybridisation of gallinaceous 
birds a frequent cause of sterility in first crosses is the early death 
of the embryo. Again Mr. Salter records similar results from 
his experiments on the fertility inter se of several hybrid Galli,f thus 
concluding, " the one striking point of these experiments (which I 
believe has never been noticed before) is that a large proportion of 

* loo. bit. p. 286. 

f Nat. Hist. Rev. 1863, p. 276. 

152 On the Reproductive Functional [No. 3, 

these eggs from hybrid birds breeding inter se have failed to produce 
young, not from absolute sterility, but sterility in degree, from an 
amount of vitalization insufficient to carry out the whole result of 
reproduction, in which the young individual has been completed, 
leaving it with vital resistance insufficient to maintain life and cope 
with common and customary external influences." And thus in those 
curious cases of sterility of structurally hermaphrodite organisms, 
whose sexual elements have become differentiated with respect to their 
mutual fertile conjunctions, so in the phenomena of sterility from 
hybridism, we find, as Mr. Salter well remarks, with respect to the 
relations of hybridism and parthenogenesis, "that the sterility is not 
absolute but in degree, and that the stimulus, whatever it may be, 
which starts the embryonic changes is feeble and imperfect rather 
than wholly wanting." 

I have now shown that a regular more or less early embryonic abortion 
results from the self-fertilisation of certain individual plants of V. 
l)lioeniceum and vars. roseum, and album ; whereas by their reciprocal 
fertilisation, highly fertile unions may in general be effected. By again 
consulting Table 1, however, it will be seen that besides a reciprocal 
fertilisation, these three plants are also susceptible of fertilisation by 
pollen of other species. Thus in lines 7, 8, 9, of Table 1, the male 
element of V. nigrum is singularly enough effective in the fertilisation 
of each, while in a succeeding Table — 4 — the goodness of the male 
elements is also similarly shown by each effectively fertilising the 
female element of the V. lychnitis, lutea. Again, we have fuller illus- 
trations of these curious sexual phenomena in Table 2, in which one 
of the above plants, V. phoeniceum, yields a varying degree of fertility 
to four other distinct species ; namely the V. ferrugineum, Blattana 
lutea and alba ; Lychnitis lutea and ovalifolia. These are indeed 
remarkable physiological revelations. How strange that an individual 
plant could be fertilised by the pollen of five distinct species, and yet 
not by its own good pollen : how singular also, as shown above, to see 
three hermaphrodite individuals incapable of self-fertilisation, yet 
having each sexual element reciprocally meeting and fertilising the 
opposite elements of other species. Thus, for example, the male 
element of V. phoeniceum and vars. roseum and album fertilise the 
female element of V. lychnitis } while the female elements of the three 


Relations of Verbaaca. 


former are also susceptible of fertilisation by the male element of V. 
nigrum. The full explanation of these curious and complicated sexual 
relations, I leave for more sagacious and ingenious investigators, and 
simply conliiie myself to remarking on the apparent support that these 
and more especially those other cases which I have communicated to 
the Linnean Society,* on the fertilisation of certain species of Passiflorae, 
— in which I showed that individual plants perfectly self-sterile readily 
effected reciprocal unions with other similarly characterised individuals 
of the same species — give to that view which Mr. Darwin has propounded 
regarding the existence of a law in nature necessitating " an occasional 
cross with another individual, or, that no hermaphrodite fertilises itself 
for a perpetuity of generations," but " that some unknown great good 
is derived from the union of individuals which have been kept distinct 
for many generations. "f 

In the following table, the results of the pure unions of V. 
phceniceum given on the first line are taken from capsules on a 
specimen in the Edinburgh University Herbarium, as I have not yet 
been successful in getting good capsules from any of the plants which I 
have had an opportunity to experiment upon by their own pollen. The 
other plants of V. phceniceum and varieties mentioned in the table are the 
same as those from which I had the results given in Table 1. Indeed, 
in one or two instances, the same experiments are re-stated, with a 
view to show more clearly the relative degrees of sterility resulting 
from the crossing of undoubted varieties of a species on the one hand, 
with those from the hybridisation of distinct species on the other. 

Table 2. — Pure and Mixed Unions 
of Verbascvm phceniceum and 







By calcu- 

fertility of 

var. as $ 

6 ^ 

o § 


© C3 
g U 


6 » 




the different 



1. Verhascum phceniceum L. 

(wild plant naturally ferti- 








* "Journal Linn. Soc." Vol. 8. p. 197. 

f Orchid Fertilisation, pp. 1—360, 


On the Reproductive Functional 

[No. 3, 





By calcu- 








Table 2. Contcl.— Pure and Mixed 
Unions of Verbascum jphceniceiim 



° © 






fertility of 

and var. as $ 

O o 




© ^ 

g p. 

r. . CO 

■ P 



the different 

. w 


£ § 

O m 


d S 



> o 

* * 










V. phoeniceum, rosea, by- 


pollen of V, phceniceum L., 









V. phmniceum, ■ alba, by 
pollen of V. phveniceum, 










V. phoeniceum, alba by pollen 

of V. phoeniceum, 










V. phoeniceum, by pollen of 

V. phoeniceum, rosea, 







, , 



V. phoeniceum by pollen of 


V. phoeniceum, alba, 










V. phoeniceum by pollen of 


V. ferrugineum, Andr., 










V. phoeniceum by pollen of 


V. blattaria, lutea L., 







. , 



V. phoeniceum by pollen of 

V. blattaria, alba, 







# , 



V. phoeniceum by pollen of 


V. lychnitis lutea, L., 







, . 



V. phoeniceum by pollen of 


V. ovalifolium, ... 









In addition to the simple and calculated results given on Table 1, 
I have, in the above, given at the right hand, for the sake of compari- 
son, the calculated product from an assumed 1,000 seeds of the pure 
unions relatively to those yielded by the cross and hybrid unions. 
By a further comparative study of these results, we find that the 
fertility of the pure unions of V. phoeniceum, relatively to that of its 
cross-unions with the white and rose-coloured varieties, is, in the 
least differentiated or most highly fertile unions, viz., V. phoeniceum, 
rosea by pollen of V. phoeniceum, as 100 : 95; whereas in the 
least fertile unions, V. phoeniceum by pollen of V. phoeniceum, alba, 
the proportions are as 100 : 56. The average fertility of the five 
cross-unions given in the table, relatively to the pure unions given in 
the first line, is as 100 : 75 ; so that the pure unions thus exceed in 
fertility the cross-unions, in nearly the proportions of 4 : 3. Again 


Relations of Verhasca. 


by a similar comparative study of the relative fertility of the pure 
unions of V. pkamiceum and the different hybrid unions given in the 
Table, we find that the highest degree of fertility results from the union 
of V.ferrwjineum (which perhaps is correctly regarded by De Candolle 
and others as a mere variety of V. phceniceuni) with V. phceniceum, the 
proportions of the pure to the hybrid unions being as 100 : 59, in 
favour of the former. The lowest degree of fertility results from the 
unions of V. ovalifoMum, with V. phoeniceum, the proportion of the 
pure to the hybrid-unions in this case being as 100 : 24.) Lastly 
the average fertility of the five hybrid unions given in the latter lines 
of the Table, relatively to the pure unions of V. phoenicewn, is nearly 
as 100 : 40, or as 2.5 seeds of the pure unions to one of the hybrid 
unions. Thus, the relative differences in the degree of sterilisation 
resulting from the hybridisation of distinct species, and that from the 
cross -impregnation of varieties of a species, relatively in either case to 
the pure unions, is in the former as 2.5 : 1, and in the latter as 4 : 3. 





By calcu- 












Table 3. — Pure and Mixed Unions 



of V. lychnitis, L. var. alba 




W 00 


fertility of 

as $. 


« . 



© CS 


«M © 

O »-j 
ft °° 



the different 

6 ~ 



> * 

►5 P, 









1. Verbascum lychnitis, var. 

alba of gardens, by own 









2. V. lyclmitis, alba, by pollen 


of V. lychnitis, lutea, L., 









3. V. lychnitis, alba, by pollen 

of V. tlwpsus, L. var. alba, 


of gardens, 









4. V. lychnitis, alba, by pollen 

of V. phceniceum, L. var. 

alba of gardens, 









On the Reproductive Functional 

[No. 3, 




By calcu- 










Table 4. — Pure and Mixed Unions 
of V. lychnitis, lutea, L. as $ 





° g. 


=M DO 

o © 





fertility of 

the different 


6 f- 1 



5 p. 

o » 










F. lychnitis, lutea, L. by own 










V. lychnitis lutea by pollen 


of V. lychnitis, alba, 










V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 

of V. phceniceum, L., 









V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 
of V. phwniceum, L. var. 

alba of gardens, 









V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 
of V. phamiceum, L. var. 

alba of gardens, 










V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 
of V. blattaria, L. var. alba 

of gardens, 









V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 


of V. blattaria, lutea, L., . . 







• • 



V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 


of V. thapsus, lutea, L., . . 







, , 



V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 
of V. thapsus, L. var. alba 

of gardens, 










V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 

of V. nigrum, L., 










V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 

of V. virgatum, With., 










V. lychnitis, lutea by pollen 


of V. thapsiforme, Schrad, . 









111 Table 3 we have first the results of the pure unions of V. 
lychnitis, alba, and by comparing them with those resulting from fer- 
tilisation with the pollen of V. lychnitis, lutea, we find that the latter 
cross-unions undergo the proportionately decreased fertility of 100 : 82. 
By the hybrid-unions of V. lychnitis, alba, with the pollen of V. 
phceniceum, alba, a slightly higher degree of sterilisation results ; the 
proportion in this case being as 82 : 67, relatively to 100 produced 
by the pure unions of V. lychnitis, alba. The highest degree of 
sterilisation in this Table results from the union of V. lychnitis, 
alba, by pollen of V. thapsus, alba, the proportion of the pure to 
the hybrid unions being here as 100 : 47. 

ISO 7.] Relations of Verbasca. 157 

The results of my experiments on the yellow variety of V. lychnitis 
are given in Table 4. By a comparative examination of this Table, we have 
the following general results : first, the fertility of the pure unions of 
V. lychnitis, lutea exceeds that resulting from the cross-unions of 
the latter with pollen of V. lychnitis, alba, in the proportion of 
100 : 94. The degree of sterilisation induced by these unions, though 
less than that resulting from the converse unions given in Table 3, is 
nevertheless sufficient to show a sterilising influence in the conjunctions 
of varieties of a species, characterised only by those, systematically 
considered, trifling differences in colour — the one being white, the other 
yellow. Secondly we have the results of unions of similarly and 
dissimilarly coloured forms of distinct species, with V. lychnitis, lutea. 
Thus the pollen of V. phooniccum, with purplish coloured flowers, 
applied to the stigmas of V. lychnitis, lutea, gives an average fertility 
of 66; the pollen of the white variety V. phceniceum, alba, gives an 
average of 55 ; while that of the rose-coloured variety is productive of 
the highest degree of sterilisation, giving only 49 — relatively to 100, 
the produce of V. lychnitis i lutea by its own pollen. Mr. Darwin, on 
the authority of Gartner, states in his " Origin of Species," that similarly 
coloured varieties of distinct species are more fertile when crossed than 
are the dissimilarly coloured varieties of the same species. The parti- 
cular illustration of this point will be found in a subsequent part of this 
paper ; I will here merely state that, in the above unions, the degrees of 
fertility are by no means regulated by the colour affinities. Thus, we 
have first yellow and violet, then yellow and white, and lastly yellow 
and rose yielding a successively decreased fertility ; whereas, judging by 
the colour affinities, the arrangement ought to have been, beginning 
with the most fertile, yellow first with white, then with rose, and lastly 
with violet. Secondly, with pollen of the V. blattaria, vars. alba and 
. lutea, we see, that the V. lychnitis, lutea yields the higher degree of 
fertility with the former : V. lychnitis, lutea, yielding with pollen of 
V. blattaria, alba, 56, and with that of V. blattaria, lutea, 51, relatively 
to 100, the product of fertilisation with its own pollen. Thirdly, in the 
unions of V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of the yellow and white varieties 
of V. thapsics, we find that unions of the similarly coloured flowers are 
the more fertile. V. lychnitis, lutea, yielding with pollen of V. thapsus, 
lutea, 46, and with the pollen of V. thapsus, alba, 39, relatively to 100, 


On the Reproductive Functional 

[No. 3, 

the results of fertilisation with its own pollen. Fourthly, in accordance 
with recognised systematic affinities, we find the following descending 
scale of sterilisation resulting from the unions of V. nigrum, V. virgatum 
and V. tliapsiforme with the V. lychnitis. Thus with the pollen of 
V. nigrum, the average fertility of V. lychnitis, lutea, is 80, with 
that of V. virgatum 58, and with that of V. tliapsiforme 46, rela- 
tively, in each instance, to 100, the product of fertilisation by its 
own pollen. A similar accordance is observable between the functional 
and systematical relations of V. blattaria and V. thapsus with the 
V. lychnitis. In the unions, however, of V. phoeniceum and varieties 
with the V. lychnitis, no such accordance is observable. The different 
unions vary greatly in the degree of fertility inter se, and judging 
indeed by the relative functional potency of the pollen of the three 
varieties on the stigmas of V. lychnitis, the different results are 
comparable with those from distinct species, and would cause their 
interpolation into systematically considered false positions, showing 
us that the functional and systematic affinities of the species of a 
genus are by no means strictly co-ordinated. 




By calcu- 










Table 5. — Pure and Mixed Unions 







of Verb as cum blattaria, L. var. 






fertility of 

alba of gardens. 

"A . 

O T3 

© J CD <3 

«2 hnO 


M-l CD 


the different 

Cm ^ 

6 ^ 

o^ 3 













1. Verbascum blattaria, L. var. 

alba of gardens by own 









2. V. blattaria, alba by pollen 

of V. blattaria, lutea,L., . 








3. V. blattaria, alba by pollen 

of V. thapsus, lutea, L., 









4. V. blattaria, alba by pollen 

of V. thapsus, L. var. alba 

of gardens, 









5. V. blattaria, alba by pollen 

of V. lychnitis, lutea L., 








6. V. blattaria, alba by pollen 

of V. lychnitis, L. var. alba 

of gardens, . . 









Relations of Verbasra. 




By calcu- 







fertility of 
the different 

Table 6. — Pure and Mixed Unions 




o g 



of V. blattaria, lutea, L. as $ 


O ^3 



© n 

bo © 

«M O 



"8 I 


T © 




o ^ 



> P- 










Yerbascum blattaria, bttea, 

L. by own pollen, „ .. 









V. blattaria, lutea by pollen 
of V. blattaria, alba of gar- 










V. blattaria, lutea by pollen 

of V. thapsus, lutea, L., 









V. blattaria, lutea by pollen 
of V. tltapsus, alba of gar- 










V. blattaria, lutea by pollen 


of V. 1/yohwitis, lutea, L., 









V blattaria, lutea by pollen 
of V. lijciaiitis, alba of gar- 

dens, .. .. ..18 








The results of experiments on the V. blattaria, varieties lutea and alba. 
arc given in the above Tables : they comprise 12 unions between the 
■white and yellow varieties of three species. Let us briefly compare 
the results of their reciprocal unions. First, the fertility of V. blattaria, 
alba, when fertilised by its own pollen, undergoes the highly propor- 
tionate sterilisation of 98 : 78 when fertilised with the pollen of the 
yellow variety — V. blattaria, lutea. In the converse case, the sterilis- 
ing influence of the cross relatively to the pure unions of these forms is 
much decreased, the pure union of V. blattaria, lutea, yielding more 
seed in the proportions of 90 : 88 than from its cross-union with the 
white variety — V. blattaria, alba. Secondly, as to the hybrid unions 
with the pollens of the yellow and white varieties of V. thapsus. In 
these the pollen of the white variety is the more potent. Thus V. 
blattaria, alba, fertilised by pollen of V. thapsus, alba, affords an 
average fertility of 43, whereas by that of V. thapsus, lutea, the 
produce is reduced to 32, relatively in both cases to 100, the average 
fertility of V. blattaria, alba, when fertilised by its own pollen. By the 
union of the yellow and white varieties of V. thapsus with the yellow 
variety of V. blattaria, we see that the relative differences in the 

160 On the Reproductive Functional [No. 3, 

potency of the two pollens on the stigmas of V. blattaria, lutea, 
are much less than those we have above noticed when V. blattaria 
alba is used as female ; and also that the potency of the two pollens 
is greater on the stigmas of the yellow than those of the white variety 
of V. blattaria lutea ; and again that the white variety of V. thapsus 
is more fertile than the yellow, in their respective unions with the 
V. blattaria, alba. Thus V. blattaria, lutea, by pollen of V. thapsus, alba, 
gives an average fertility of 61 ; by pollen of V. thapsus, lutea, 50, 
relatively to 90, the product of fertilisation by its own pollen. Lastly, 
we have the different unions of the two pollens of the white and 
yellow V. lychnitis on the stigmas of the yellow and white varieties 
of V. blattaria. In these unions we see first that with V. blattaria, alba 
as female, the pollen of the white variety exceeds that of the yellow 
in the proportion of 36 : 23 ; secondly, with the V. blattaria, 
lutea, as female, the pollen of the white variety is again singularly 
enough the more fertile, exceeding that of the yellow variety, in 
the proportion of 45 : 41. Thirdly, we find that here also the yellow 
variety of V. blattaria yields a higher degree of fertility, — taking the 
conjoint products of the two unions with the pollen respectively of 
V, thapsus, lutea and alba, — than the white variety of V. blattaria when 
similarly treated, the proportions being as 70 of the V. blattaria to 47 
of the V. blattaria, alba, or nearly as 3 : 2. 

This leads me to notice a curious fact prominently brought before 
us in the above Table, whatever may be its real signification, namely, 
that the yellow varieties of V. lychnitis and blattaria, though yielding 
a higher grade of fertility to the pollen of the white and yellow 
varieties of distinct species than do the respective white varieties 
of the above species when similarly fertilised, are nevertheless less 
productive of seed than the white, when both are fertilised with their 
own pollen. This will be seen by consulting the following tabular 
arrangement, in which I have given a reduced approximate of the 
relative fertility of the different unions, selecting from the hybrid 
unions in each instance only the most fertile. 

1. V. lychnitis, alba, by own pollen is as 83 : 75 of V. lychnitis, 
lutea, by its own pollen. 

2. V. lychnitis, alba, by pollen of V. lychnitis, lutea, is as 68 : 71 
of V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. lychnitis, alba. 

1867 ] Relations of Verbasca. 161 

3. V. lyclmitis, alia, by pollen V. tliapsus, alba, is as 39 : 30 of 
V. lyehnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. tliapsus, alba. 

4. V. lyclmitis, alba, by pollen of V. phceniceum, alba as 56 : 42 
of V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. phceniceum, alba. 

5. V. blattaria, alba, by its own pollen, is as 98 : 90 of V. blattaria, 
lutea by its own pollen. 

6. V. blattaria, lutea, by pollen of V. blattaria, alba is as 96 : 79 
of V. blattaria, alba, by pollen of V. blattaria, lutea. 

7. V. blattaria, lutea, by pollen of V. tliapsus, alba, as 61 : 43 of 
V. blattaria, alba, by pollen of V. tliapsus, alba. 

8. V. blattaria, lutea by pollen of V. hjchnitis, alba, as 45 : 36 of 
V. blattaria, alba, by pollen of V. hjchnitis, alba. 

We thus see, from the eight pure, cross, and hybrid unions of V. blat- 
taria alba and lutea given in the above comparative table, that though 
the white variety exceeds in fertility the yellow variety, when both 
are fertilised by their own pollen, the yellow variety, in the mixed unions, 
is in every case more highly fertile than the white. In the different 
unions of V. lychnitis, alba and lutea, there is some little discordance, 
this, however, is confined to the hybrid unions which are as yet very 
insufficiently illustrated, as may be seen by consulting Tables 3 and 4. 
In the case of the pure and cross unions, we see, as in those of V. 
blattaria, that in the pure unions the white variety, and in the cross 
unions the yellow variety is the more fertile. 

I know not whether this concordance is casual or otherwise, but I 
was so forcibly struck with it in the comparative study of my Tables, 
that I have thus ventured a special statement. I have been more 
especially induced to notice it also from its evidently bearing and 
illustrating, as I am inclined to think, that view of Mr. Darwin, (Joe. 
cit.) respecting the good derived from cross fertilisation ; inasmuch as 
we see that the yellow and original, or normally coloured, form of the 
species is less fertile than the white or derivative form in the pure 
unions, whereas in general, in the mixed unions, the yellow variety 
relatively exceeds the white in the degree of fertility. Any how, the 
mere fact of such variations occurring, whether or not they have any 
bearing on other points of theoretical natural science, seems to me 
worth noticing, as affording an additional link to that broken chain of 



On the Reproductive Functional 

[No. 3, 

evidence which is said to disjoin the serial continuity of the phe- 
nomena of mongrelism and hybridism. 

• A 




By calcu- 












Table 7. — Pure and Mixed Unions 


of Verbascum thapsus, lutea, 







fertility of 

L. as $ . 

q=l . 

© T3 
= § 



© - 
1 ® 


•-4-I © 

6 2 




the diffei'ent 

6 w 



r ft 

^h i~ 









1. Verbascum thapsus, lutea, L. 

by own pollen, . 








2. V. thapsus, lutea by pollen 

of V. thapsus var. alba of 










3. V. thapsus, lutea by pollen 


of V. lychnitis, lutea, L., . . 









4. V. thapsus, lutea by pollen 

of V. lycJmitis, var. alba of 










5. V. thapsus, lutea by pollen 


of V. nigrum, L., 








6. V. thapsus, lutea by pollen 

of V. pyramidatum, Beib., 









7. V. thapsus, lutea by pollen 


of V. thapsiforme, Schrad, 








8. V. thapsus, lutea by pollen 


of V. virgatwm, With., 








9. V. thapsus, lutea by pollen 


of V. blattaria, lutea L., . . 1 8 








In Table 7 we have several unions of the yellow variety of V. 
thapsus. If we compare these results, we see that the fertility of the 
V. thapsus, lutea, by its cross-unions with the V. thapsus, alba, is 
decreased in the proportions of 94 relatively to 100, the product of 
fertilisation by its own pollen. We also see a great difference in the 
degrees of potency of the two pollens of the white and yellow variety 
of V. lychnitis on the stigmas of the yellow variety of V. thapsus ; 
the pollen of V. lychnitis, alba, exceeding in its fertilising influence 
that of V. lychnitis, lutea, in the proportion of 54 : 46. Judging 
from the results of the seven hybrid unions given in this Table, we 
also see how little the recognised systematic affinities of species guide 
us in pronouncing a priori as to the degree of fertility of their several 
unions. For example V. thapsiforme, V. virgatwm and V. blattaria, 

1867.] Relations of Veruasca. 1G3 

though much more closely allied to the V. thapsus than the others 
given in Table, are nevertheless least effective in their conjunctive 
fertility with the hitter species. Furthermore, we see by those unions 
of V, thapsus, lutea, as female, with the yellow and white varieties of 
V. lychnitis, and of V. pyramidatum ; that though the pollen of V. 
pyramidatum is equally potent on the stigma of V. thapsus lutea, as 
is that of V. lychnitis, alba i there is nevertheless a considerable decrease 
in the proportionate fertility of the unions with V. lychnitis, lutea. 
Hence, as we have before shown it to be with the varieties of V. 
yphceniceum, and judging by the physiological test, the V. pyramidatum 
would interpolate itself between these slightly different and undoubted 
varieties of a species. 

In the foregoing Tables, then, I have given nearly all the re- 
sults of my experiments in the unions of Verbasca. Before 
considering the nature of the evidence they afford us as to the rela- 
tionship of mongrelism and hybridism, I will briefly attempt to show 
how far these results accord with those of Gartner, who has also 
largely experimented on these plants. I may premise, however, that 
as my experiments are much less numerous than Gartner's, compris- 
ing some 57 distinct unions, in which 527 flowers were artificially 
fertilised, — whereas, as will be seen beneath, Gartner subjected no 
less than 1085 flowers to experiment, — they would induce very 
different conclusions, in certain points, to those arrived at by that 
careful experimentalist. I readily acknowledge therefore the higher 
claim of the latter to a provisional acceptance, until further experiments 
show more conclusively their relative correctness. I have also 
to notice a cause of some little discordance in such a compara- 
tive examination as that which I am about to institute ; name- 
ly, that I have given in every case the average number of seeds 
produced both by pure and mixed unions, whereas Gartner gives the 
average number of seeds in the pure unions only, taking in each case 
the maximum or highest number produced by a single capsule in the 
mixed unions. I was not aware of this peculiarity in Gartner's deduc- 
tions when I counted the seeds in my own experiments, otherwise, I 
should have drawn them up for the sake of comparison on a similar 
basis ; even though I consider it a less fair method than that which 
I have adopted, in all such cases as the present, in which the ovaries 

164 On the Reproductive Functional [No. 3, 

contain an indefinite number of ovules. And this the more especially 
if, as in my own experiments, castration and artificial impregnation be 
performed in both pure and mixed unions. In drawing comparisons 
between uncastrated pure unions, and castrated mixed unions, the 
average of the former, with the maximum of the latter would certainly 
be the fairer method, as affording a complement for the sterilising 
influence of castration. 

For the following digest of Gartner's experiments I have to thank 
Mr. Darwin, who kindly sent it to me from his yet unpublished MS. 
illustrations of these phenomena : "To show the scale on which 
Gartner worked, I may state that, in the genus Yerbascum, he crossed no 
less than 1085 flowelfe and counted their seed, and recorded the results. 
Now in two of his works he distinctly asserts that similarly coloured 
varieties of V. lychnitis and V. blattaria are more fertile together than 
when differently coloured varieties of the same species are crossed. 
But Gartner chiefly relied on the crosses which he made between the 
yellow and white varieties of these two species and nine other distinct 
species, and he asserts that the white-flowering species yielded more 
seed than did the yellow-flowered varieties when crossed with the same 
white varieties of these two-flowered species, and so conversely with 
the yellow flowering varieties with the yellow species. The general 
results may be seen in his Table. In one case he gives the following 
details ; the white Verbascum lychnitis naturally fertilised with its 
own pollen had on an average in 12 capsules 96 good seeds : 20 flowers 
artificially fertilised with the pollen of its yellow variety gave as the 
maximum 89 good seeds. I should have thought that this slight 
difference might have been wholly due to the evil effects of castration; 
but Gartner shows that the white variety of V. lychnitis, fertilised by 
the pollen of the white and yellow varieties of V. blattaria, in both of 
which cases there must have been previous castration, bore seeds to 
the white variety in the proportion of 62, to 43 when pollen of the 
yellow variety was used." 

First then, in regard to the greater fertility of the unions of simi- 
larily coloured varieties, relatively to that of the unions of dissimilarly 
coloured varieties of the same species. To these phenomena I will apply 
in the subsequent parts of this paper the following terms : " Homo- 
chromatic" to the unions of similarly coloured varieties, and " hetero- 

18G7.] Relations of Vcrbasca. 165 

chromatic' to those in which dissimilarly coloured varieties are united 
In the following table we will at once see the comparative fertility 
of these different unions given in the previous ones. 

Relative fertility of the Homochromatic and Heterochromatic 


1. V. phceniceum by its own pollen, . . . 1000 

2. V. phceniceum, rosea, by pollen of V. phceniceum, ... 958 

3. V. phceniceum, alba, by pollen of V^phamiceumj rosea, 867 

4. V. phceniceum, alia, by pollen of V. plucniceum, . ... 735 

5. V. phceniceum, by pollen of V. phceniceum, rosta, . ... 680 

6. V. phceniceum, by pollen of V. phceniceum, alba, ... 563 

7. V. lyclinitis, alba, by pollen of V. lychnitis, lutea } ... 822 

8. V. lychniits, lutea, by pollen of V. lyclinitis, alba, . ... 944 

9. V. blattaria, alba, by pollen of V. blattaria, lutea, .., 792 

10. V. blattaria, lutea, by pollen of V. blattaria, alba, ... 969 

11. V. thapsus, lutea, by pollen of V. thapsus, alba, . ... 947 

Here the comparative fertility is shown by calculation from 
the number of seeds produced by 20 assumed capsules of both 
unions. The various cross-unions of V. phceniceum and its varieties 
are in each case to be considered relatively to the assumed results 
of the pure unions of V. phceniceum given in Table 2, these 
plants experimented upon being individually self-sterile as shown in 
Table 1. The unions, on the other hand, of V. lyclinitis, blattaria, 
and thapsus, with their respective varieties, are each to be considered 
relatively to the 1000 seeds produced by the pure union of that 
variety given as female. Now in all the above heterochromatic 
unions, as compared with the homochromatic, we have the clearest 
evidence of reduced fertility. Thus, taking the 10 heterochromatic 
unions given, and comparing them with a similiar number of homo- 
chromatic unions, we find that the average proportion in which the 
former exceeds the latter, is as "05 to "23. On again confining 
ourselves to those species alone which have the yellow and white 
varieties, and keeping the unions of white as 2 with yellow $ , 
distinct from those of yellow as p with white as $, we find that 
the cross-unions with white as female are to the pure unions of the 
latter as '04 to "28 ; and in those cross-unions with yellow as female, 

166 On the Reproductive Functional [No. 3, 

the proportions are as *23 to '29, relatively to the pure unions 
of the latter. Thus, in whatever way we proceed, the general 
results are the same, testifying to the highly remarkable fact 
announced by Gartner, that varieties of a species, characterised by 
no other differences than that of colour, are occasionally so differen- 
tiated functionally, that the cross-unions, as compared with the 
fertility of the pure unions, invariably indicate a certain degree of 
sterilisation ! 

In connection with this higher relative fertility of homochromatic 
to that of heterochromatic unions, as limited to the crossing of varieties 
of a single species, I will venture to add that this law not only holds, 
but, as I believe, extends to and regulates the functional relations in 
accordance with the relative colour affinities of the varieties crossed. 
Thus for the sake of illustration, we may take the three primary 
colours of the cyanic series, namely, blue, violet, and red. Now 
beginning with red, we know that greater physiological changes 
must take place in the minute anatomy of the petals of an origi- 
nally red- coloured flower to give the impression of blue than 
that of violet. Hence we might suspect that a species presenting 
varieties characterised by such differences in colour, would like- 
wise afford different degrees of fertility in their conjunctive func- 
tional relations, the blue and red yielding less fertile unions, 
than the violet and red ; while the violet holding an intermediate 
colour position between these, might be equally as fertile in its unions 
with the blue as the red variety. In practical illustration of these re- 
lations, we may take the results of the various unions of V. phceniceuM 
and varieties given in Table 1. Thus the V. pliazniceum with pur- 
plish-violet flowers yields more seeds when fertilised by the pollen 
of the rose-coloured variety, than by that of the white variety, in the 
proportion of 5 to 4. Again the white variety of V. pliceniceum 
fertilised by the pollen of the rose variety yields an average of 29 
seeds per capsule, and by that of the purplish violet variety the 
average per capsule is 26, that is as 9 to 8, in favour of the unions 
of the rose and white varieties. We see here evident co-relations be- 
tween the degrees of fertility and the colour affinities of these plants in 
their respective sexual unions, and I venture to look for more marked 
differences in these respects, had we as subjects of experiment, 

1867.] Relations of Ycrhasca. 167 

varieties of a species presenting three, or at least two, of the primary 
colours with intermediate shades irrespective of the white. The latter 
being rather unsatisfactory from its similar relations to the primary 
colours, though in such instances as the above of the purplish-violet, 
rose and white, in which we have secondary colours forming inter- 
mediate steps between the primary and white, by a gradual dilution 
of the colouring principle, we find that the white, agreeably to the 
above views, form less fertile conjunctions with the violet than the 
rose-coloured flowers. Before passing from this point of my subject, 
I will now only add that I have thought these indications of a tangi- 
ble law, co-relating and regulating the sexual functions of varieties 
when crossed — dim though they as yet undoubtedly are— worth notic- 
ing, as we are as yet in utter ignorance of any thing like definite or 
specific laws in these phenomena, the results being considered as most 
capricious and uncertain. 

Gartner's second proposition is, that in the hybridism of differ- 
ently coloured varieties of distinct species of Yerbasca, the con- 
junctions of the similarly coloured flowers are more fertile than these 
of dissimilarly coloured flowers. For example Gartner shows* that 
on the calculation of V. lychnitisjfl. alba, yielding with its own pollen 
1.000 seeds, it yields when fertilised with the pollen of V. blaltaria 
fl. alba, 0.622 seeds, and with that of V. blattaria, ,//. hdea, only 0.438, 
so that the similarly coloured unions of tlie.^c species are more fertile 
than the dissimilarly coloured unions in the proportion of 3 to 2. Let 
us now see then in how far this law of the differences in the fertility 
of the homochromatic relatively to the heterochromatic unions, is 
borne out in the case of my own experiments as given in the preced- 
ing Tables. And here again, for the sake of clearness, and facility of 
reference, I will restate them in a tabular form, and show as clearly 
as possible the differences in the relative fertility of the homochromatic 
and the heterochromatic unions, in each case, by making calculations 
from an assumed 100 seeds produced by the more fertile of the two 
unions compared. The results may be conveniently arranged under 
three heads ; thus, first, the heterochromatic unions, or those in 
which the unions of differently coloured flo.wers are the more fertile: 
second, the homochromatic unions, or those in which similarly colour- 
* Yersuche uber die Bastarderzeugunj, 1849, section 216. 


On the Reproductive Functional 

[No. 9, 

ed flowers are the more fertile : and lastly, the irregular unions in 
which no relations are observed between the degree of fertility and 
affinity of colours. 

A. I. — Heterochromatic union, the more fertile. 








V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. blattaria, alba, . 

V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. blattaria, lutea, . 

V. blattaria, lutea, by pollen of V. thapsus, alba, . 

V. blattaria, lutea, by pollen of V. thapsus, lutea, . 

V. blattaria, lutea, by pollen of V. lychnitis, alba, . 

V. blattaria, lutea, by pollen of V. lychnitis, lutea, . 

V. thapsus, lutea, by pollen of V. lychnitis, alba, . 

V. thapsus, lutea, by pollen of V. lychnitis, lutea, . ,, 

B. 2. — Homochromatic unions, the more fertile. 




V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. thapsus, lutea, 
V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. thapsus, alba, 
V. blattaria, alba, by pollen of V. thapsus, alba, 
V. blattaria, alba t by pollen of V. thapsus, lutea, 
V. blattaria, alba, by pollen of V. lychnitis, alba, 
V. blattaria, alba, by pollen of V. lychnitis, lutea, 



to 91 

to 83 

to 88 

to 87 

to 85 

to 76 

to m 

C. 3. — Degree of Fertility and affinity of Colour 

1. V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. phceniceum, . 100 

2. V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. phceniceum, . „ to 80 

3. V. lychnitis, lutea, by pollen of V. phoeniceum, . „ to 74 

In A. and B. of the above comparative tables, I have ar- 
ranged those unions in which a certain regularity is observed be- 
tween the colour relationship and the degree of fertility. Now, by 
comparing the 14 unions therein given, we find that the heterochro- 
matio unions are, in the greater number of cases, more fertile, viz., as 
8 to 6, than the homochromatic unions, and that this higher fertility, 
in every case, results from those unions in which the yellow variety 
of the species is treated as female. Again that the average pro- 
portion of the four heterochromatic to the four converse homochromatic 
unions in the first of the above tables is nearly as 7 to 6 in 
favour of the former. In B. 2 of the tabulated results, we see in one 

1867.] Relations of Verbasca. 109 

instance the homochromatic unions with yellow as female exceed in 
fertility the converse heterochromatic union ; but in the other cases 
given in lines 3 and 5, this higher fertility of the homochromatic unions 
is yielded by the white variety ; the relative proportions of these being 
much more marked than in the above cases of the heterochromatic 
union with the yellow variety as female, viz., as 4 to 3, whereas, as w T e 
have seen, in the heterochromatic, A. 1, the proportions are as 7 to 6. 
In further illustrations of this point we see in B. 2 that the yellow 
homochromatic union of V. hjchnitis, latea, by pollen of V. thcqjms, 
lutea, relatively to the heterochromatic unions of the former with 
pollen of V. thapsus, alba, is nearly as 5 to 4, so that we here again 
see (as in the heterochromatic and homochroniatic unions in A 1) 
a more intimate approximation between the products of these two 
unions, than occurs in the other cognate unions of B. 2, in which 
the white variety is the more fertile. 

These curious relations, however, as I have already shown, are 
partly explained by the fact, — though we can only dimly see why it 
should be so, — that in the pure unions of the white and yellow 
varieties of the above mentioned species, the white, in every case, 
yields more seed than the yellow ; whereas in the cross-unions the 
yellow variety in general is the more productive. But, it may 
be asked, how is the greater potency of the pollen of the white variety 
relatively to that of the yellow variety, as shown in the above 
tables to be accounted for ? Does it really imply that the female 
element of the yellow variety yet retains its normal or original 
potency, the male element alone having become absolutely less potent, 
as compared with the male element of the white variety. This 
hypothesis, analogically considered, does not seem to me at all 
improbable. I think we have clearly seen by the comparative results 
of the pure and mixed unions of the yellow variety with those of the 
white, that the pure unions of the yellow do not yield a degree of 
fertility at all proportionate to that of the like unions of the white 
variety, as judged by the relative fertility of their cross-unions ; and 
that accordingly this would seem to be due to an acquired weakness 
in the generative powers of the yellow variety. In noticing this 
point in a former part of, my paper, I treated it as if both sexual 
elements had undergone a similar decrease in their generative powers ; 


170 On the Reproductive Functional [No. &, 

but we here see that it is more particularly, if not altogether 
confined to the male element. Now, as the results of hybridisation 
show that the pollen is more susceptible to the concomitant sterilising 
action of hybridism than the female element, may we not suppose 
that the debilitating effect of continued self-impregnation will also 
manifest itself more quickly in the male than in the female element, 
and thus afford an explanation of the decreased sexual powers of the 
male, as compared with the female element, in the yellow varieties of 
the above species of Verbasca furthermore, showing us that as it 
has been a slowly acquired quality, so will it be in its elimination and 
regainment of its pristine vigour. 

The relations of the several reciprocal unions in the above 
tables is another point which we must briefly consider, as having 
most important bearings on the subject of oar present enquiry. A 
hasty examination suffices to show that these are much complica- 
ted. Thus V. lychinitis, lutea, in its two unions with the white and 
yellow varieties of V. blattaria, the heterochromatic unions are the 
more fertile ; whereas in its two unions with the white and yellow 
varieties of V. thapsus, we find it yields the more fertile by 
a homochromatic union. Again V. blattaria, lutea, in its four 
distinct unions with the white and yellow varieties of V. thapsus 
and V. lychnitis, yields the higher degree of fertility in the hete- 
rochromatic unions, while the V. blattaria in its similar unions with 
the white and yellow varieties of V. thapsus and lychnitis is, 
singularly enough, more highly fertile in the homochromatic than the 
heterochromatic unions. Lastly the V. thapsus, lutea, yields more 
seed by its heterochromatic unions with pollen of the V. lychnitis, 
alba, than by its homochromatic unions with the V. lychnitis, lutea ; 
whereas in the converse unions we have seen that the V. lychnitis, 
lutea, is more fertile in the homochromatic unions with V. thapsus, 
lutea, than in the heterochromatic unions with V. thapsus, alba ! 

The tabulated experiments given in C. 3, afford another source of 
complexity to the question under examination, inasmuch as they are 
quite irregular in the relative degree of fertility produced by 
the affinity of colour. Thus by the three unions of V. lychnitis, 
lutea, with pollen of the three varieties of V. phoeniceum, the 
most highly fertile is that in which V. lychnitis r lutea, is treat- 

1867.] Relations of Yerlasca. 171 

ed with pollen of the purplish violet, or normal form, the average 
in this being 25 seeds per capsule ; then follows the unions with 
pollen of the white variety, the average of seeds being in these 21 
seeds per capsule ; and lastly in the unions with the variety with rose- 
coloured flowers, the fertility of V. lychnitis, lutea, is reduced to 
the low average of 18 seeds per capsule. Thus judging by the degrees 
of fertility, we clearly see that the natural functional co-relations of 
these plants in place of being regnlated by their respective colour 
affinities, arrange themselves in an entirely independent and opposite 
scale ; the extremes in the scale of colour given, viz., the purplish- 
violet with yellow, manifesting the nearest functional co-relation. 
-Again as a further complication we find that the white and yellow unions, 
— the most closely allied of the colours mentioned, — hold a medial 
position between the purplish violet and rose. How obviously futile 
then, we may well remark, would our d priori conclusions have been, 
as to the degrees of fertility of the above unions, on a presumed 
coordination between colour and function in the phenomena of 
hybridism ! 

It would thus appear from the results given in the foregoing tables 
that in the hybridisation of varieties of distinct species characterised 
by differences of colour alone, no definite relations whatever can be 
observed between the affinities of colour, and the degrees of fertility, 
but, that in these cases as in the reciprocal hybridisation of pure 
species, the relative fecundity is a most variable and unpredictable 
quantum. This view seems to me to be further supported by the 
results of my experiments on the reciprocal hybridisation of the di- 
morphic species of Primulas* in which I showed that the laws of dimor- 
phism were limited in their action to the unions of the two forms of a 
species ; the heteromorphic and homomorphic unions of distinct species 
proving irregularly the more fertile. From considering the important 
functional co-relations of the two forms of dimorphic species, and their 
trifling morphological characteristics, together with the specifically 
limited extent of their operations, we have less reason to be surprised, 
if a similarly limited relationship should ultimately prove to regulate 
the degree of fertility of those unions of differently coloured varieties 
of a species as in Verbascum and analogous cases. Indeed, judging 
* Linn. Soc. Jour. Vol. 8, p. 78. 

172 On the Re-productive Functional [No. 3, 

from my previous remarks on the co-relations between the degree of 
fertility and affinity of colour in the crossing of varieties of a species, 
together with the results of the hybridising differently coloured varie- 
ties of distinct species, this law seems clearly indicated, that the 
relative degree of fertility of the cross unions between the differently 
coloured varieties of certain species is inversely proportionate to the 
less or more mediate colour affinities of these unions. Further that 
this law does not extend to, or regulate the hybrid unions of differ- 
ently coloured varieties of distinct species, but is strictly limited in 
its operations to those anions of varieties of a single species. Such 
at least is the conclusion which my own experiments would induce 
me to hold, but seeing that they are so directly opposed to the results 
of Gartner's large experience, I would rather avoid at present any- 
thing like definite or positive conclusions, until subsequent experi- 
ment affords us a crucial array of data. 

In conclusion, I will now by a cursory retrospect of the above de- 
tails, re-state a few of the more important points, which elucidate the 
mooted relations between the phenomena of the hybridisation of a species 
and the mongrelism of the varieties of a species. First then in hybridism 
we see on the calculation of V. lychnitis yielding with its 
own pollen 100 seeds, it yields upon fertilisation with pollen of 
V. nigrum 80 seeds, by the pollen of V. virgatum 58 seeds, by. 
that of V. phceniceum 66 seeds and by that of V. thapsiforme 46 
seeds. In the unions of varieties of a species, with these of other 
species we find differences in the sexual powers, so that the pollen of 
the one variety of a species is less potent than that of the other 
on the stigmas of the same variety of another species. Thus V. 
lychnitis fertilised by the pollen of V. blattaria, lutea, yields 
51 seeds, by that of V. Uattaria, alba, 56 seeds, and again by 
pollen of V. thapsus, lutea, V. lychnitis yields 46 seeds, by that 
of V. thapsus, alba, 39 seeds, relatively in each case to the 100 
seeds produced by its own pollen. Again we have evidence also of 
reciprocal differentiation in the relative sexual powers of varieties of a 
species, and those of other species. Thus in the case mentioned above 
of V. blattdria, the pollen of variety alba is more potent on the 
stigma of V. lychnitis than that of variety lutea, whereas in the 
converse unions of these forms, we find that the pollen of V. 

1867.] Relations of Verlasca. 173 

h/ch?iitis is more potent on the stigmas of V. blattaria, hitea, than 
that on those of the variety alba, in the proportion of 40 to 26. 

Secondly, in mongrelism, we also find variabilities in the relative 
sexual powers of varieties of a species, by differences in the degrees 
of fertility resulting from their simple and reciprocal unions. Thus 
on the calculation of V. phoeniceum, yielding 100 seeds by ferti- 
lisation by its own pollen, it yields with that of the variety rosea 68 
seeds, and by that of the variety alba, 56 seeds, or nearly as 5 to 3. 
In the reciprocal unions of these varieties, we also find variabilities in 
their converse sexual powers. For example, in the reciprocal unions 
of V. phcmiiccum and varieties, the potency of the pollen of rosea 
relatively to that of alba on the stigmas of the normal form is nearly 
as 5 to 4; whereas the pollen of the latter on the stigmas of rosea and 
all>a is as 4 to 3. This difference in the reciprocal sexual powers of 
varieties when crossed is so regulated however by colour affinities, that 
unlike the irregular and indefinite results of the reciprocal unions of 
varieties of distinct species, judging by my own experience, we see 
that the pollen of rosea is more potent on the stigmas of the normal 
form than these of alba and so conversely, the pollen of the normal 
form is more potent on the stigmas <# rosea than on those of alba. In 
those cases, however, in which colour differences do not come into 
play the pollen of one variety, relatively to that of another variety 
of the same species is so differentiated with respect to their 
reciprocal stigmatic relations that the grade of fertility of the pure 
unions of these varieties does not at all correspond with that of the 
cross unions. For example, in the pure unions of varieties lutca and 
alba of V. blattaria, the fertility of the latter exceeds that of the 
former in about the proportions of 12 to 11 ; whereas in their converse 
unions, lutea exceeds alba in the higher proportions of 6 to 5 ! Thus 
in the inter-crossing of varieties of a species, as in the inter-crossing 
of varieties of distinct species, there are converse variabilities in the 
reciprocal sexual powers of their respective elements. 

As the facts stand then, it appears to me that in the first crosses of 
the varieties of certain species, as in the first hybrid crosses of distinct 
species, a variable degree of sterilisation results, and again, that the 
relative sterilising influence is as highly intensified in the crossing of 
undoubted varieties of certain species, as it is in the hybridising of 

174 On the Reproductive Functional Relations of Verlasca. [No. 3, 

several undoubtedly distinct species. There is also a parallelism 
between the results of reciprocal hybridisation of varieties of distinct 
species, on the one hand with those of the reciprocal inter-crossing of 
varieties of a single species on the other. The sole difference in the 
two lines at least is merely as to the degree of extension ; species re- 
lative to species occupying a higher point in the divergingly extended 
line, than do the varieties of a species relatively to each other, and 
accordingly yielding in general more intensified results, harmoniously 
testifying to the truth of Mr. Darwin's remark that sterility is simply 
a superinduced quality due to incidental differences in the reproduc- 
tive system.... As in the varieties of a species, however, we find that the 
relative amount of physiological divergence, — as judged by the fertility 
of their reciprocal conjunctions, — is by no means regularly or definitely 
co-ordinated with their morphological ; so in the hybridisation of the 
different species of a genus, the most distinct morphologically are 
often found to be most nearly allied in their physiological charac- 
teristics, and thus there being no necessary co-ordination of these 
characteristics we can readily understand how the sterility of the first 
crosses of varieties of a species may, and occasionally does, exceed that 
of well -marked and undoubtedly distinct species. 

1867.] Capt. R. C. Beavan on Panolia Etdi. 175 

Contributions towards a history of Panolia Eldi ; McLelland. 
By Captain It. C. Beavan, C, M. Z. S. &c. 
The published accounts of this comparatively rare species of deer 
are scattered through Lack numbers of various scientific periodicals 
and proceedings of Societies, some of which are out of print, and 
not easily procured. I have therefore brought together nearly all 
that has been previously written on the subject, and added much 
information on the manners and habits of the species procured during 
a recent visit to its haunts in Burmah. 
Panolia Eldi. The Sungnai. 
Nondescript Deer, McLelland, Calcutta Journ. N. H. Vol. I. p. 501, 

Cervus Eldi, Guthrie, (Calcutta Journ. N. II. Vol. II. p. 405 7 

C. h/ratus, Schinz. Syn. Mam. II 395. 

C. dimorphe, Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XII. p. 897. 
0. smithi, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 45. 
Panolia acuticornis, Gray, List Mamm. B. M. 180. 
Panolia platycercos, Gray. List Mamm. B. M. 181, adult ; Cat. 

Osteol. B. M. QQ. 
Cervus (Rasa) frontalis, McLelland, Calcutta Journ. N. II. III. p. 

401, PL XIII. Sundcvall, Pecora, 132. 
Panolia Eldi, (TLe Sungnai), Gray. Cat. Hodgson Coll. B. M. 34; 
Osteol. B. M. GG : Knowsley Mcnag. Cat. Mam. in Museum 
As. Soc. Bengal, BlytL, 18G3, p. 149. 
Native names, Sungnai, apud Guthrie and Blyth : Sungraee apiul 
Eld : Thamyn of Burmah. 

Eab. Pegu, northward to the valley of Munipore : Siam : and prox- 
imate portion of the Malayan Peninsula, (Kedda) Mergui, (Blyth.) 

The first notice we have of this deer, was published in 1841,* and 
entitled — ' Indication of a nondescript spedes of Deer by John 

"Captain Guthrie of the Bengal Engineers, employed in the con- 
struction of a road from the valley of Cachar to Monypore, procured the 
horns of a deer whose lower, or basal antler descends in the axis of the 

* Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. Yol. I. p. 501, PI. XII. 

176 Capt. R. G. Beavan on Panolia Eldi. [No. 3, 

beam, rather as an extension of the horn itself than as a mere shoot. 
The horn may be compared to the segment of a circle, the burr, or 
root from which both limbs extend, being placed on the outer circum- 
ference. The beam is round, and terminates by a fork, as in the 
Rusa deer. The lower prolongation of the horn beneath the burr 
may also be said to terminate in a fork, for on the left horn, about 
two inches below the root, there is a small snag directed forward. In 
illustration of this notice, a figure of the horns is given at pi. 12." 

Captain Eld, one of the principal assistants to the Commissioner 
of Assam, who had been previously attached to the British Residency 
in Muneypore, having had his attention called to the notice and the 
figure alluded to, soon after wrote an interesting letter on the subject, 
which affords the first general information hitherto received relative 
to the habits and character of this interesting species. His description 
is as follows :* "I observe mention made of a new description of 
Deer, said to exist between Munipore and Cachar ; some specimens 
of the horns of which were procured in the latter place by Captain 
Guthrie. From the drawing, it is evident to me that the Deer alluded 
to is of the kind originally discovered by myself in the valley of 
'Munipore in the beginning of 1838, and several pairs of the antlers 
of which were given by me to Captain G-uthrie in the same year, 
I had intended at the time to send a description of the animal to one 
of the Journals, but was told that a similar Deer was to be found in 
the north-western jungles. As this, however, does not appear to be 
the case, I now forward you a correct drawing of a pair of the horns 
in my possession, together with a short account of the animal &c. 
taken from notes made at the time in my sporting diary ; and which 
you are welcome to make use of in any way you please. 

• The Sungraee, as it is called by the natives, or large Deer of 
Munipore, is only to be found in the valley of that state, but neither 
in Cachar, nor the Kubo valley, nor in any of the Naga hills surround- 
ing Munipore. Its favourite haunts are the low grass and swamps 
round the edge of the Logta, (lake) at the western end of the valley, 
and the marshy ground at the foot of the hills. It is gregarious in 
its habits, and after the annual grass burning, I have frequently seen 
herds of two and three hundred. The colour of the males from the 
month of November, till about the end of May, is of a dark brown, 
* Calcutta Journal Natural History, Vol. II. p. 415, 

1SG7.] Captain R. C. Beavan on Panolia eldi. 177 

nearly approaching to black, and their bodies are covered down to the 
knee-joints with thick shaggy coats, resembling split whalebone, of 
four to eight inches in length. 

" The hair about the neck is very thick, and just like a horse's mane, 
and the appearance the stag presents when roused, with his shaggy 
mane standing on end, coupled with the strong smell which at this 
season proceeds from their bodies, perceptible at 40 and 50 yards 
distance, is so formidable, that I have known the boldest ele- 
phant refuse to approach them. In June the stags commence shed- 
ding their horns, and the new ones have nearly attained their full size 
by the end of November, but are in perfection in February and March ; 
about this time also (June) they change their coats, which lose 
their whalebone texture, and become of a beautiful glossy chesnut co- 
lour, and about half an inch in length. The contour of their pecu- 
liarly small heads, and the perfect symmetry of their forms, di- 
vested of their long bristly coats, are now fully developed, and at 
this season they are, in my opinion, the most beautiful and graceful of 
the Deer species. The height of the full grown stags averages about 
eleven and a half hands, and that of the does three or four inches less. 
The colour of the latter is always the lame — a bright bay, but more 
glossy during the rains than at any other time. The principal dis- 
tinction between the Sungrae'e and others of the Deer species consists 
in the peculiar shape of the lower antlers, which, instead of breaking 
off at an angle where they are set on the head, preserve the continuity 
of curve downwards, and project over the eyes of the animal, which 
they nearly hide, their semicircular shape giving the Deer, when at 
gaze or in motion, the appearance of having too distinct pairs, the 
one inclining forwards and the other backwards. The generality of the 
stags have from six to ten branches or snags, but I have killed very 
old ones, with no less than sixteen clearly defined branches. 

" It would be a great object gained, could any live specimens be pro- 
cured for transmission to Europe, but it would I fear be attended 
with much difficulty. I have known several instances of the fawns 
being caught and thriving well for months, but at about a year old, 
they invariably pined away and died ; nor have I known or heard of 
a single instance of one having arrived at maturity, this too in their 
native climate ; and I therefore think the chances of one surviving a 


178 Captain B. G. Beavan on JPanolia eldi. [No. 3, 

voyage home but small. I have written to a friend in the valley to 
send me a complete skeleton of one with the skin &c, and he has 
kindly promised to do so if he can succeed in procuring one ; hut says 
he can hold me out but slender hopes, as the Deer now seem to bear 
a charmed life, and roam about unpersecuted by anybody." 

The next detailed description of this deer was given by Dr. 
McLelland in 1842,* and I quote his remarks nearly in full. 

" Although differing considerably in the form of the horns from 
any of the Rusa deer, still the general form, the colour, the 
mane, and the Asiatic habitation of the species, seem to refer it to 
the Rusa group, of which it forms one of the most unique and striking 

" The form of the skull agrees more with that of Gervus hippelaplms 
than with that of any other species that I can refer it to, but the 
nasal and intermaxillary bones, as well as the muzzle generally, seem 
to be somewhat mere prolonged and compressed, and though the face 
is broad and flat between the eyes, the forehead is compressed, and 
the head as well as the muzzle narrow, and the profile nearly straight, 
but with a short prominent ridge commencing on the forehead, and 
extending between the horns. There are two canine teeth, not much 
developed, in the upper jaw of both sexes, and the suborbital sinuses 
are large. 

" The horns are large and directed backwards, and obliquely out- 
wards without ascending from the burr : they are then curved gradually 
upwards and outwards, and terminate in a point directed forward. A 
single small antler extends obliquely inward from the upper third of 
the horn ; this antler in young individuals appears to form a fork with 
the summit, but in the adult it is placed about six or seven inches 
from the top point of the horn, and is more or less developed according 
to age ; in the adult, and particularly in aged individuals, an imper- 
fect nodular spine extends from the base of this antler towards the 
point of the horn, with several irregular blunt snags arising from it, 
forming an incomplete kind of crown. The broiv antler advances 
directly forward from the burr, and bending upwards and onwards, 
terminates in a point which, if prolonged, would meet the summit of 
the horn, and thus complete an almost perfect circle. 

* Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist,, Vol. III. p. 401, PL XIII. XIV. 

181)7.] Captain R. C. Beavan on Panolia eldi. 179 

„A single little snag sometimes shoots out promiscuously from the 
base of one or other horn, more frequently from that of the brow 

" The length of the horn following the curve is three feet, and that 
of the brow antler twenty inches. The circumference of the horn is 
five and a half inches, that of the brow antler five inches, and both 
together form one extended and uniform curve of four feet and seven 
inches ; the horns spreading laterally from each other to a distance of 
three feet, and then approaching at their bases to an inch or an inch 
and a half. 

" The hody in its general symmetry is light, the limbs slender but 
strong, the hoofs long, black, and pointed ; the head is carried erect ; 
the tail short and conspicuous in the summer dress, but only appear- 
ing as a short tuft in the thick winter coat. 

" The coal is thick and dense in winter, longer and coarser on the 
neck than on other parts, forming a thick but undefined mane of 
straight, harsh, and coarse hair, five or six inches long in the winter, 
but in summer the mane is more defined. From the withers the hair 
becomes shorter, diminishing towardsithe tail, which in summer is 
thinly clad, though in winter it is covered with a dense clothing of 
hair, in common with all the upper parts of the body. On the face, 
the muzzle, the limbs, and the external ears, the hair is short, close, 
and compact ; on the lower surface of the chest it is coarse and short ; it 
is thin, lengthy, and line on the under-parts of the belly. The inner 
parts of the thighs and upper and inner parts of the forelegs are also 
thinly clad. 

" The colour changes from yellowish brown in summer to a brownish 
grey in winter : during summer, brownish grey prevails on the face 
and neck, becoming yellowish brown on the upper parts of the body, 
the backs of the ears, and the upper and outer part of the limbs and 
the muzzle. The belly, the inner parts of the thighs and the forelegs, 
the under parts of the lower jaw, the hips, the tail, and adjoining parts 
of the rump, are white in summer, but the rump and upper parts 
of the tail partake of the colours of the upper parts of the body in 
winter. The lower parts of the limbs are light grey, the same also 
prevails irregularly round the eyes, and corners of the mouth and nose, 
and lengthy tufts of light grey hair cover the inner surface of the ears.' 

180 Captain R. C. Beavan on Panolia eldi. [No. 3, 

Mr. Blyth, as noticed above, considers the Cervus dimorphe of 
Hodgson to be identical with the species under notice ; but that the 
horns of the individuals figured by the latter are abnormal, on ac- 
count of their being developed in captivity. Had not Mr. Hodgson 
mentioned, (as quoted hereafter,) that his animal was three years old 
and the horns perfect, I should have been inclined to have considered 
it as bearing its first year's horns. 

The following information was obtained during a recent visit to 

Lieut. -Colonel Blake kindly furnished me with the following 
account : " As regards the exact localities of the Thamyn I can only say 
where I have found them and where not. As far as I know, they do not 
occur to the south of Moulmein, but from within a short distance of 
Thabyoo point, the south-western headland of the Martaban district, 
to Sittang, bounded to the eastward by the forest line, they are found 
in large herds. 

" Again, on the opposite side of the Sittang river, to the south and 
west of Pegu, they are also found in large numbers. How far they 
extend in a westerly and northerly direction, from the mouth of the 
Bangoon river, and in the Bassein district, I do not know, but I 
have heard that they are common even as high up as Munipore. 

" From Pegu to the north they are found in very small parties, the 
ground not suiting them, until you cross the " Koon" creek or river, 
the separating boundary between the Martaban and Thoungoo districts, 
and from this to within a few miles of Thoungoo they occur in large 

u Sometimes the plains or open spaces between the Eng* forests will 
be covered with them, and three or four hundred may be seen at one 
time. Under these circumstances they are shy and very difficult of ap- 
proach. Strange to say, that although the ground appears quite as 
favourable for them, I have never seen a single one to the eastward 
of the Sittang river north of Sittang. From the above, you will see 
that they are gregarious in their habits. During the night, and early 
morning and evening, they frequent the plains, and where the forest 
jungle is not distant, they retire into it during the heat of the day. 

* Dipterocarpus grandifolia, Wallich ; Wood oil Tree, Mason's Burmali, edit, 
1860, p. 493. 

18G7.] Captain H. C. Beavan on Panolia eldi. ]81 

u Their food, I imagine, consists of grass. I cannot call to mind 
having seen more than one fawn with its mother. 

° The colour of the young, as well as that of the females, is what is 
termed light fawn colour (light rufous ?) The males are sometimes 
of the same, and sometimes as dark as the male of the Samhur, Rusa 
hippelaphus. I know not if any change takes place in their coats with 
the change of seasons." 

Colonel D. Brown, Officiating Commissioner at Moulmein, has 
noticed them to range along hoth hanks of the Irrawaddy, on the 
proper right hank up to Meanoung, and on the left bank as far as 
Mcaday, on the British frontier, N. Lat 19° 40' E. Long. 95° 20' 
(approximately). lie has also observed them as plentiful at Theeg- 
wen, near Bassein, a few at Padoung opposite Prome, and to be more 
sparsely scattered through the Therrawaddy district. 

For most of the following information I am indebted to the courtesy 
of J. Davis, Esq., Superintendent of Police in the Martaban District, 
an Officer well known for his intimate acquaintance with the Burmese 
language ; hence his services as interpreter were invaluble when Bur- 
mese and Karen Shikarees had to be questioned. 

Pioneered by him, early in October last, I visited the haunts of 
the Thamyn near Thatore (a town about 40 miles N. W. of Moulmein), 
and although, owing to the dense nature of the vegetation covering the 
plains at that time of year, I was only able to see a few scattered 
females and young of the second year, yet the insight thus afforded into 
their habits and economy more than repaid me for the severe attack 
of illness I subsequently incurred by exposure to the heat and wet. 

This plain of Yengyaing was then, owing to the recent and heavy 
falls of rain, one large swamp. Nearly the whole of its unbroken 
extent, which embraces an area of 14 miles in length with an average 
breadth of 10, could be traversed in a small canoe, except here 
and there, where mud and vegetation combined obliged one to resort 
to a very unpleasant system of half wading in water, and half stick- 
ing in deep slime. A continuation of this plain, broken up by belts 
of jungle, extends for several hundreds of miles up the Burmese coast, 
and has evidently been formed by the gradual retirement of the sea, 
which at. one time doubtless clashed its waves against the Martaban 
and other continuous ranges of laterite hills. It is now, at Yengyaing, 

182 Captain R. C. Beavan on Panolia eldi. [No. 3, 

some eight to ten miles distant from the hills, and seems to be still 
retiring, since the water along the coast of this gulf of Martaban 
is very shallow and studded with sandbanks. For the primary- 
cause of this we may doubtless look to the immense amount 
of wit deposit brought down by the waters of the Sal ween, Beeling, 
Sittang and Rangoon rivers, all of which discharge themselves into 
the gulf of Martaban. As the sea retires, a belt of mangrove jungle 
about a mile in width appears to travel with it, thus enclosing the 
plain with a barrier of vegetation on one side and the mountains on the 
other. This strip of mangrove jungle gives cover to numberless hog- 
deer, tiger, leopard and pig, but is never entered by the Thamyn, 
except where somewhat open ; nor on the other side do they ever 
attempt to penetrate into the mountains. The plain is intersected by 
numerous tidal creeks which in the hot weather, when deprived of 
water from the hills, appear to dry up to a great extent, and those 
still open at that time of year contain no admixture of fresh water, so 
that it is evident, that for two, if not three, months in the year, the 
Thamyn must be entirely deprived of fresh water, whilst during the 
rainy season, for six months at least, they may be said to live in water. 
It appears wonderful how they can manage to exist in such ex- 
tremes of heat and wet. With the exception of a few stunted 
trees, and a fringe of hibiscus bushes along the creeks, the plain 
is covered with nothing but grasses and paddy, of which latter both 
the wild and cultivated varieties are abundant : owing, however, to the 
paucity of the population and the consequent demand for labour in 
this immediate neighbourhood, perhaps only one fourth of the whole 
area is under cultivation for paddy : this crop succeeds here admirably, 
and the grain forms one of the staple articles of export from Moul- 
mein and other Burmese ports. The remaining three fourths are 
covered with the indigenous uncultivated plants which, in seasons 
of scarcity, are reaped and used for food. This tract of country forms 
a vast grazing ground both for the Thamyn, and for large herds of 
tame buffaloes which are during the rains pastured here by the 
Karens, but withdrawn into the heavy jungles near the hills, when, 
in April and May, the whole of the vegetation on the plain becomes 
parched up, or is devoured by jungle fires. At the time o£ my visit 
vast flocks of waders and other water-birds were arriving from the 

1S67.] Captain R. C. fieavan on Panolia ohli. 183 

north, .and the creeks were filled with pelicans of several species ; 
whilst the mud flats absolutely swarmed with stints, sandpipers, 
egrets, and especially the rosy tantalus. Here and there, stalking 
gravely amongst the flowering paddy, might he seen pairs of the Sarus 
crane, (Grus antigone), or a troop of adjutants, both of which breed in 
the neighbourhood. Occasionally the rarer Javanese adjutant was met 
with, and the Jabiru stork, Myctcria australis. 

The rutting season commences in the middle of March and lasts 
throughout April, to the middle of May. 

The female gestates nearly seven months, and brings forth her 
young in October and November, amongst the jungle paddy which is 
then flowering or in seed, and at its greatest height. The sexes 
begin to breed at about 18 months old and the female has only a single 
young one at a time, which frequently stays with its mother until 
the second year.* Females have only four teats. In colour they are much 
like the female Sambur, but perhaps a little lighter. The young are 
at first spotted or menilled, but this disappearswith age. The females 
are hornless. In the second year the young males first begin to 
acquire horns which are perfectly developed in March, and shed in 
the middle of the rainy season, that is about September. f After 
two years they get two tines, and when about seven years old are in 
their prime with twelve tines (including the brow antler).' The na- 
tives have a vague idea that two distinct species, the lesser and the 
greater Thamyn, are to be found in the same herds, distinguishable 
only by difference of size in horns, and colour ; but this of course is 
to be accounted for by the individual distinctions common to all 
races of animals. 

The average weight of the male is from fifty to sixty vis,| that of a 
female forty vis. 

Four men can carry a male with ease, when disembowelled and 
quartered. § 

* The mother will breed a second time in 18 months after bringing forth, so 
that the young of two seasons are not nnfrequently seen with their parents. 

t As noticed above by Blyth in Major Tickell's specimen at Moulmein. 

The colour of a full grown buck is dark brown, especially about the back and 
neck, with underparts lighter. As far as I can ascertain there is no trace of a 
mane, and the texture of the coat varies considerably with the seasons ; more 
exact information on these points is however needed. 

X A vis is equal to 140 tolahs. 

§ As noticed by Blyth, the Burmese always quarter deer with the skin on. 
The Karens, however, will not eat the meat, because they think it will breed 

184 Captain R. C. Beavan on Panolia eldi. [No. 3, 

The male averages 3} feet in height at the shoulder. The female is 
a little less : the very largest males do not exceed 4J- feet. The flesh 
is much liked by the Burmese, and always finds a ready sale in the 
neighbouring villages. It is rarely brought into Moulmein. In the 
country the wholesale price of a doe is Rupees 3, and that of a buck 
Us. 4,* which is of course less than the usual retail bazar rate. 

The flesh is said to smell a little about the end of March when the 
weather is very hot, but about November and December it is in good 
condition for the table. 

Their habitat and range, according to Mr. Davis, are as follows : In 
the Martaban District they inhabit exclusively the open grassy plains 
between the sea and the mountains. In the Pegu plains they are 
perhaps more abundant than in any other part of Burmah ; next to them 
the Yengyaing plain in Martaban produces most ; near Rangoon they 
are found in the Dallah plain. About Pegu and Yengyaing they are 
found in herds from fifty to an hundred in the month of March, but 
when hunted, they congregrate much more, and as many as two hun- 
dred may then be seen together. In habits they are essentially gre- 
garious, and associate with no other species, although hog deer abound 
in the grass and jungle along the edges of the plain ; nor will they 
allow the tame buffaloes to come nearer to them than about 100 
yards. In 4iabits they are very wary and difficult of- approach, espe- 
cially the males ; they are also very timid, and easily startled. The 
males, however, when wounded and brought to bay with dogs, get very 
savage, and charge vigorously. On being disturbed, they invariably 
make for the open, instead of resorting to the heavy jungles like hog 
deer and Sambur. In fact, the Thamyn is essentially a plain loving 
species, and although it will frequent tolerably open tree jungle, for 
the sake of its shade, will never venture into any composed of dense 
or matted underwood i. e., bush jungle in contradistinction to " tree 
jungle." Indeed I was credibly informed of a large stag which, being 
driven into a corner of the plain last year, by herd boys, with pariah 
dogs, and finding no means of escape, took refuge in heavy jungle 
where its horns got entangled in a hibiscus bush, and so was actually 
captured alive. Its captors, however, soon put an end to its existence 
with a sharp dhar. 

* The prices quoted are what a shikarry expects usually to realize. 

Cf&ptam R. G. Beavan on Panolict Eldl. 185 

When first startled, their pace is great. They commence by giving 
three or tour large bounds like the axis or spotted deer, and afterwards 
Settle down into a long trot, which they will keep up for six or seven 
miles on end where frequently disturbed. This is when the vegetation 
on the plain is comparatively short. In the rains they do not go far 
before they find a hiding place in the long paddy. Their powers of 
leaping are highly developed. On the Yengyaing plain alone there 
are at the present time about a thousand bead, on the Thatong plain, a 
little further to the north west, perhaps a hundred head only, which go 
about in small herds of seven and eight. At Yengyaing the annual 
number killed amounts to about forty-five, including those bagged by 
Europeans, and about live natives gain their livelihood in that place, 
almost entirely by the sab> of the flesh. They are Least gregarious in 
the rainy weather, the females have mostly then retired in twos and 
threes into quiet spots, and the herds are altogether more scattered, 
Owing to the increased density of the vegetation. They feed during both 
day and night, chiefly however in the early morning and evening, their 
food consisting principally of the jungle paddy. During the night they 
do a great deal of damage to the cultivated variety, treading down 
more than they eat. They also feed on grass, and on the leaves of two 
jungle trees called in Burmese the " Keay" and the " Thamey," the 
scientific appellations of which I am unable to resolve.* In a tamed 
State they will eat plantain leaves. 

The call of the female, littered when disturbed, is a short barking 
grunt, that of the males is louder and more prolonged. It is most 
frequently heard in the rutting season, during which period the males 
have frequent and severe battles ; a pair have been known to have 
been captured whilst so engaged, with their antlers interlocked. 

* I lately had a stag Paiiolia in confinement for ninny months. It was put 
out every day among capital pasture, but invariably abstained from eating it. 
I tried it with a number of trees and found that it eat quickly the leaves of 
venosa, religiosa and in*! lea, and that the tender shoots and leaves of bam- 
boos were its special favourite. It was kept close to a tank in which convol- 
ves was growing luxuriantly, and it was accustomed daily betimes to 
stand in the water up to its middle, and feed on the leaves of this plant also. 
It did not appear, however, to be so fond of the water as the nearly affined baruj 
', Rucervus Du va acellii. A male of the latter species in my possession, in the' 
hot season, used to spend the greater part of the day lying in the water. Its 
food also apparently differs from that of the thqmyn, for it browsed on common 
pasture, and while in the water fed on the long straggling grass Seersia hexandm 


184 Captain E. G. Beavan on Panolia eldi. [No. 3, 

The male averages 3f feet in height at the shoulder. The female is 
a little less : the very largest males do not exceed 4J feet. The flesh 
is much liked by the Burmese, and always finds a ready sale in the 
neighbouring villages. It is rarely brought into Moulmein. In the 
country the wholesale price of a doe is Rupees 3, and that of a buck 
Us. 4,* which is of course less than the usual retail bazar rate. 

The flesh is said to smell a little about the end of March when the 
weather is very hot, but about November and December it is in good 
condition for the table. 

Their habitat and range, according to Mr. Davis, are as follows : In 
the Martaban District they inhabit exclusively the open grassy plains 
between the sea and the mountains. In the Pegu plains they are 
perhaps more abundant than in any other part of Burmah ; next to them 
the Yengyaing plain in Martaban produces most ; near Rangoon they 
are found in the Dallah plain. About Pegu and Yengyaing they are 
found in herds from fifty to an hundred in the month of March, but 
when hunted, they congregrate much more, and as many as two hun- 
dred may then be seen together. In habits they are essentially gre- 
garious, and associate with no other species, although hog deer abound 
in the grass and jungle along the edges of the plain ; nor will they 
allow the tame buffaloes to come nearer to them than about 100 
yards. In -habits they are very wary and difficult of- approach, espe- 
cially the males ; they are also very timid, and easily startled. The 
males, however, when wounded and brought to bay with dogs, get very 
savage, and charge vigorously. On being disturbed, they invariably 
make for the open, instead of resorting to the heavy jungles like hog 
deer and Sambur. In fact, the Thamyn is essentially a plain loving 
species, and although it will frequent tolerably open tree jungle, for 
the sake of its shade, will never venture into any composed of dense 
or matted underwood i. e., bush jungle in contradistinction to " tree 
jungle." Indeed I was credibly informed of a large stag which, being 
driven into a corner of the plain last year, by herd boys, with pariah 
dogs, and finding no means of escape, took refuge in heavy jungle 
where its horns got entangled in a hibiscus bush, and so was actually 
captured alive. Its captors, however, soon put an end to its existence 
with a sharp dhar. 

* The prices quoted are what a shikarry expects usually to realize. 

18G7.] Captain R. G. Beavan on PanoZta Eldl. 185 

When first startled, their pace is great. They commence by giving 
three or four large bounds like the axis or spotted deer, and afterwards 
settle down into a long trot, which they will keep up for six or seven 
miles on end where frequently disturbed. This is when the vegetation 
on tin 1 plain is comparatively short. In the rains they do not go far 
before they rind a hiding place in the long paddy. Their powers of 
leaping are highly developed. On the Yengvaiug plain alone there 
are at the present time about a thousand bead, on the Thatong plain, a 
little further to the north west, perhaps a hundred head only, which go 
about in small herds of sewn and eight. At Yengyaing the annual 
number killed amounts to about forty-five, including those bagged by 
Europeans, and about live natives gain their livelihood in that place, 
almost entirely by the sale of the flesh. They are least gregarious in 
the rainy weather, the females have mostly then retired in twos and 
threes into quiet spwts, and the herds are altogether more scattered, 
owing to the increased density of the vegetation. They feed during both 
day and night, chiefly however in the early morning and evening, their 
food consisting principally of the jungle paddy. During the night they 
do a great deal of damage to the cultivated variety, treading down 
more than they eat. They also feed on grass, and on the leaves of two 
jungle trees called in Burmese the " Keay" and the " Thamey," the 
scientific appellations of which I am unable to resolve.* In a tamed 
State they will eat plantain leaves. 

The call of the female, uttered when disturbed, is a short barking 
grunt, that of the males is louder and more prolonged. It is most 
frequently heard in the rutting season, during which period the males 
have frequent and severe battles ; a pair have been known to have 
been captured whilst so engaged, with their antlers interlocked. 

* I lately had a stag Panolia in confinement for many mouths. It was put 
out every day among capital pasture, but invariably abstained from eaiing it. 
I tried it with a number of trees and found that it eat quickly fchfl leaves of 
venosa, religiosa and indica, and that the tender shoots and leaves of bam- 
boos were its special favourite. It was kept close to a tank in which convol- 
vulus reptans was growing luxuriantly, and it was accustomed daily betimes to 
stand in the water up to its middle, and feed on the leaves of this plant also. 
It did not appear, however, to be so fond of the water as the nearly affined b<xro> 
singha, Rucervus Duvaucellii. A male of the latter species in my possession, in the 
hot season, used to spend the greater part of the day lying in the water. Its 
food also apparently differs from that of the thamyn, for it browsed on common 
pasture, and while in the water fed on the long straggling grass Seersia hexandm 


188 Captain i?. C. JBeavan on Panolia EJJi. [No. 3, 

for the Zoological Society of London.* Major Tickell had one 
alive for some time in Moulmein, but it was eventually killed by 
pariah dogs which got into its enclosures at night. My informant, the 
shikarree, tells me that he had one also tame some years since ; he 
caught it when about three months old, fed it on milk at first, and 
afterwards on grass and plantain leaves, and, after a short time, it be- 
came so tame that it would follow its owner about, and never attempt 
to leave the dwellings of man ; after an interval of two years, it got a 
small pair of horns shaped like those of the adult, but much smaller. 
Finally, like most pets, it met with an untimely end, being stolen and 
killed for food by rapacious Burmese officials. From this the species 
appear to be capable of easy domestication, although it is said by some 
invariably to pine away and die after capture. The horns of the species 
are of large size, and are kept by the natives for making handles for 
sickles. The small, ones are of no value, and are either thrown away or 
cut up and used as pegs. 

As to medicinal qualities, when a buffaloe is bitten by a snake, the 
horn of the thamyn ground to powder is mixed with a solution of the 
leaves of the " Yekazoon" (Ipomcea. sp. or convolvulus,) and given in- 
ternally, as it is said to cure the bitten animal immediately. No other 
part of the beast appears to be used medicinally, and the above men- 
tioned nostrum is of no avail for the human race. 

In conclusion, there is one point to which I wish to draw especial 
attention, as one on which our information at present is very limited. 
It is not known for certain whether the thamyn, in its first year, has 
horns without the brow antler, or whether they are the same as those 
of adult individuals, but smaller and with fewer tynes. The pros and 
cons on either side of the question are I find about equal. It remains 
for those who have the opportunity of rearing the young animal in 
captivity, or of shooting a young one, to prove which is the right view 
of the case. 

* I have since heard that Col. Phayre has one at the present time alive at 
Rangoon, and Mr. Grote one at Alipore, supposed to be the young of this 

A fine full grown stag which I received for Col. Phayre is now in the Zoolo- 
gical Soc. Gardens, London. — Editor. 

1SG7.] Mr. W. T. BlanforcVs Zoological Xotrx. 189 

Zoological Notes. 
By William T. Blanford, F. G. S. 

Cor. Mem. Z. S. Lon. 
[Received 10th June, 1887.] 
The following notes refer chiefly to the distribution of various 
animals in India and Burma, and to the habits of a few species. 
There is much in them which is probably not new, more especially 
with regard to the habits of animals. Still the subject is so interest- 
ing, and so little studied by naturalists for want of opportunity, that I 
trust these few remarks may have some interest. All the facts noted 
are from personal observation, except where the contrary is stated. 

1. Hie Lion in India. Mr. Blyth, about '2 years since, called atten- 
tion to the circumstance that lions had been recently met with in parts 
of India in which the animal had been supposed to be extinct. Since 
that time, one or two other localities have been added to the list of those 
in which lions have been met with. A paragraph went the round of 
the newspapers rather more than a year ago, in 1866, to the effect 
that a lion had been killed near Re wall. An account of the death of 
this animal was given in the new Oriental Sporting Magazine ; and 
again in " Land and Water," for December 8th, 1866, Captain Le 
Mesurier described the locality and gave the dimensions of the skin. 
The animal was killed by Messrs. Lovell and Kelsey, of the Jubbulpoor 
railway staff : it was a fine male with a full mane. The dimensions of 
the stretched skin were the following : 

ft. in. 

From tip of nose to end of tail, 9 8 

Ditto to insertion of tail, 6 10 

Ditto to hinder end of mane, 3 6 

Across skin from fore toe to fore toe, ... 6 11 
So that the animal, when alive, probably measured rather less than 
9 feet from the tip of the nose to the end of the tail, measured as 
tigers usually are, that is, by carrying a tape from the nose over the 
head and along the middle of the back. 

The mane is specially mentioned as very full, the longest hairs 
being about eleven inches in length, the colour yellow sandy, except 
on the crown of the head, along the crest, and across the shoulders, 
where a blackish shade prevailed, the hairs being white, black and 

190 Mr. W. T. Blanford's Zoological Notes. [No. 3, 

yellow, in about equal proportions. The ears were black on the 
outside, and the tip of the tail was also black ; the lower tip white. 
From the dark colour of a portion of the hair, there can be little 
doubt that this was not an aged animal, although, from the fully 
developed mane, it must have been mature, and not a young lion. 
The spot where it was killed was near the 80th milestone, on the 
railway from Allahabad to Jubbulpoor. 

I am indebted to Mr. Grote for a note from Captain Le Mesurier 
confirming the above particulars, and adding the following, also 
mentioned in the letter published in " Land and Water." 

" Some few years ago Mr. Court, who is now Commissioner of 
Allahabad, and a very good sportsman, disturbed two lions on the 
rocky plain near Sheorajpur, twenty-five miles west of Allahabad, 
when he was stalking antelope." 

" Two years ago (1864) Mr. Arratoon of the Police shot at and 
wounded a lion very near Sheorajpur, and eventually, with native help, 
stoned him to death, as he had no spare ammunition. Some of the 
members of my staff saw the skin, and got the story, nearly as I 
relate it, from Mr. Arratoon, who still holds a police appointment 
somewhere in the N. W. Provinces." 

The last authenticated appearances of an animal now verging on 
extinction in Central India are, I think, sufficiently worth preserving 
to demand a record. The Sheorajpur lion is, I believe, the furthest to 
the eastward yet known as having been killed in the present century. 

Col. Torrens also has written to Mr. Grote to say that lions still 
occur about Lalatpur, between Jhansi and Saugor. 

A few lions appear to be killed every year about Gwalior and 
Goona, but the animal is scarce, and, being eagerly sought after by 
some of the keenest sportsmen in India, it is rapidly becoming scarcer. 
In the hot weather of 1866 no less than 9 lions were shot by one 
party in the neighbourhood of Kota in Rajpootana. My information 
is derived directly from one of the sportsmen, Major Baigire. Of one of 
these Rajpootana lions I have seen a coloured drawing, taken imme- 
diately after death by an excellent artist. The mane was very fine 
and well developed, although the beast was killed in the hot weather, 
when the mane, like the rest of the fur, is doubtless thinner than in 
the winter. 

1807.] Mr. W. T. BlaufortVs Zoological Notes. 191 

From a native I learn that in a recent beat in Rajpootana (some- 
where on the neighbourhood of Kota), no less than 10 lions were 
turned out. If this story be true, and I think I have heard of similar 
large gatherings amongst African lions, this animal occasionally collects 
in much larger numbers than tigers do. At the same time I do not 
place much faith in the story. The largest number of tigers of which 
I ever heard as being found together was six. These were full grown 
animals. Five I have several times heard of. In such cases all are 
one family, the old tiger and tigress and their full grown progeny. 
A tigress not unfrequently has 3 or 4 cubs (I have known the latter 
number of fceti to be taken from the body of a slain animal) but they 
rarely, I suspect, all attain to muturity. 

The lion seems still to exist in 3 isolated parts of Central and 
Western India, omitting its occasional occurrence in Bundelkund. 
These are (1) from near G-walior to Kotah. (2) Around Deesa and 
mount Aboo, and thence southwards nearly to Ahmedabad and (3) in 
part of Kattiawar, in the jungles known as the Gheer. It is possible 
that isolated examples may yet remain in others of its original haunts. 

I may add that the opinion expressed by Mr. Blyth (Cat. Mam. in 
Mas. As. Soc.) of the inferiority in size of the lion to the tiger is 
quite borne out by all I have heard on the subject. Major Baigire, 
one of the best known tiger hunters of Western India, who has also 
killed more than one lion, told me that the muscular development of 
the latter animal, as displayed in the skinned carcase, is decidedly less 
than that of the former. 

2. The hunting leopard, Fells (cynahirus) juhalus. Blyth, in his 
catalogue, gives the range of this animal in India as confined to the west 
and south. It is found throughout the greater portion if not the whole 
of the Central Provinces, though everywhere scarce, and I have seen 
the skin of a specimen killed near Deogurh in the Sonthal pergunnahs, 
and brought to that station by a shikaree. I think it will be found to 
exist, here and there, almost throughout the Peninsula. In Catch it 
is said to be the only large feline existing, but I cannot speak positively 
on this subject. 

3-. The wild dog. Guon rutilans, Pallas. 

The ordinary prey of these animals, who, as is well known, hunt 
in packs, is the sambar (Rasa Aristotelis, Cuv.), the chital or spotted 

192 Mr. W. T. Blanford's Zoological Notes. [No. 3, 

deer (axis maculatus Gray), and the wild pig. But they attack higher 
game. I have heard a perfectly authenticated account of their destroy- 
ing a young gaur (Bos gaurus), and I myself found the fresh carcase 
of a full grown (tame) buffalo which had been killed by them. This 
was in the jungles east of Baroda. Now a buffalo is not an easy 
beast to kill ; very few tigers will attack an adult. It struck me 
that the teeth of a wild dog would scarcely suffice to tear the enormously 
thick skin of the throat of their prey : and on examining the carcase 
I found scarcely the mark of a tooth on the neck and throat, although 
there were many about the muzzle. The animal had evidently been 
killed by tearing out its intestines, a portion of the pack meantime 
holding the animal by hanging on, in bull clog style, to his muzzle 
and forequarters. I suspect that they kill all large animals in the 
same way ; a young sambur, which I saw on the Nilgiris, had 
apparently been killed in this manner. I have heard from natives, 
too, that this is their mode of attacking tigers. That they do attack 
and kill tigers is so universally stated in India, in every place where 
the wild dog is found, from the Himalayas to the extreme south, that 

1 do not think its truth can be doubted, startling as the assertion 
appears. Yet, singularly enough, they never attack men : at least I 
never heard of their doing so. The wolf, which, although larger, is 
proportionately their inferior in strength and speed, and which rarely, 
and in India, I think, never, collects into packs as large as those of 
Cuon rutilans, not unfrequently attacks men, though I believe he 
rarely attacks an animal of the size of a full grown sambur. 

4. The gaur and gayal. Bos gaurus, Smith, and Bos pontalis y 
Lambert. I had the unusual advantage last year, and at an interval of 

2 months, of seeing five adult examples of both these magnificent bovine 
species alive. The gaur were wild in the jungles of Nimar, the gayals 
were the magnificent tame specimens procured by Dr. J. Anderson for 
the Zoological Society, and living for some time in the Botanical 
gardens at Calcutta. There could be little question of the purity of 
breed of the latter ; although far more tame and gentle than most 
domestic cattle, their symmetry and the regularity of their colouring 
were those of wild animals. 

There is, at the first sight, a remarkable resemblance between these 
two races. The massive proportions, thick horns, short legs, immense 

1867.] Mr. W. T. BlanforcVs Zoological Notes. 193 

depth of body, the dorsal ridge terminating abruptly about half way 
down the back, the general colouring, are all characters common to 
both. But one or two differences are immediately perceived, and 
others become conspicuous on closer examination. The most remark- 
able of course are the comparatively straight and wide-spreading 
horns and the enormously developed dewlap of the gayal, as contrasted 
with the sharply curved horns and absence of any dewlap in the gaur, 
and the shorter tail of the former. But if Dr. Anderson's specimens 
are fair examples of the gayal, they shew that there are several minor 
distinctions between the two. In the gayals the head is shorter and, 
I think, altogether smaller than in the gaur, and the dorsal ridge is 
not quite so high. In the adult bull gayal in Calcutta, the skin of 
the back and sides is almost naked, as in the buffaloes of the plains of 
India ; this I have never seen in the gaur. The legs below the knees 
too, which in the gaur are dirty white, are, in these gayals, dirty 
yellow. The female gayal is darker in colour than the cow gaurs 
which I have seen, but as the latter vary considerably in tint, the 
former may possibly do the same. 

I have seen a good deal of the gaur in the Satpoora hills during the 
last few years. It there inhabits the peculiar thin jungles which 
cover the trap rocks of Central and Western India. These jungles, as 
is well known, consist of tolerably open spaces of thick grass 3 to 5 
feet in height, with small scattered trees. This grass is burnt at the 
end of the cold weather over the greater portion of the country. In 
ravines and along the banks of streams the jungle is thicker, but 
elsewhere there are few places where the trees are an impediment to 
riding. The gaur feeds in these plains in the morning and evening, 
drinking in the evening, or at night, and retreating during the day 
either to a shady ravine, or, during the hot weather, at least, to the 
top of a high hill, the most breezy spot being apparently chosen, 
irrespective of shade. So far as I have observed, the gaur, like the 
sambur, never remains in the vicinity of water, or drinks, during the 
heat of the day.* 

The ferocity of the gaur has been, I think, greatly overstated. I 
have never heard of but one well authenticated instance of an 
unwounded animal attacking man, though the bulls, like those of all 

* The spotted deer, on the other hand, almost invariably does so. The sam- 
burs, I believe, only drink at night. 


194 Mr. W. T. Blanford's Zoological Notes. [No. 3, 

large bovines, are undoubtedly dangerous in the rutting season. In 
general, the gaur is a timid and rather stupid animal, not very sharp 
of sight, though, like all ruminants and, indeed, all wild mammals, 
gifted with strong powers of scent. 

I have never seen a herd of more than 16, and ten to twelve is a 
more common number, the herd comprising one or two adult bulls 
only, the remainder being cows and calves. The bulls remain apart ; 
either solitary, or in parties of two or three. But I have heard both 
from Europeans and natives of much larger gatherings having been 
seen. These are doubtless formed by the union of many herds, and 
this habit of collecting, at particular seasons, in very large numbers, 
appears common to most ruminants which habitually live in herds. 
Thus I have seen, in April, at least 150 spotted deer (Axis maculatus) 
together, and I have heard of far larger numbers collecting in the hot 
season, and I have recently heard of similar assemblages of the 
barasingha (Rucervus Duvaucellii). 

The cows of the gaur, as I have already mentioned, vary consider- 
ably in colour, being usually some shade of brown, approaching dun. 
Some, in Nimar and the Satpoora hills at all events, are of a very red 
tinge, in some cases approaching closely to the deep red so common 
in European cattle, — the colour also, I believe, of the cow Banting, 
Bos sondaicus. I am inclined to think that the colour is redder in. 
the cold season than in the hot weather. The usual tinge in the hot 
season at least is a much duller brown, nearly the colour of the Nilgiri 
buffaloes. From what I have heard, the tint of these Nimar animals 
may be lighter than that of the cows in the Western Grhats and 
southern India, a circumstance probably connected with the much 
greater exposure to the sun which they must undergo in the thin 
trap jungles, and also partly, perhaps, accounted for by that tendency 
which appears to exist in most wild animals to approximate, in their 
colour, the general hue of their habitat. This is, of course, much 
lighter in a tract mainly covered by grass, which is dried and of the 
colour of straw for 7 months of the year, than in the depth of the 
evergreen forests of Malabar and the Western Grhats. 

The size of the gaur, great as it is, is often, I suspect, exaggerated 
by unfair measurement. Instead of measuring the true height, as is 
done with horses, the length from the forefoot to the end of the spinal 

1867.] Mr. W. T. BlanfonVs Zoological Notes. 195 

ridge is substituted. A great addition to the height is also easily- 
made by pulling out the foreleg as the animal lies, and by measuring 
from the toe instead of from the heel, especially if the cord be curved 
a little over the side. Another plan I have lately heard of is to 
stretch a tape from one forefoot to the other over the back, and to 
take half the resulting length as the height. When it is remembered 
that the measurements are made by sportsmen, not by naturalists, it 
will easily be understood that all should be taken cum grano and that 
many may be rejected altogether. My own impression is that it is 
as rare to find a gaur exceeding about 17 J hands (5 ft. 10 in.) as it is 
to meet with a tiger above 10 feet in length. Larger animals do 
undoubtedly exist, but they are rare, and it is, I think, doubtful if 
20 hands (6 ft. 8 in.) is ever reached. To judge from all the horns 
I have seen, the gaur of no part of India proper attains a larger size 
than in the Satpoora hills. 

The gaur is called ran pado in Goozerat and ran hila by the Bheels 
of Kandesh, both words, like the name commonly used throughout 
Central and Southern India, ran or jungli hym, meaning wild buffalo, 
which is just as absurd, as the term bison applied by Anglo-Indians. 
I have even heard the name ama, which of course means the wild 
buffalo, applied to the gaur ; and the correct name is rarely used, in 
Central India at least, except in the neighbourhood of districts where 
wild buffaloes occur. 

5. The wild buffalo, Bos (Bubalus) buffelus. 

I think Blyth is in error in restricting the range of the aboriginally 
wild buffalo to the Ganges valley and Assam. (Cat. Mam. As. Soc. 
p. 1G8). Wild buffaloes are completely unknown throughout Western 
and Southern India, but they are common on the east coast, to some 
distance south of Cuttack at least, and throughout the jungles of 
Mandla, Kaipur and Sumbalpur, extending west as far as the Wein a 
Gunga and Pranhita, and south to the Godavery ; a few herds may 
occur beyond these limits, but they are very rare. My information is 
derived partly from my own observation, partly from various sportsmen 
who have seen and killed the animal in these districts ; and I have 
myself seen the spoils. All that I have seen belong to the B. speiroceros 
race of Hodgson, with horns curving from the base. My reasons for 
thinking all these animals aboriginally wild, and and not feral, are — 
1st, the perfect symmetry and immense size of their horns. 2nd, the 

196 Mr. W. T. BlanforiVs Zoological JS r otes. [No. 3, 

fact that the tract inhabited by them is contiguous to the area, Lower 
Bengal and Assam, inhabited by the undoubtedly wild race. 3rd, the 
circumstance that precisely the area mentioned comprises the range of 
other animals also restricted, in India proper, to Bengal and the 
neighbourhood ; e. g. Rucervus duvaucellii and Gallus ferrugineus^ 
concerning the distribution of which I shall have something further 
to say presently. 

6. The four-horned antelope (Tetracerus quadricomis.) 

This species is especially abundant in the trappean districts of 
Western India, it is one of the commonest wild animals in Nimar, 
Malwa, Khandeish, the western part of the Nerbudda valley, and 
throughout the Taptee valley. It is also common along the Western 
Grhats and in the Konkan about Bombay. It lives in jungle, and is 
generally to be found near water. It is comparatively a solitary animal, 
and I have never seen more than four together, the two parents and 
their young. For a long time I was inclined to look upon the 
animals with only the posterior pair of horns developed as a distinct 
race, with lighter coloured fur, and I am by no means satisfied that 
there is not a distinction to be drawn. The two horned specimens, in 
the country I have mentioned above, are quite as numerous as the 
four horned, and although they are fully adult, I have failed to find a 
trace of the cores belonging to the anterior pair of horns on the skull ; 
a specimen with all four horns fully developed and pointed is rare, 
generally the anterior horns are mere knobs. 

Mr. Blyth is, I think, in error in his catalogue of the Mammalia in 
Mus. As. Soc. p. 166, in applying the name Chikara to this animaL 
The Chikara or Chinkara (the latter being the correct name, but the n 
is nasal and very little sounded) is the name which I have heard 
universally applied to the Indian gazelle, Antelope bemiettii, Sykes. The 
4-horned antelope is called Chousingha in Hindee, as stated by Mr. 
Blyth ; it is known by the Mahrattas as " Benkara" and by the Bheels 
of Guzerat as Bokra or Bholcra. 

7. The Indian antelope and gazelle. (Antilope bezoartica, Aldr 
and A. Bennettii, Sykes). Both of these animals can exist without 
water. The antelope abounds on the strip of sand separating the 
Chilka lake, which is quite salt, from the sea ; and on this strip the 
only fresh water is obtained from one or two deep wells. The strip is 
about 30 miles long. I have been assured by so many people that 

1867.] Mr. W. T. Blanford's Zoological Notes. 197 

antelopes do drink in places, that I cannot absolutely assert that they 
do not, although I suspect their visits to the edges of streams and 
tanks are rather for the purpose of feeding on the green grass growing 
there than for drinking. As regards the Chinkara or Indian gazelle, 
I quite believe that it never drinks. I have seen it in the deserts of 
Sindh* in places where the only water for 20 miles around was procured 
from wells ; and in places in Western and Central India where, in the 
hot weather, the only water is obtained from small pools remaining in 
the beds of streams, and around which the tracks of almost every 
animal in the forest may be seen, I never yet saw the very peculiarly 
formed tracks of the gazelle, although it frequently abounded in the 
neighbourhood. The four horned antelope, on the other hand, drinks 
habitually. I have seen it doing so, and its tracks are constantly to 
be found at water holes. The Nylgai drinks, but not, I think, 
habitually, except in the hot weather. 

8. The Bara Singha, Rucervus Duvaucellii. For some remarks on 
the geographical distribution of this species see further on, under the 
jungle fowl. The localities given by Mr. Blythf are Upper Bengal ; 
valley of Nepal; Assam; Nerbudda territory; Eastern Sunderbuns. 
This list requires slight modification. The animal occurs, though 
scarce, in Beerbhoom, and I believe, here and there throughout the 
Chota-Nagpoor country, Sirgooja and Chuttcesguih, and it abounds 
in Bustar, as I have lately learned from Captain Glasfurd, the Deputy 
Commissioner of Sironcha. It is to be found about Umarkantak, the 
source of the Nerbudda, and in Mundla, but with one exception, to 
be presently noticed, not further to the west, and it is unknown 
throughout the greater portion of the Nerbudda valley. Generally 
the limits of its range are very nearly those which I have indicated 
for the wild buffalo. 


9. The Indian wild pigs. Sus scropha ? 

Mr. Blyth has pointed out (J. A. S. B. XKIX, 105) distinctions in 
the form of the skulls of wild pigs in India, but he has not referred to 

* The Sindh species may be distinct. 

f Catalogue of the Mammalia in the Museum of the Asiatic Society, The 
localities given by Mr. Blyth are in general thoroughly trustworthy, so far as my 
experience goes. I am therefore the more anxious to correct them where any 
improvement is possible, a task ouly practicable to those who like myself havo 
had opportunities for extensive travelling in India. 

198 Mr. W. T. Blanford's Zoological Notes. [No. 3, 

differences in colour. Now I have seen whole herds (or sounders) of 
wild pigs which were brown in colour, irrespective of size or sex, and 
other herds in the same region, all the members of which were black. 
Large hogs are usually black, becoming grizzled with age, but I have 
seen a large solitary hog of the brown species, which had been just 
killed by a friend, and it was the same colour as the smaller animals. 
The brown race, so far as my observations extend, is never found 
except in bush or forest jungle, the black pigs are the common wild 
hog of the plains, but are also frequently met with in forest. These 
may be accidental varieties, but it is equally probable that the 
dfference in colour is connected with other distinctions. I can, 
however, only point out the question as one for enquiry. 


10. The Burmese bamboo rat, Rhizomys castaneus, Blyth. — In 
the Catalogue of mammalia in Mus. As. Soc. the locality of a specimen 
received from me is erroneously entered as South Arakan. The speci- 
men was killed by me at Prome in Pegu. The distinction is 
important, as the fauna of S. Arakan, and of Arakan generally, is 
very different from that of Upper Pegu, though many species, like the 
present, are common to both. 


11. The freshwater dolphins of India and Burma (JPlatanista). 
It is well known that species of JPIatanista — whether the same or 
distinct, is less clearly ascertained, occur in the Ganges and Brahmaputra 
and in the Indus. It is less generally known that a species abounds 
in the Irrawadi. I have seen them in various parts of that river from 
near the mouth to nearly 100 miles above Ava, and I was told by 
natives that they are to be met with as far to the north as Bamo, the 
Burmese frontier. I was, however, never able to obtain a specimen. 
The species is very likely to differ from that of the Ganges. 

I cannot say if these animals are found in any other Burmese rivers. 
They may very likely exist in the great rivers of Siam and Cambodia, 
and they should be looked for in the great Chinese rivers. I am pretty 
certain that in India they are only found in the Ganges, Brahmaputra, 
and Indus, and their tributaries. I can speak pretty certainly of their 
non-existence in the Brahmini, Mahanadi (of Cuttack), Godavery, 
Taptee and Nerbudda, and I never heard of their occurrence in the 
Krishna or Cauvery. 

1867.] Mr. W. T. BJanford's Zoological Xotes. 199 


12. Geographical distribution of the red and Sonnerat jungle fowls. 
G alias ferruginous, Gm., and G. somieratii, Tern. 

I regret very much having been the means of misleading Dr. Jerdon 
as to the distribution of the red jungle fowl. I had been told by two 
different observers that they had seen and shot jungle fowl exactly 
like the common barn door fowl in and near the Rajpihla hills, and a 
third had assured me that he had seen specimens of two different 
kinds of jungle fowl from the same neighbourhood. 

I have now been through the Rajpihla hills and the western 
Satpooras pretty thoroughly, and I am convinced that the only jungle 
fowl inhabiting those ranges is Gall us sonntratii. This species is also 
found north of the Nerbudda, in the jungles east of Baroda, and 
around Chota Oodipoor, but how far it extends to the north and north- 
west I cannot say. It is not improbably to be found in the Aruvelli 
range and perhaps about Mount Aboo. It occurs throughout the 
Satpoora hills, north of Kandesh, and indeed throughout the Taptee 
valley. Further south I have recently shot it in the jungles just east 
of Chanda. 

Jerdon mentions its occurrence at Pachmurri, where, however, I 
learn from Lieut. J. Forsyth that G. firru<jii>eus also occurs. lam 
indebted to Lieut. Forsyth for the following most singular fact with 
reference to the limits of the latter species. He tells me that it is 
precisely conterminous in the hills south of the Nerbudda with the 
Bara Singha, Ruccrvus Duvaitccllii, and the Sal tree, Shorea rohusta. 
The western limits of the great belt of Sal forest which covers so large 
a portion of Eastern India is in the Mundla district, and there bara 
singha and red jungle fowl also occur. The sal is not found in Western 
India ; but there is one spot in the Deinwa valley, just under 
Pachmurri, where a patch of sal forest occurs, and there, and there 
only, the red jungle fowl and the bara singha are met with, although 
the nearest spot to the eastward where the three again recur is 150 
miles off. Lieut. Forsyth adds that the two kinds of jungle fowl meet 
on the plateau at Pachmurri and he has shot both there. When in 
charge of the forests, he has traversed the whole of the jungle tracts 
south of the Nerbudda, and can speak positively as to the above very 
curious circumstance. It would be very interesting to ascertain 

200 Mr. W. T. Blanford's Zoological Notes. [No. 3, 

whether any other animals or plants have a similar distribution. The 
only hypothesis which appears to account for the existence of an 
isolated colony of eastern forms like this is to suppose that, like a 
geological outlier they were formerly connected with the present main 
range, and that they existed throughout the intervening area in which 
they are now no larger found. 

To the south, the range of the bara singha and red jungle fowl 
appears again to coincide with that of the sal tree. I have mentioned 
above the occurrence of the bara singha in Bustar, where Jerdon 
found both kinds of jungle fowl together, and where the sal tree is 
also met with. G alius ferrugineus does appear to reach the Godavery 
further east, as I heard one crowing not long since in the gorge through 
which the river runs about 50 miles above Bajahmundry. 

13. Distribution of the black and painted partridges, Francolinus 
vulgaris, Stephens, and F. picttis Jerd. and Selby. 

Jerdon, Birds of India, pp. 559, 562, leaves the relative distribution 
of these two species to the west somewhat undefined. I haye only 
seen or heard of F. vulgaris in Sind. F. pictus abounds throughout 
eastern G-uzerat near Baroda and Surat, and I believe, extends 
throughout Kattiawar. It also occurs, though less commonly, in 
Cutch, where I have seen it. 


The garial (OaviaJis gangeticus.) 

This crocodile is generally supposed be confined to the Ganges and 
Brahmaputra with their tributaries. It is found also in one other river 
running into the Bay of Bengal, the Mahanadi of Cuttack. It does 
not, however, appear to range further south and is unknown in the 
Godavery. It is wanting in the Nerbudda and other rivers which fall 
into the sea on the west coast.* It is also unknown in Burma. 

* I have been recently informed on good authority that it exists in the 
Indus. Editor. 

f867.] Dr. VercUre on the Geology of Kashmir. 201 

Kashmir, the Western Himalaya and the Afghan Mountains, a 
Geological paper, by 

Albert M. Verchere, Esq. M. D. 

Bengal Medical Service, with a note on the fossils by 

M. Edouard de Verneuil, 

Membre de l'AcacIemie des Sciences, Paris. 
(Continued from page 115, of No. II. 1867.) 

In April 18G4, I sent a box of fossils, mostly from Kashmir, to 
Professor Faire, of Geneva. M. Faire kindly forwarded these to M. 
E. J. de Venmeil, who was good enough to examine them earefnlly, 
and to write a most interesting note, of which a translation is now 

Some of the fossils represented in the Plates were not sent to Pro- 
fessor Faire, and some which were sent, are not figured here ; the 
numbers at the head of some of the paragraphs of M. de Vernneil's 
note refer to the fossils represented in the Plates. 

Note on the fossils forwarded by Mr. Verciiere, by M. Edouard de 
Vernueil, Member of the Academic des Sciences, t&c. &c. 

The largest of the two specimens sent, of which the matrix is a 
dark brown limestone, belongs to the Productus Semireticulalus, 
(Martin), one of the most characteristic species of the carboniferous lime- 
stone, in Europe, in Russia and in America. This species has been 
brought from the south of the Oural, and Mr. Tchihatcheff has found 
it in Siberia in the Altai mountains. 

A specimen of Productus costatus (Sowerby). This is a species 
scarcer than the preceding. The specimen from India shows well the 
characters of the species such as they are figured by Sowerby, whilst 
those from Missouri, figured by M. de Konnick, do not possess the 
large and thick ribs which characterise the original species. The Pro- 
ductus costatus, first found in England, does not exist in Continental 
Europe, except in Russia where I found it in the government of Toula. 
Some Russian authors mention it from the government of Tiver and 
of Kalonga. 

Productus Ilumboldti (D'Orbigny). This species is very like P. 
Granxdosus (Phillips) and P. Reberti (Vernueil, Bull. Soc. Greolog. de 


202 Br. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

France, Vol. XII. p. 1180). It is distinguished from this by its well 
marked sinus, and its fine and numerous spines strewed without order on 
the surface and not forming concentric series. The' P. Humboldti is 
mentioned by Keyserling as having been found by him in the car- 
boniferous limestone of the Soiwa, an affluent of the river Petchora 
on the western slope of the north of the Oural. Mr. Davidson has 
thought proper to make a new species which he calls P. Purdoni (on 
some Carboniferous Brachiopoda collected in India by A. Fleming and 
W. Purdon in 1848 and 1852, Quarterly Journal of the Geol. Soc. of 
London, PI. 2 fig. 5, 1862) based on specimens similar to those under 
examination, and which came from Chederoo and Moosakhel (Salt 
Range, A. M. V.). He gives a drawing, under the name of P. Hum- 
boldti, of a species on which the spines are fewer and confusedly 
arranged in quincunces, and of which the sinus is very slight and only 
visible near the front of the shell. I would regard this rather as the P. 

Productus Cora, (D'Orbigny). Two good specimens possessing well 
the characters of the species. — Discovered first in the Bolivian plateau 
by D'Orbigny. This species is one of the most characteristic of the car- 
boniferous limestone in England, in Belgium, in Spain and in Russia. 

At the time I found it in the last named country D'Orbigny had but 
just described it ; I did not know his work, and, as this shell varies much, 
I had made two species of it under the names of P. Tenuistriatus and 
P. Nefledhvi. It is found on both slopes of the Oural, and also in the 
white carboniferous limestone of the plains of Russia at Sterbita- 
mak on the river Oka, and in the carboniferous region of Douety. 
Finally it is also mentioned in North America. It has therefore a 
great geological range. 

Four specimens of Productus. That in the black limestone and 
brought from Kashmir is the P. Flemingii or Longispinus or 
Lobatus (three names of the same animal). It is one of these Pro- 
ducti largely distributed on the globe. It has been found on the 
Mississipi in the state of Ohio and in Kentucky. It exists in Eng- 
land, in Spain, and in Belgium. Messrs. Keyserling and Murchison and 
I have found it in the governments of Tiver, Kalonga, on the Douetz 
as well as on the river Belaja near the glacial sea. The speci- 
mens from the white limestone of the Kafir- Kote are a distinct 

1867.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 203 

variety, remarkable for a pretty considerable number of tubular 
spines, and by the large size of its longitudinal striae, which are 
often well marked. 

Four specimens of a small species which differs from the P. 
Longispinus or lobatus by the want of lobes and of a sinus on 
the middle of the greater valve. It is perhaps the P. Aculeatus, 
(Martin), but the specimens are not good enough to be determined 

Very small specimens of Productus which are perhaps the young 
of the P. lontjispinus or of P. Boliviensis, (D'Orbigny), of which 
Kcyserling found a valve in the carboniferous limestone of the 
basin of the Petchora (government of Archangel). It is characterised 
by well detached ears. 

Two specimens of Athyris, without the test and too imperfect to 
allow of their being determined (Terebratula Subtilita, llalls?) 

Four specimens of a species of Athyris which is perhaps new. It 
belongs to the class of Tvrcbrattdac with concentric strite and internal 
spires, called by D'Orbigny Spirigera and by M'Coy Athyris (a name, 
let us remark, which means the reverse of what exists, since, instead of 
being imperforate, these species have a round hole on the beak). 
This species from Kashmir approaches the A, Aml/yua, (Sowerby), and 
the A. GJohulosa, (Phoill.), but it is more transverse and the beak is 
more detached and sharper. It may be called A. Buddhista, as proposed 
by Mr. Verchere. The A. Amhigua is found in Russia in the carboni- 
ferous limestone, but is rare there, whilst it is common in England. 

Two specimens, of which one is perhaps a variety of the T. Subti- 
lita, (Hall*) or the T. Subtilita itself. The other appears to me to be 
an Athyris Boyssii, (Vernueil), discovered by myself in the carbonifer- 
ous limestone of Belgium. When this species is well preserved, the 
shell is seen to be covered by a pilose investment or coating, consisting 
of very fine spines continuing the lines of growth. The specimen I 
possess presents traces of this structure in the shape of a pubescence 
of very fine hairs. 

Three specimens in a bad state of preservation, which are probably 
merely varieties of the A. Roysii. 

* The Terebratula Subtilita is a species of Hall, found in the carboniferous 
of the Great Salt Lake in America. Mr. Davidson mentions it from India. 

204 . Dr. Yerchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

One more specimen of the same species. 

Two specimens of a Tercbratula which is probably new, but the 
specimens are not good enough to be determined. 

Six specimens of a Spirifer which appears to me to be new. At 
first sight one would take it for the S. Trigonalis, (Martin), but it 
differs from it by the narrowness of the sinus, and by the want of folds 
in that part which most commonly shows some of them, more or less 
well marked, in the Sp. Trigonalis. The narrowness of the sinus re- 
minds one of the S. Mosquensis, of Russia. 

Spiriferina nearly allied to the S. Octoplicata, (Sow.), and still more 
to the Sp. Gristata of the Zechstein, two species which Mr. Davidson 
unites into one. This author figures the S. Octoplicata among the 
fossils of India. The specimen, which is marked No. 16, has narrower 
ribs and broader furrows than the specimens figured by Davidson. 
On another are admirably well seen the granulations peculiar to the 
genus Spiriferina of the lias, and to the Permian and Carboniferous 
species under notice. PI. I. fig. 2, a, b, c, d. 

Great Cardinia, perhaps new. PI. VI. fig. 2. 

Two specimens of Cardinia bearing a distant likeness to the G Oualis 
(Martin,) C. Uniformis of the Carboniferous of England and also to 
the G. Listeri Unio (Sowerby,) of the Lias. 

M. cle Koninck has figured a shell very similar to this under the 
name of Solenopsis imbricata, (Descrip. of new fossils from India, dis- 
covered by A. Fleming, by de Koninck, Quart. Journal of the Geol., 
Soc. vol. 19 PI. IV fig. 3.) obtained from the carboniferous limestone 
of Varcho, (Vurcha, Salt Range, Punjab. A. M. V.) 

Aviculo-Pecten dissimilis (Pecten id., Fleming), This specimen 
reminds one of the Pectea Ellipticus, (Phillips), which is found in the 
Carboniferous of Russia. 

Axinus, sp. nova. This shells resembles much the Axinus obscurus, 
(Sow. Schizodus, King,) of the magnesian limestone or Permian of 
England. It has also some distant likeness to the A. Carbonarius 
(vernus) Sow. G-eol. Transac. vol. V. pi. 38. 

Fenestella Sykesi, Koninck, Quart. Journ. vol. 19, pi. 1. fig., 

Fenestella megastoma, Koninck, Quart. Journ vol. 19, pi. I. 

Fenestella. Undetermined. PI. V. fig. 1. 

A very pretty species which I do not know. Perhaps the Yincu- 

18G7.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 205 

hiria multangularis (Postlock). It is to be regretted that the surface is 
not seen and that the brandies are split in two. 

Lithostrotion Jloriformr, Flem. a common enough species in Russia 
in the carboniferous ; found also in England. 

Michelinia or Beaumont ia. Ill preserved specimen. 

Phyllopora cribcllum, Konniek, Quart, Journ. vol. 19. pi. I fig. 2. 

List of species which have been identified from the specimens sent 
by Mr. Verchere. 

1. Productus Semireticulatus, Martin. 

2. „ Costatus, Sow. 

3. ,, Eumboldtii, D'Orbig. 

4. „ Cora, D'Orbig. 

5. ,, Flemingii, Sow. ■=. P. Longiwpinus ami P. Lobatus, 


6. ,, Acitleatus, Sow. 

7. „ Boliviemis, D'Orbign. 

8. Athyris ambigua f Sow. (perhaps Sj>. I/ova). 

9. ,, Roys&ii, Verneuil. 

10. ,, TerehraUda Subtilita, Hail. 

11. Spirifer Verchcri, Verneuil (new spceies, nearly allied to the 

S. Trigonalis, Martin, but distinct). 

12. Spirifer ina Octoplicata, Sow. 

13. Cardinia ovalis ? Martin. 

14. Solenopsis imbricata, Konn. 

15. Aviculo-pecten dissimiUs i Flem. 

16. AximiSjSp. nova (nearly allied to A Obscurus of the Gechstein) 

17. Fenestella Sykesii, Konn. 

18. ,, Megastoma, Konn. 

19. Vincularia multangularis ? Postlock. 

20. Lithostrotion florif or me, Flem. 

21. Phjllopora cribellum, Konn. 


Several notes on fossils collected in India have been published lately ; 

the fossils were forwarded by Messrs. Fleming and W. Purdon and 

more recently by Captain Godwin- Austen. These publications are 1st, 

Davidson's Memoir " On some Carboniferous Brachiopoda collected in 

206 Dr. Verchere on the Geology of Kashmir, [No. 3, 

India by A. Fleming and W. Purdon, Quart. Journal, vol. XVIII. p. 25 ; 
2 plates. 2nd, Description of some fossils from India discovered by J. 
Fleming, by Dr. L. de Koninck, Quart. Journ. vol. XIX. with 8 plates 
on which are figured among others some very curious goniatites. 3rd, 
Geological notes on part of the N. W. Himalayas, by Gapt. Godwin- 
Austen, with notes of fossils by T. Davidson, R. Etheridge and P. 
Woodward. It is only an abstract of the memoir, without plates. 
Capt. Godwin-Austen followed the Carboniferous limestone along 
the foot of the mountains at the north of the valley of Kashmir 
as far as Ishmalabad.* The carboniferous series is, according to 
Capt. G. Austen, as follows, from the highest to the lowest. 1st 
Layers with goniatites more or less analogous to the ceratites of the 
Musckelhalk. These layers are the highest of the carboniferous 
formation. 2nd. Below is found a compact limestone poor in fossils ; 
3rd, argillaceous series ; 4th, limestone rich in fossils, Froductus, cfcc. 
5th quartzite. 

As early as 1850, Sir Roderick Murchison had shown me some of 
the fossils sent by Mr. Fleming, and I had identified the P. Cora, 
costatus, Flemingi, the Atliyris Boysii, Orthis crensistria, &c. 
Quart. Journ. vol. 7, p. 39. At the same epoch Dr. Falconer and 
Major Vicary had announced the existence of palaeozoic fossils in 
the mountains which separate British India from Kabul, as remarked 
by Sir R. Murchison, Quart. Journ. vol. VII. p. 38. In 1852, Mr. 
A. Fleming published his observations on the Salt Range in several 
letters addressed to Sir R. Murchison, Quart Journ. vol. IX. p. 189. 

All the fossils collected by Mr. Fleming, Mr. Purdon, Captain 
G. Austen and Dr. Verchere belong to the carboniferous formation. 
Captain Strachey alone has proved the existence of more ancient rocks 
(in a pabeontological point of view.)f He sent to London a series 
of fossils collected in the mountains, from 17 to 18000 feet above 
the sea, which separate Thibet from the British provinces of Kurnaon 
and Garhwal. I have identified among these fossils some Asaphus, 

* Capt. Gordon- Austen and myself visited the localities referred to in the 
geological notes, during a tour we made together in the autumn of 1863. We 
thought at one time of writing a memoir in collaboration, but having been sent 
to the extremes of India, we arranged our notes separately. A. M. V. 

f In the present paper are figured a few Cystoids which are in all probabi- 
lity Silurian, see PI. VIII. fig. 61 and 62. 

18G7.] the Western Himalaya and Afghan Mountains. 207 

Lychas, Illcenus, Cheirurus, Orthoceras, &c. all characteristic of the 
Lower Silurian. In the upper part of the beds Captain Strachey 
found goniatites, ceratites and even ammonites, which remind one 
much of the Trias. So far, therefore, two of the four great divisions 
of the Palaezoic formation have become well known in the Himalaya, 
viz. the Silurian and the Carboniferous. The Devonian will be 
found also, for we have received from a Missionary travelling in 
China three species of Brachiopoda characteristic of the Upper 
Devonian rocks, among others the Terebratula Citboides. These 
fossils have been presented this year to the Academie de Sciences 
de Paris. Mr. Davidson has also figured and described, as received 
from China, brachiopoda which also are characteristic of the Devonian, 
among other the Spirifer, Verneuil. The discovery and determina- 
tion of the Devonian in the Himalaya requires attention and research. 

I have further to remark how great is the analogy between 
India and Russia ; I have found in this last country most of the 
species which Mr. Verchere has found in the Himalaya. Russia, 
the Oural and the Altai, are connecting links between England and 

In terminating this note, we wish to observe that if, according 
to Mr. Verchere, the coal measures, (which should be superior to 
the carboniferous limestone), are wanting in India, this want is 
one more resemblance with Russia, for in all the carboniferous 
zone which extends from Moscow to Archangel the carboniferous 
limestone is never covered in by coal measures. There has been 
a slow upheaving motion of the ground, which has raised the 
strata above the sea-level, without, however, otherwise disturbing 
them, at the epoch when in other countries, the coal was being 
deposited. It is in the south of Russia only (the Douetz), and in a 
few localities on the western slope of the Oural, that coal measure 

deposits are to be found. 

(Signed) Ed. de Verneuil. 
Paris, 21st Nov., 1864. 

208 Appendix. [No. 3, 




Sphoeronites sp. PL VIII. fig 5. 

Perfectly globular ; covered with small rounded warts sharply 
defined. The whole shell, between the warts, is pierced with minute 
pores. No trace of plates ; no mouth nor stalk-scar visible. 

Found in the rocky plains at the foot of the Masha Brum, Kora- 
koram Chain. 

Sphoeronites sp. PL VIII. fig 6. 

Proposed name of a new species : 8. Ryallii, Verch. 

Globular. Large warts well set apart and not very sharply defined. 
The whole shell is covered with pores. No mouth. A stalk-stem 
very conspicuous. 

From the same locality as the preceding. Name proposed in 
honour of Mr. Kyall, Gt. Trig. Survey, who discovered the shell. 

Sphoeronites sp. PI. IX. fig. 1. 

Depressed. No warts or spines ; no plates or traces of plates, no 
stalk-scar. The whole surface pierced by minute pores. 

Same locality. 


Zeaivan Beds. 

Nautilus Fleming 'ianus, DeKon. 

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XIX, Part I, No. 73, p. 
PI. VIII. fig. 2. A fragment of this shell was found at Zeaw* 

Nautilus FavranuS) Vercli., n. sp). 

A very large globular Nautilus, eleven inches across the mouth. 
Perfectly smooth and inornate. Siphon large and central, formed by 
a series of dilatations, giving it a beaded appearance. 

Rotta Roh in the Punjab. 

Orthoceras sp. 

1867.] Appendix. 209 

Zowoor and Zeawan in Kashmir. 


Macrocheilus, DeKon. 

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XIX. No. 73, p. 10. PI. Ill 
fig. 4. Rotta Roh. 

Dentalium Hcrculeum, DeKon. 

Op. Cit. p. 8. PI. IV. figs. 10, 11 & 12. Several specimens 
were found in the Rotta Roh, but none in Kashmir. 

Trochus sp. 

Some large specimens of Trochus, four inches across, were found at 
the Rotta Roh, Punjab. 


Anomia Laivrenciana, DeKon. 

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XIX. p. 6. PI. IV. figs. 7, 8 & 9. 
Found in the Rotta Roh, but not in Kashmir. 


Terebratula sacculus, Martin. 

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XXII. p. 40. PI. II. fig. 1. 
Found at Zeawan Zowoor and Barus, Kashmir. 

Eemark. A few other species of true TerebratuUe were found in 
the Zeawan group of Carboniferous limestone, but I am unable to 
identify them at present. 

Spirifer Vercheri, de Vcmeuil, new sp>. PI. I. figs. 1, la. 

See M. de Vernucil's note. 

Barus in Kashmir. It has been found in Spiti. 

Spirifer striatus, Martin. 

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVIII, No. G9, p. 28. PI. I. 
figs. 9 and 10. 

Several fragments were found at Zeawan and Zowoor, and complete 
specimens in the Rotta Roh. 

Spirifer Moosakhelensis, David. 

Op. Cit. p. 28. PI. II. fig. 2. 

This shell is extremely abundant at Zeawan, but was always found 
in fragments. It is also common at the Rotta Roh. 

After comparing numerous specimens of the last two species, in 
various states of weathering, I must express my impression that the 
S. Moosakhelensis is only a variety of the S. striatus, in which the 


210 Appendix. [No. 3, 

concentric laminae (which do exist in the striatus) have become 
exaggerated. All stages of transition are to be observed in a mode- 
rately large series. 

Spirifer Rajah, Strachey \_Syn. S. Keilhavii Buck ?~\ 

Paleont. of Niti, page 59. 

Fragments found at Zeawan and Bams. 

Spjirifer, spec. nor. f PI. Ill figs. 1 & la. 

Hinge-line straight and much longer than the greatest width of the 
shell. Umbones prominent above the hinge-line ; hinge-area not 
seen. Six or seven irregular ribs radiate from the umbo to the margin 
in a wavy manner. Fine ornamental raised lines (coarser on the 
larger than on the smaller valve) radiate likewise in a wavy manner. 
Shell flat. It varies a great deal in shape and size, but is always 
very flat, so much so that it has somewhat the appearance of such 
shell as the Stropliomena grandis of the Silurian. It may possibly be, 
like the precedent, a variety of the S. Keilhavii, 

Found at Zeawan in Kashmir and at the Rotta Roh. 

Spiriferina octoplicata (Sow.), var. Transversa (Verch.) 

PI. I. figs. 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, and 2d. 

Specimens like a, are not common at all ; but fragments of the 
shell such as are represented at b, are innumerable in the brown 
shale of Zeawan. Found also in the limestone of Kafir Kote in the 
Rotta Rob, but it is there rare. This shell seems to vary wonderfully, 
from the narrow forms figured by Davidson, (Journal Geological 
Society, Vol. XVIII. PI. I. figs. 11 and 14,) to the very transverse 
variety represented here. 

Athyris sp. (Ath. subtilita. Hall), PI. II. figs. 1 and la. 

This species varies considerably, especially as to size, but is easily 
recognized by the overlapping of the upper edge of the lines of 
growth, so that the shell looks as if made up of several layers laid one 
over the other, like the many capes of a coachman's cloak. 

Found at Zowoor in Kashmir, in lenticular beds where it appears to 
be gregarious. Also in the Rotta Roh and Salt Range. 

Athyris Buddhista, Verch., n. sp. PI. II. figs. 2, 2a, and 2b. 

It has flat, expanded sides on each side of a well marked sinus of 
the larger valve and sharp fold of the lesser. The beak terminates in 
a point, occasionally pierced by a small foramen but generally 

18G7.] Appendix. 211 

imperforate. The spiral oral arms appear to fill nearly the whole of 
the shell, leaving only a small hour-glass-shaped space in the centre. 

This shell varies a good deal, some specimens being much more 
transverse than others, some being very flat and others less so. It 
was ;i gregarious animal found now accumulated in lenticular beds. 

Zeawan and Zowoor. The name proposed is derived from the first 
few specimens which were found having been discovered in block* of 
stone of a Buddhist ruin. 

Aihyris $p. probably A. Royssii, (UEceilU) PI. II. fig. 3-3. 

Less transverse than the preceding and ornamented with fine and 
closely set concentric lines of growth strongly marked. Foramen 
generally obliterated. Imprints showing the fringe-like expansion 
round the margin are very common in the brown shale of Zeawan. 
The shell is abundant in all the localities where the Zeawan bed has 
been observed in Kashmir and the Punjab. 

Eemark. Several other species of Athyris were discovered at 
Zeawan, Zowoor and Barns, some having the general facies of our figs- 
2 and 3 and being probably varieties of the A. Royssii. Others with 
the umbo-marginal diameter longer than the transverse and being 
probably narrow varieties of the A. subtilita. Others again have the 
general facies of the T. Diyona, and others the carinated appear- 
ance of the Ath. Navicula (Sow). 

Retzia radialis (Fit ill), var. yrandicosta (Davids.) 

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVIII. p. 28. PI. I. fig. 5. 

Very frequently met with at Zeawan and Zowoor, and also in the 
Rotta Roll. 

Streptorynchus crenistria, Phill. var. robustus. 

Op. cit. p. 30. PI. I. fig. 16. 

This shell attains a very large size in Kashmir and in the Punjab, 
specimens five inches in tranvserse diameter not being rare. Fragments 
of this shell, and young shells, swarm at Zeawan and in some beds in 
the Rotta Roh. 

Orthis resupinata, Martin. 

Op*, cit. page 31. PI. I. fig. 15. 

Abundant in the brown shale of Zeawan, Kashmir. 

Orthis sp. PI. HI. fig. 3. 

A cast of an Orthis belonging to the type of the Orthis plicatuUa 

212 Appendix. [No. 3, 

(Hall) of the Silurian. It has six ribs, not very conspicuous, and two 
well-marked lines of growth ; and is ornamented with fine radiating 
stride. Only one specimen was found at Zeawan. 

Remark. An immense number of small, or perhaps young, 
Orthisidas occur in the ferruginous dark shale of Zeawan, in some 
places so abundantly that they cause the shale to exfoliate like a 
disintegrating mica-schist. The shells are, however, so thin and 
brittle that imprints alone can be procured. 

Strophomencr analoga (Phill.) ? PL II. fig. 4. 

There is, I think, little doubt of this shell being Phillip's species. 
The shell is raised in irregular concentric furrows and ridges, and 
is ornamented by fine radiating strias. Both valves are nearly flat ; 
the umbones are hardly marked ; the hinge is linear and nearly as 
long as the greatest diameter of the shell. These Indian specimens 
are very large, above four inches across. 

Seldom found entire in Kashmir ; but even pieces of it are 
conspicuous and easily recognized. Good specimens were obtained 
from the Rotta Roh in the Punjab. 

Strophomena ? sp. PI. III. fig. 2. 

An internal cast only. Found at Zeawan in Kashmir. 

Productus costatus (Soiu.') 

Journal, G-eological Society, Vol. XVIII. p. 31. PI. I. figs. 20, 21. 

Numerous specimens of this well known species were found at 
Zeawan and Zowoor in Kashmir, and in the Eotta Roh and Salt 

Productus semireticidatus (Martin.) 

Op. Cit. p. 21. 

It varies considerably, some specimens being very transverse. 
The Kashmir and Punjab specimens are usually very large and often 
deformed by pressure. 

Zeawan, Zowoor, Barus. Rotta Roh, Salt Range. 

Productus cora (d'Orbigny.) 

Pound abundantly every where in the Zeawan group. 

Productus Humboldtii (D'Orfr.) 

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVIII. p. 32. PL II. fig. 6. 

Large specimens found at Zeawan and smaller ones at Barus. 
Also in the Salt Range and Rotta Roh, Punjab. 

1867.] Appendix. 213 

Produrtus Purdoni (Davids). 

Op. Cit. p. 31. PL II. fig. 5. 

Zeawan in Kashmir and Rotta Roh in the Punjab. In a series of 
specimens of P. Humboldt ii and P. Purdoni, it is quite impossible to 
decide where one species ends and the other begins. 

Product us Flemingii (d'Orb.) 

Syn. P. longispinus (de Verri) and P, hiatus (de Vern.) 

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XVIII. p. 31. PL I. fig. 19. 

Davidson's figure does not show the enrolled and horn-like ears so 
well defined in our specimens. 

M. de Vernueil regards the Rotta Roh specimens as a well defined 
variety ; see his note. 

Found at Zeawan and Zowoor and in the Rotta Roh. 

Productus Boliciensis (iVOrb.) and P. aculeatus f (Martin). 

See M. de Vernueil's Note. 

Found at Zowoor and Zeawan in Kashmir. 

Strophalosia f Arachnoidea,) Verch.) n. sp. PI. IV. figs. 1, la, lb. 

The specimen of the larger valve is from the Rotta Roh and the 
other two from Zeawan in Kashmir ; they may be different shells. 
The larger valve resembles the Productus Purdoni, but the spines are 
fewer, better defined and less slanting towards the margin. The other 
two specimens are remarkable for the excessive length of the thread- 
like spines and for some complications in the hinge. 


Eurypterus f Limulus ? sp. PI. V. fig. 4. 

Claw of a Crustacean, belonging apparently to one or the other of 
the two genera above. It was found on a slab which had been worn 
by running water, so that a horizontal section of the claw is produced. 
The same slab was full of Atliyris Buddliista (Verch.), Productus 
Flemingii (D'Orb.). P. Aculeatus, Fenestella Syhesii (deKon.) and 
Vincularia Multangularis (Patlock). 

The tegument is smooth and pierced by pores, which are seen 
vertically sected on the margins of the claw, and appear like dots 
where the tegument is not worn off. The tegument forms septa in 
the upper mandibule, but none in the lower. The ends of the 
mandibules are hooked. There are no traces of teeth on the internal 
margin of the claw. No other part of the animal could be found. 

214 Appendix. [No. 3, 


Remark. Another crustacean has been found abundantly in the 
Carboniferous of the Himalaya. It is a Trilohite, with the rings sharp 
and rib-like. Though common, it has not been found good enough 
for identification and figure. 

Zeawan, Banda and Barns in Kashmir. Also Rotta Roll and Salt 
Range in the Punjab. 


Ciclaris Forbesiana, (deKori). 

Journal, Geological Society, Vol. XIX. No. 73, p. 4. PI. IV. figs. 
1 and 2. 

Rotta Rob, but not in Kashmir. There are several species or 

These cidarides will have, I think, to be made into a new genus 
when better known. They appear to have been borne on long thin 
branching stalks. The body has not been found yet, but I have found 
hexagonal plates with an articulation cup in the centre, spines four 
inches long, and stalks of considerable length. 

Crinoid stems were found in enormous quantity in all the layers 
of the Zeawan bed. Sometimes the rock is nothing but a mass of 
rings pressed together. In the Rotta Roh I found a great number of 
an Encrinus, cup-shaped and nearly a foot in height, belonging 
apparently to a new genus. I cannot describe it at present. It 
supports a multitude of minute arms and fingers, the debris of which 
form a glaring-white rock, very conspicuous as one of the layers of the 
Zeawan bed in the Punjab. 


Tenestella SyJcesii, (deKon.") PI. IV. bis, figs. 1, a. b. c. d. 

Journal I. Geological Society, Vol. XIX. p. 5. PI. 1 fig. 1. 

The colony forms a wavy leaf. The openings of the cells cover 
the whole surface of the longitudinal bars without assuming a linear 
arrangement ; the transverse bars are barren of cells. The cells are 
arranged in bundles imbedded in sockets of the support, so that a 
vertical section along one of the longitudinal bars shows a succession 
of little cups or sockets, in each of which are collected from six to 
eight elongated cells, disposed fan-like. The calcareous support 
between the sockets is massive. 

1867.] Appendix. 215 

This Bryozoon is extraordinarily abundant in the Zeawan bed. 
The colonies are often packed one over the other like dead leaves, and 
I have counted seven and eight colonies in a piece of shale not an inch 

Fenestclla Megastoma, (dcKon). PI. IV. bis. fig. 2, a. b. c. d. 
Op. Cit. Vol. XIX. p. 5. PI. II. fig. 3. 

The shape of the colony was not seen. The openings of the cells 
cover the longitudinal bars, without assuming a linear arrangement. 
The bars are rounded on the cell-bearing side and are angular on the 
barren surface. They are hollow or tubular, and the cells are ar- 
ranged over the roof of the tube, like bricks in an arch, and arc not 
connected in bundles and contained in sockets as in the Fen. Sykesii. 
Fenestella, sp. P1..V. fig. 1. 

Shape of colony not seen, but generally very fiat and wavy. The 
oscules, which arc small, are somewhat quadrangular. It is found 
mostly as an imprint. Disposition of the cells not seen. 

Very abundant at Zeawan, Zowoor, Banda, in Kashmir and also in 
the Rotta Roh. 

Vincularia Multangular is, (Portlock) ? PI. IV. bis., figs. 3, a. b. c. d. 
See M. de Vernueil's note. 

The colony has a moss-like appearance. The cells are arranged all 
round a calcareous support, and inclined forwards. 

This Bryozoon is extremely abundant in the Zeawan bed, the 
branches extending in all directions but never anastomosing ; their 
division is nearly always dichotomous. I have seen colonies cover 
more than a square foot of rock with their ramifications. 
Disteichiaff (Sharpe). PI. V. fig. 2, 

I am unable to refer it to any genus which I know, unless to the 
genus Disteichia (Sharpe). It is found at Zeawan, but is there rare ; 
in the Rotta Roh it is very common. The layers of cells accumulate 
one over the other to a great extent, forming occasionally large masses 
of Coralline rock. 

Acanthocladia, sp. PI. V. fig. 3. 

The colony has the aspect of a fern. The central stem throws out 
branches at regular intervals, and at a certain fixed angle, and these 
branches throughout younger branches. Both stem and branches 
support short spines like leaflets. The disposition of the cells was not 
seen, as only imprints of this animal were found. 

216 Appendix. [No. 3, 

Found near Banda in Kashmir. 

Phyllopora ? Gribellum (deKon) . 

Journal, Greological Society, Vol. XIX. p. 6. PI. I. fig. 2. 

Fragments are not scarce in the Rotta Roh, but it was not found in 
the Kashmir beds. 

Retepora Lepida, (deKon). 

Op. Git. p. 6. PI. I. fig. 5. 

Several fragments found at Zeawan and in the Rotta Roh. 

Remark. A few other species, not yet satisfactorily determined, 
were found in this group. 


Lithostrotion Floriforme, (Flem.). 

Beautiful specimens are to be obtained near Bilote in the Rotta Roh. 
Not found in Kashmir. 

Lithostrotion Irregulare, (Phill. s ) ? 

A Lithostrotion which is this species, or a very near ally, is very 
common in the Rotta Roh. The calyces are long, rounded, irregular 
cylinders, more or less vermiform in appearance and varying consider- 
ably in size in various specimens, but always of nearly the same size in 
each individual colony. 

Very small fragments only were seen in Kashmir, but in the Rotta 
Roh colonies of this coral attain to great size, forming masses of rock 
several feet across, and many tons in weight. 

Alveolites Septosa, (Flem.) ? 

Journal Geological Society, Vol. XIX. p. 4. PI. II. fig. 1. 

It often forms shapeless masses, the centre of which is converted 
into flint. 

Zeawan in Kashmir and Bilote in the Rotta Roh. 

Michelina, sp. 

Rotta Roh. Never found in Kashmir. 

Remark. The abundance of corals in the lowest beds of the Zeawan 
division of the Carboniferous at the Rotta Roh is sometimes 
astonishing. In Kashmir they are rather scarce. We have a few 
specimens not yet determined. 


Saurichthys f 

Teeth of fishes, large for the genus to which they appear to 

1867.] Appendix. 217 

belong, were found in Kashmir and in the Rotta Ron. They are 
conical, but compressed so that the section is an oval ; they are 
strongly striated or rather grooved the whole length. The largest i 
about three quarters of an inch long. 

Wean Beds. 


Goniatites Gangeticus^ (deKon.) 

Journal Geological Society, Vol. XIX. p. 14. PL V. fig. 2. 

I had thought at first that this Goniatites was more like G. 
Hensloivii, Sow. ; but better specimens, which I have since procured, 
leave little doubt that the species found was DeKoninck's shell. Some 
of the species from the Rotta Roll are much larger than DeKoninck's 
figure, and some are elliptical. 

Found near Banda in Kashmir and near Gung and Oomurkhel in 
the Rotta Roh. 

Goniatites Curvicostatus, (Verdi.), nov. sp. ? 

The species is well characterized by curved ribs, rather coarse and 
irregular. The suture is like that of the G. Gangeticus. Only one 
specimen, from near Gung ; not good enough to be figured. 

Remark. Several indeterminable Goniatites were found near Banda, 
and at Barns in Kashmir. 

Nautilus CUtellarius, (Sow.) ? 

Fragments very like this species were found near Gung. Two or three 
other species, indeterminable, were found in the Goniatite-bed in 
Kashmir and at the Rotta Roh. 

Orthoceras, sp. 

A small species, about two inches long and a third of an inch thick, 
was found in the limestone with Goniatites Gangeticus near Gung. 


Solenopsis Imbricaba, (deKon.) 

Journal Geological Society, Vol. XIX. p. 8, PI. IV. fig. 3. 

Found at Koonmoo and in the hills near Mutton and at the Manus 
Bal, in Kashmir. Also in the Rotta Roh. Good specimens were 
procured from blocks not in situ, near Bij-Behara in Kashmir. 

Solenopsis , sp, vet var. nov. PI. VI. fig. 1. Similar to the preceding 


218 Appendix. [No. 3, 

but longer ; the anterior end is narrower than the posterior extremity, 
whilst in the S. Imbricata both ends are nearly equal. The imbrica- 
tion of the lines of growth is strongly defined. 

Found with the preceding. 

Cardinia, sp. (C. Himalayana, Verch. nov. sp.) PI. VI. fig. 2. — 
(Anthracosia, King.) ? f 

The lines of growth are deeply impressed and imbricated, and the 
shell bulges a little between these lines. The hinge was not seen. 

Animals gregarious ; their shells occur heaped together in patches. 

Manus Bal, Koonmoo, Mutton ?, Rotta Ron. 

Cardinia, sp. (Cardinia Ovalis, Martin,)V\. VI. fig. 3. — (Anthracosia 
King.) f 

A species more elongated than the preceding. Lines of growth 
similarly disposed. Found with the preceding. 

Cucullcea, sp. PI. VI. fig. 4. 

A gregarious small shell, sometimes so abundant that it forms 
masses of rock by itself. Lines of growth well defined, especially near 
the margin. Hinge not seen. It is perhaps the young of some larger 

Found at Wean, Koonmoo and Ishmalabad in Kashmir and in the 
Rotta Roh in the Punjab. 

Pecten, sp. PL IV. fig. 5. 

Small shell, perfectly smooth with the exception of a few lines of 
growth. It is ornamented with painted dark lines, which radiate from 
the beak to the circumference, increasing in width as they approach 
the margin. The convexity is very small, and the ears small. 

Only one-valve specimens were ever found, through the shell is 
tolerably common in the reddish limestone of Koonmoo in Kashmir. 

Found also in the Rotta Roh ? 

Aviculo-pecten Dissmilis, (I lent.) 

See M. de VernueiFs note. 

This and the following Aviculo-pectens are apparently identical 
with the group of animals represented in England by the A. -Pecten 
Arenaceus. They were gregarious and all lived together, and are now 
found in a sandy somewhat friable limestone, in lenticular beds which 
are evidently the remains of sandbanks near the shore. 

Our specimens of A, -Pecten Vissimilis are oval in shape, the 

1867.] Appendix. 219 

umbo-marginal diameter being the longest. The shell was at first 
very gibbose, but after the second line of growth it is much less so. 
Four sunken lines of growth are well marked. Ears small and trans- 
versely striated. Shell nearly equilateral, beak prominent. 

The cast shows two deep pits, corresponding on the inside of the 
shell to two tubercles. These pits are more than half way down 
the valve. The cast is covered with shallow irregular fossae which 
correspond to small bosses inside the shell, and are probably due to the 
presence of pearly matter. There are traces of an epithelium. 

Found at Koonmooh, Rotta Roh. 

Avicuh-pecten, sp. (A-pecten Ovaius, Vcrch.) PI. VI. fig. 6a, and 6b. 

A small specimen, quite smooth. Outline elliptical; convexity 
trifling; ears meeting above the beak into a straight line. 

The inside of the valve shows (h) two strong Lateral ridges proceeding 
from the beak, and terminating about two-thirds down the valve in 
well denned tubercles. The hinge presents two short rounded ridges 
or teeth proceeding from the beak for about a quarter of an inch, when 
they also terminate in minute tubercles. 

Avicuh-pecten, sp. (A. pecten Bonus, Vcrch.,) PI. VI. fig. 7 and 7a. 

Outline sub-circular ; shell very flat ; ears irregular. The whole 
valve is covered with fine radiate stria, and with thin lines of growth. 
Shell thin. Internal cast not found. It is perhaps the P. Crcnislcria 
(de Koninck.) 

Aviculo-pecten Circularis, Vcrch., PI. VII. fig. la. and lb. 

Outline of shell sub-circular, rather transverse. Shell moderately 
convex ; concentric striae faintly seen. Lines of growth irregular and 
unconspicuous. The cast (b) presents two deep pits which are 
continued by a groove towards the beak, corresponding on the inside 
of the shell to two muscular tubercles and ridges. The ridge is 
much more defined posteriorly than anteriorly. Lines of growth 
strongly marked on the cast ? No pearl fossae. It may be a variety of 
P. EUipticus (Phill.) ? ? 

Aviculo-pecten, sp. PL VII. fig. 2a & 2b. 

Outline pyriform, umbo-marginal diameter the longest. Moderatly 
gibbose ; beak much incurved and somewhat imbedded in the ears, 
which meet above it in a straight line. 

The cast only was found. It shows two strongly marked lines of 
growth well set apart. No pearl-fossaj on cast. 

220 Appendix. [No. 3, 

The inside of the shell, (b) shows two ridges proceeding from the 
beak but not terminating in tubercles (at least not on one side ; the 
other side was not seen). Two small teeth in the hinge terminate by 
minute tubercles. Beak grooved by a canal or foramen. Inside of 
ears concave. 

Avicuh-pecten Testudo, Verch. PI. VII. fig. 3 and 3a. 

Shell pyriform, umbo-marginal diameter longest. Extremely 
gibbose. Beak pointed ; ears meeting above in a straight line. A 
few concentric strias. Lines of growth unconspicuous, excepting one 
near the margin. 

Avicuh-pecten Gibbosus Verch. PI. VII. fig. 4 and 4a. 

Outline sub-circular, transverse. Shell enormously gibbose, es- 
pecially as far as the second line of growth. Shell inornate. Lines of 
growth shallow and confused. Ears meeting in a line above the beak. 
Shell thick. 

Remark. These Aviculo-Pectens were found in Kashmir in the 
Wean groups only ; but in the Botta Boh they have been found here 
and there mixed with shells of the Zeawan group, such as P. Semireti- 
culatus, A. Subtil ita. 

Axinus, nov. spec. conf. A. Obscurus, 

See M. de Vernueil's note. 

Found with the Aviculo-Pectens. 


Spiriferina Straclieyii, (Salter.) 

Paleontology of Niti, page 72, PI. IX. fig. 13. 

This shell is not rare in the Wean group near Koonmooo ; in some 
beds it swarms in company with a small Terebratula. We have two 
varieties, one like Mr. Salter's figure and another higher and narrower 
Some specimens show plainly to the naked eye the punctate structure 
of the shell. 

Post-Scripttjm. Productus Lcevis, (David.) T. Geol. Soc. Vol. 
XXII. p. 44, PI. XI. fig. 16 ; and Spirifera Barusiensis, (David), Op. 
Cit. p. 42, PL XI. fig. 7. 

Both these shells are found in the Wean limestone near Koonmoo, 
and at the Bottah Boh in the flaggy limestone with Goniatites Gange- 
ticus. I have not found them in the Zeawan group, except at the 
Botta Boh in the mixed beds. 

1867.] Appendix. 221 

Trias (Middle and Upper.) 

Kothair Beds. 

In the text I considered provisionally the Kothair group as either 
the uppormost layer of the Carboniferous, or else Permian or Triasic. 
I had no fossils then to decide the point. During the time which has 
elapsed between my first sending in this paper and its publication I have 
found, in breaking up some rocks from the Kothair bed in Kashmir, 
a Globosus with Ceratite-like sutures ; and I have discovered in the 
Rottah Roh, in beds corresponding to the Kashmir bed, a few shells 
which do not leave a doubt of this group being Triasic. 


Ammonites, sp. conf. A. Gaytani (Klip.) 

Paleont. of Niti, p. 65, PI. Til. fig. 4. 

Our specimen is a little more than half an inch across, and very 
globose. It shows well two or three of the sutures which are identical 
with Mr. Salter's figure. 

From the Upper Bed, near Banda in Kashmir. 

Ceratites Semi-partitus (Gaillardot.) 
- A very good and nearly complete specimen was found in the Rotta 
Roh, in a pale limestone which forms a high cliff above the much 
disturbed Carboniferous. The shell is slightly elliptical. The suture 
is exactly like that represented in Pictet's Traite de Palcontologie. 
It has some resemblance to M. de Konninck's Ceratites Lyellianus or 
more still to his C. Laivrencianus, but the suture differs. Cliffs above 
Kotela and Oomurkhel, Rotta Roll. 

Remark. I have but little doubt that several of the Ceratites 
described by Mr. de Koninck (from Dr. A. Fleming's collection), as 
obtained from Carboniferous beds with Spirifers and Producti, had 
their situs in those cliffs or similar ones, and had dropped and become 
mixed with the much broken up and fragmentary rocks of the Zeawan 
and Wean groups below. 
Ceratites JVodosus (Sow.) f 

On a slab of reddish calcareous sandstone from the Alged Wan, 
Rotta Roh, a shell, which has all the characters of this species, is to 
be seen in company with the Posidonomya to be hereafter described, 
with fragments of bone and what appears to be a tooth of Lepidotus (?) 

222 Appendix. [No. 3, 


Natica, sp. 

Like N. Subglobulosa (Kl.) Pal. Niti, p. 68, PL VIII. fig. 12. 

Only sections and outlines were seen on the weathered surface of 
rocks. Very abundant in the upper beds at Banda and at Kothair 
in Kashmir. 

Macrocheilus, sp. 

Sections and outlines of a shell of this genus are very abundant at 
Sono Murg and Kothair. 

Nerincea, sp. ? 

Small shells with a raised spot in the centre of each half-whorl. 

Pyramidella or Loxonema f 

Several specimens of this fine Pyramidella were seen on the 
weathered surface of the sandy limestone of the patch of Kothair rock 
near Koonmoo. 


Posidonia conf. P. Minuta. 

Minute shells of this genus, with well-marked concentric stria?, were 
found in the sandstone containing the C. Nodosus. Algerd Wan, 
Botta Boh. 

Outlines of small Involves are very abundant on the weathered 
surface of the rocks at Sono Murg and Kothair, but the shells cannot 
be extracted. 


Pentacrinites, sp. f PI. VIII. fig. 1. 

Starry rings of Encrinite stems are very abundant in most of the 
arenaceous limestone of the Wean groups, and also in the rocks of the 
Kothair groups at Sono Murg and Kothair in Kashmir. 


Cyathophyllimi) sp. 

Abundant on the weathered surface of Kothair-rocks. 

Cyathophyllum, sp. 

Same remark as above. 

Cyathophyllun, sp. 

Generally found as figured at (a). Found as represented at (b) 
near Martand, Kashmir. 

Remark. Several small species of corals were seen in the Kothair 
limestone in Kashmir, but in a very bad state of preservation. 

1867.] Appendix. 223 

Lias (lower.) 

Ammonites Tubar (Strachey.) 

PL Niti, p. 32, PI 20 fig. 2 a— c and PI. 21 figs. 1 a— c. 

Three good specimens of this shell showing well all the characters 
and the suture, as represented by Mr. Blanford. 

From a muddy and sandy brown bed, very sparingly calcareous, in 
the Chichali pass near Kalabagh, Punjab. 

Ammonites, sp. 

Pal. Niti, PI. 19 fig 3 a, 6 and c. 

The figure in the Palaeontology of Niti is exactly like our shell ; 
it is not described in the text and not named. It resembles ;i little 
the A. Striatulus (Sow.). — Found in the same bed as the preceding. 

Belemnites, sj). 

A coarse species when full-grown, with a well marked front sulcus, 
and often a back one also. The section is oval. 

From the same bed as above in Chichali and from some brown 
sandstones under the Oolite at the foot of Sheikh Bodeen near Tora 

Post-Scriptum. I find this species described and figured by Mr. 
Stoliczka, (Sections across HimaL, Mem. Geol. Surv. of India, Vol. V. 
Part 1, fig. 78, PL VIII. fig. 1-4,) under the name of B. Bisalcutus 
(Stol.) from the lower Lias of Spiti. 


GrypJicca Arcuata (Lam.) 

Some specimens, from the Chichali pass and the same bed as the 
Ammonites, belong certainly to this well-known species. 

Astarte, sp. 

A very circular Astarte from the same bed, Chichali. 
Oolite (Oxfordian). 


Ammonites Biplex, Soiv. 

Journal Asiat. Soc. No. 2, 1863, p. 129, PL II., fig. 5 and PL III. 
figs. 4 and 5. 

Ammonites Strigilis, Blanford. 

Op. Cit. p. 126, PL III figs. 1 and la. 

Five fragments showing well the single ribs bending forwards. 

224 Appendix. [No. 3, 

Ammonites Triplicatus, Sow. 

Pal. of Niti, p. 80, PL 13 fig. 1. 

Ammonites Scriptus (Stracliey). 

Pal. of Niti, p. 81, PL 16, fig. 2. 

Ammonites Guttatus (Strach.) 

Op. Cit. p. 79, PL 13, fig. 2. 

Ammonites Wallachii, (Gray.) 

Op. Cit. p. 84, PL 15, fig. 1 and PL 19, figs. 1 and 2. 

All these Ammonites are from the Inferior limestone bed of Shaikh 
Bodeen in the Punjab. 

Belemnites Sulcatus, Miller. 

Journal Asiat. Soc. p. 125, PL 1, fig. 1. 

Very abundant in the Ammonite bed at Shaikh Bodeen. Rarer in 
the beds above. 

Belemnites Canalicidatus, Sc7i. 

This is perhaps a variety or a younger shell of the above. Found 
in the same beds. 

Remark. One or two more species of Belemnities were found with 
the preceding at Shaikh Bodeen. 


Acteonina, sp. 

In all beds, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Turbo, sp. and Scoliostoma, sp. 

Both in Ammonite-bed, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Natica, sp. 

Same locality. 


Pecten Arcuatus, Soiv. ? 

Not unlike P. Comatus, Munster, (Pal. Niti, PL 22, fig. 9). It is 
more strongly ribbed than Salter's figure of the P. Comatus and it is 
flatter, thus answering perfectly the description of the P. Arcuatus. 

Ammonite-bed, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Hinnites Tubulipora, Verch., n. sp. 

Like Spondylus Tuberculosus, Groldf., but the ribs of our species 
are much coarser, fewer, and more foliated and the tubular spines are 
larger, more in number, and rather lamellar. 

It is not rare in the Ammonite-bed, Shaikh Bodeen. 

1867.] Appendix. 225 

Homomya (Pholadomya) sp. 

We have three species of Pholadomya without rays from Shaikh 

Pholadomya (Ph. Semireticulata, Verch. nov. sp.) PI. IX. fig. 2. 

This pretty shell is mostly found as a cast. It is not rare in the 
Oxfordian bed and extends to the Corallian above. 

JPholadomya (Ph. Quinque-costata, Verch. , nov. sp.) PI. IX. figs. 
3 and 3a. 

Ammonite bed, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Plagiostoma sp. conf. P. Consobrina (D'Orb.) 

Ammonite-bed, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Ostrcea Gregarea, (Sow.) 

Several specimens found near the Ammonite-bed, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Ostrcea Marshii, (Soiv.) f 

Same bed as above. 

Ostrcea Flabelloides, (Desh.) f 

Fragments similar to Pal. of Niti, PI. 22, fig. 1, found in the Am- 
monite-bed, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Ostrcea conf. 0. Deltoidea, (Soiu.) f 

The only difference between our specimens and the figures of this 
species is that our Ostrcea have the muscular impression very strongly 
marked, forming a regular pit with a ridge round it. — From the same 
bed as the above. 

Ostrcea like 0. Nana, (Sow.) 

In nearly all the beds, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Ostrea sp. 

A large flat circular oyster, very common in some of the lowest 
oolitic beds at Shaikh Bodeen. 


Terebratula Globata, Sow., PI. IX. fig. 4. 

Extremely abundant in the Ammonite- bed and in all the beds near 
it, at Shaikh Bodeen. It varies considerably. 

Post-Scriptum. The T. Gregaria, Sness, (Memoirs of Greol. Surv. 
of India, Vol. V. Part I. page 68, and T. Tibetensis, David, (Journ. 
Geol. Soc. Vol. XXII. p. 37, PI. I. fig. 11—14, appear to be the same 

Terebratula Bodeenensis } Verch. , nov. sp. or var.; PI. IX. figs. 6 and 6a. 


226 Appendix. [No. 3, 

It is very perfectly oval and varies but little in shape. It has, in 
most specimens, neither sinus or folds, and the line of junction of the 
valves forms a nearly perfect curve in front. In a few specimens there 
is a very trifling undulation of this line. The absence of sinus and 
fold distinguishes from the T. Globata ; it is also a smaller shell, but 
yet may be only a variety of it. Found with the above. 

Terebratula Garinata, Lam. 

Pal. of Niti, p. 99, PL 21. fig 5. 

Our specimens are much more like the T. Garinata than the figure 
in Pal. of Niti. It varies considerably, but the shallow sinus is always 
well marked. Our specimens are larger than the Niti ones. 

Shaikh Bodeen, with the other Terebratulce. 

Terebratula Numismalis, Lam. 

Op. Cit. p. 99, PL 21, fig. 4. 

Several specimens showing well the depressed aspect of the front of 
the greater valve, and the well-marked concentric lines of growth. 

Ammonite-bed, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Remark. Two or three specimens not yet identified were found in 
the same beds, together with a Waldheimia rather globular and of the 
type of W. Impressa, Bach, of the Oxford clay. 

Bhynchonella, sp. (R. Goncinna, Sow. ?) PL IX. figs. 5, 5a. and 5b. 

See also Pal. of Niti, PL 21, fig. 8. 

It has generally, but not always, the sinus better marked than in 
the Niti figure. Very common at Shaikh Bodeen in nearly all the 

Remark. Six other species of Rhynclionella have been found at 
Shaikh Bodeen, but are not yet satisfactorily determined. 


Eschara Asiatica, Verch. n. sp. f 

A fenestella-like Eschara, appearing in large flat and undulated 
plates on the surface of the rocks. In the Ammonite-bed, Shaikh 

Among the corals, a Fungia somewhat like the Fungia Coronula, 
Groldf ., but too much worn to be identified, and a Meandrina like M. vel 
Gomoseris Vermicularis (Edw and Haime), were found in the Am- 
monite bed at Shaikh Bodeen. 

1867.] Appendix. 227 

Oolite (Corallian.) 
Belemnites Canaliculatus, (Sch.) 
Upper Bed, Shaikh Bodeen and Mari-on- Indus, Salt Range. 


Nerincea conf. N. Goodhallii., (Fitton.) 

Fragments and sections of this shell are very common in the upper 
beds at Shaikh Bodeen. The section of the whorls is precisely similar 
to the figure in Lyell's Elements, p. 304. 


Astarte Scalaria, (Roemer.) ? ? vel A. Lamellosa, (Roem.) 

An Astarte with lamellous concentric lines, referred to the species 
above from description only, as I have never seen a specimen or a 
figure of these species. 

Upper beds, Shaikh Bodeen. 


Thamnastrcea sp. 

Upper bed, Shaikh Bodeen and near Palusseen, Wuziristan. 

Thamnastrcea sp. 

A minute species found with the preceding at Shaikh Bodeen. 

Tsastrocti sp. 

Much like the T. Oblongata (Edw. and Haime.) 

Upper beds, Shaikh Bodeen. 

Tsastrcea sp. 

Another species from Mari-on-the-Indus. 

Thecosmilia Annularis (Edw. and Haime.) 

Upper bed, Shaikh Bodeen and Mari-on-Indus. 

Meandrina sp. 


Eunomia sp. 


Rhizangia sp. 


Areacis sp. 


Lohocoenia sp. 

228 Appendix. [No. 3, 

A very pretty, spreading specimen from Wuziristan. 

Turbinolia sp. ? 

From Palussen, Wuziristan. 

Rock Specimens. 
PL X. figs. 1 and la. 
Amygdaloidal greenstone with gas-vents branching through the 
mass. Abundant in the Zebanwan in Kashmir. Found also amongst 
the rolled stones of the torrents which drain the Afghan mountains. 
PL X. figs. 2 and 2a. 
Trachyte with starry crystals of dull white albite for which I have 
proposed the name of Soolimanite. From the Tukht-i-Sulaiman in 

PL I. 

Spirifer Vercheri, (de Verneuil), n. s. Natural size. 
SpiriferinaOctopUcatatSowJVsii'. Transversa, (Verch.), natural size. 

Aihyris sp. (A. Subtilita, HallJ— natural size. 
Athyris Buddhista, (Verch.), nov. sp. — natural size. 
Athyris, probably A. Boyssii, (L'Eveille) — natural size. 
Strophomena Analoga, (Phill.) ? — half natural size. 

Spirifer sp. f (Var. of 8. Keilhavii, (Buch.) ?— natural size. 
Strophomena sp. ? — natural size. 
Orthis sp. — natural size. 

Strophalosia ? Arachnoidea, (Verch.), n. sp.— natural size. 
Fenestella Sykesii (DeKon). 
Fenestella Megastoma (DeKon). 
Vincularia Multangulari, (Portlock). 

PL V. 
Fenestella sp. — natural size. 
Disteichia ? ? sp. — natural size. 
Acanthocladia sp.— natural size. 
Eurypterus vel Limulus ? sp.— natural size. 

1 807.] Appendix. 229 

PI. VI. 
Solenopsis sp. — natural size. 

Cardinia ITimalayana, (Verch.), n. sp — natural size. 
Cardinia Ovalis, Martin), ? — natural size. 
Cucullcea? sp. — natural size. 
Pecten sp. — natural size. 

Aviculo-pecten sp. {A. pecten Ovatus Verch.) — natural size. 
Aviculo-pecten sp. (A pecten Planus, Verch.) — natural size, 

Aviculo-pecten Circular in, (Verch.) — natural size. 
Aviculo-pecten sp. — natural size. 
Aviculo-pecten Testudo, (Verch.) — natural size. 
Aviculo-pecten Gibbosus, (Verch.) — natural size. 

Pentacrinite ? sp. — natural size. 
Cyathophyllum sp. — natural size. 
Cyatliophylluiu sp. — natural size. 
Cyathophyllum sp. — natural size. 
Sphceronites sp. — natural size. 
Sphceronites Pyallii. (Verch.). now sp. — natural size. 

PI. IX. 
Sphceronites sp. — natural size. 

Plioladomya Sesquircticulafa, (Verch.), no-v. sp. — natural size. 
Plioladomya Quinque-costata (Verch.), nov. sp. natural size. 
Terebratula Globata, (Sow.) — natural size. 
Phynclionella Concinna, (Sow.) ? — natural size. 
Terebratula Bodecnensis, (Verch.), sp. vel var. nov. — natural size. 
Amygdaloid with gas-vents— natural size. 

Joul XXXVI. Part: II PI: 1. 




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Acanthocladia, sp. ... ... ... ... ... 215 

Afghan Mountains, geology of, ... ... 10, 91 

Ajmcer, plains of, ... ... ... ... ... 93 

Alveolites septosa (Flem.) ? ... ... 216 

Ammonia in ilooghly water, ... ... ,^ t ... 129 

Ammonites sp. conf. A. Gaytani (Klip.) ... 221 

Amphibola Burmana (W. T. Blanford,) n. sp. ... ... 66 

Anomia &p. ... ... ... ... 72 

(JEnigma) amigvnatica (Cliein.), ... ... ... 72 

Lawrenciana (de Konn.) ... ... "JO!) 

Anllwzoa, list of fossil, in the Kothair beds (Trias), ... 222 

Oolite at Shaikh Bodeen, &c., 220, 227 

Zeawan beds (Carboniferous), ... 216 

Antilope bezoartica, and A. Bennettii, Mr. W. T. Blanford on, 196 
Aralo-Caspian formation, ... ... ... ... 110 

Area (Anomalo-cardia) grandosa (L.), ... 70 

Artemis sp. .. ... ... ... ... ... 55 

Assiminia rubella (W. T. Blanford), ... 70 

Astarte scalaria vel lamellosa (Roem), ... ... ... 227 

AtJnjris, sp. {Terebratula subtilita, Halls)? ... ... 203, 210 

Buddista (Verchere) a. sp. ' ... 203,210 

• Boyssiif... ... ... 203,208,211 

Auricula J mice (L),. ... ... ... 93 

nit i dula (W. T. Blanford,) n. sp. ... ... 64 

Acieulo-peclen sp. .... . ... 219 

sp. (A. ovattis, Verchere), ... ... 219 

sp. (A. ramus, Verchere), ... 219 

■ circular is, (Verchere), ... ... ... 219 

dissimilis, (Flem.), ' ... ... 204, 218 

( gibbosus, (Verchere), ... ... ... 220 

Testudo, (Verchere), ... 220 

Axiiias sp. 7iov. conf. A. obscurus (Soxv. y A. schizodus, King) 204, 220 
Ball, V. Esq. B. A., on jungle products used as food inHazari- 

bagh and Manbhoom, ... ... ... ... 73 

Baranagar, river water of, ... ... ... 118 

tank water of, ... ... ... 5,122,131 

. well water of, ... ... ... ... 131,132 

Bassa latifolia (Roxb.) flowers of, used as food, ... ... 74 

Bauhinia Waldii (W. and A.) seeds of, used as food ? 78 

232 Index. 

Beavan, Captain R. C, contributions towards a history of 

Panolia JEldi, ... ... ... ... ... 175 

Belemnites fossil, at Shaikh Bodeen, ... ... ... 224, 2*27 

Bier (Zizyphus Jujuha L) fruit of, used as food, ... ... 77 

Blanford, W. T., Esq.,, contributions to Indian Malacology, ... 51 

Zoological Notes, .. . ... ... 189 

Blacquire's tank, Calcutta, water of, ... ... 131, 132 

Bos (Bubalus) bufellus, Mr. W. T. Blanford on, .. ... 195 

Bos gaurus and B. pontalis, Mr. W, T. Blanford on, ... 192 

Bracliiopoda, fossil, in Oolite at Shaikh Bodeen, ... ... 285 

-Wean ditto,... ... 220 

. Zeawan beds, ... ... ... 209 

Brgczoa, fossil, in Oolite at Shaikh Bodeen, ... ... 226 

Zeawan beds, ... 214 

Buffalo, the wild (Bos buffelus) Mr. W. T. Blanford on, ... 195 

Bunnoo, hills of, ... ... ... ... ... 93 

Bur (Ficus indica) fruit of, used as food, ... 77 

Carboniferous epoch, in Kashmir and Western Himalaya, ... 97 

Cardinia sp. (ovalis, Martin? Anthracosia, King?) ... 204, 218 

Cardinia FLimalayana (Verchere) n. sp. ? ... ...204, 218 

Central India, volcanic rocks of, 

Cephalopoda, fossil, in Kothair beds, (Trias), ... 

■ Lower Lias of Spiti and Shai 

—— Oolite of Shaikh Bodeen, 

— ■ ■ Wean beds (Carboniferous), 

Zeawan ditto, 

kh Bodeen, 223 

... 237 

... 217 

... 208 

... 221 

... 221 


... 118 



..94, 95 

Ceratites semipartitus (Graillardot,) ... 

curvicostatus (Sow.) ? ... 

CeritMum (Vertagus) ooeliscus (Born.), 

Chandernagore, river water of, ... 

Chehur (Baiihinia Valhii) seeds of, used as food 

Chione Ceylonensis, (Sow.) 

Chor peak, Himalayas, probably volcanic, 

Cidaris Forbesiana (de Konn.) ... ... ... 214 

Circular canal, Calcutta, water of, ... ... ... 123, 124 

Coal, not found in Punjab, Kashmir, or Afghanistan, ... 99 
Colour, influence of, in modifying the fertility of crosses be- 
tween species and varieties, ... ... ... ... 157 

Columbella Ducloziana (Sow.), ... ... ... 54 

Coral Rag of England, rocks in Derajat resembling, 17, 19 

Coral Reefs, traces of, in Derajat, ... ... ... 19 

Corbula sp. ... ... ... ... 69 

Cornwallis Square, Tank (" Hadua Pukhar") water of, ... 5 
Cretaceous period in Western Himalayas, Kashmir, &c, ... 102 

Crustacea, fossil, in Zeawan beds, ... ... ... 217 

Ouculleca sp. ... ... ... ... 218 

Cuon rutilans (Pallas), Mr. W. T. Blanford on, ... ... 193 

Index. 233 


Cynailurus (Felis) juhat us Mr. W. T. Blauford on, 191 

Cyrena Bengalensis (Lam.), ... ... ... ... 70 

Dalhousie Square Tank (" Lall Diggi,") Calcutta, water of, 

5, 13, 122, 140, 142 

Dentalium hercaleum (de Konn.) ... ... 209 

Disteichia ? ? (Sbarpe), ... ... ... ... 215 

Dodatoli peak, probably volcanic, ,., ... 94, 95 

Dog, the wild {Cuon rutilans, Pallas) Mr. TV. T. Blanford on, 191 
Fchinodermata, fossil, in Kothair beds (Trias), ... ... 222 

■ Zeawan beds (Carboniferous,) 214 

Erratic blocks in the Salt Range, ... ... 113,114 

JEurypterus ? ? ... ... ... ... 213 

Fschara Asiatica (Vercbere) new sp. ... .. ... 226 

Felis (Cynailurus) ju bat 'us, Mr. W. T. Blanford on, 191 

Fenestclla Sykesii (de Konn.) F. megastoma (de Konn.) and 

Fsp.? ... ... ... ... 204, 214, 215 

Ficus indica (Roxb.) and F. rcligiosa (L) fruit of, used as 

food, ... ... ... ... 77 

Flowers used as food in Hazaribagb and Manbhoom, ... 81 

Food, jungle products used as, in Hazaribagb and Manbhooin, 

Mr. V. Ball on, ... ... 73 

Fossils forwarded by Dr. Vcrchere, M. de Vernueil's note on, 201 
Francolinus vulgaris and IP. pictus, Mr. W. T. Blanford on 

distribution of, ... ... ... ... ... 200 

Fruits used as food in Hazaribagb and Manbhooni, 79 

Fuii-i ditto ditto, ... ... .. ... ... 82 

Gallus fcrruijiiieus (Gm.) and G. So)i)icrattii, Mr. W. T. 

Blanford on, ... ... ... ... 199 

Gasteropoda, fossil, in Kothair bed (Trias), ... ... 222 

at Shaikh Bodeen, ... ... 225,227 

i in Zeawan beds (Carboniferous), ... 2u9 

Gaur, {Bos yaurus) Mr. W. T. Blanford on, ... 192 

Quvialis gangeticus ditto ditto, ... ... ... 200 

Gayal (Bos pontalis) ditto ditto, ... ... 192 

General's Tank, Calcutta, water of, ... ... 135,140,141 

Geology of Kashmir, the Western Himalayas, and the Afghan 

mountains, Dr. A. M. Verchere on, ... ... 9, 83, 201 

Geysers, ... ... ... ... ... ...88, 99 

Glaciers of the Himalayas, ... •-. ... Ill, 112 

Goniatites curvicostatus (Verchere) n. sp. and G. Gangeticus 

(de Konn.) ... ... ... ... ... 217 

Granite, how formed, ... ... ... 85 

Gurriwal marsh near Bunnoo, ... ... ... ... 106 

Harminea tenera (A. Adams), ... ... 63 

Hazara, Geology of, ... .. ... ... ... 29 

Hazaribagb, jungle products used as food in, ... ... ... 73 

Himalayas, Western,... ... ... ... 9, 91, 96 

234 Index. 

Homochromatic and Heterochromatic Unions, relative fertility 

of, in Verbascum, ... ... ... 165 

Inorganic constituents of tbe Hoogbly water, ... ... 110 

Iron ore of Waziristan, ... ... ... ...... 20 

Iravadia (W. T. Blanford,) new genus, I. ornata, ... ... 56 

Irawady, estuary sbells in tbe Delta of, W. T. Blanford on, ... 51 

Jungle products used as articles of food in Hazaribagb and 

Manbboom, Mr. V. Ball on, ... ... ... 73 

Jurassic period in Kasbmir and the West Himalayas, 100 

Kailas mountain chain, geology of, ... ... ...47, 95 

Kaj Nag mountain range, Kashmir, ... 84, 85, 92, 99 

Karakorum mountain chain, Geology of, ... ... 47, 95 

Kasbmir, Western Himalayas and Afghan mountains, Dr. A. 

M. Yerchere on the Geology of, ... ... 8,83,201 

Kashmir, Volcanic rocks of, ... ... 85 

Kisbtawar and Badrawar, ... ... ... 95, 82, 94 

Koh-i-Baba, mountain range, ... .,, 92 

Kothair beds, (Trias) fossils in, ... ... ... 221 

Kuen Luen mountain chain, ... ... ... ... 95 

" Kullur," saline efflorescence, ... ... ... ... 106 

Lakes, former, in the Himalayas, ... ... 113 

Lamellibrancliiata, fossil, in the Kothair beds (Trias), ... 222 
■ — — Lower Lias of the Punjab 

frontier, ... ... ... ... 223 

, , Oolite at Shaikh Bodeen, ... 224 

. Wean beds, ... 211 

■ — ■ Zeawan beds, ... ... 209 

Larinal Burmana, (W. T. Blanford,) n. sp. ... 61 

Leaves used as food in Hazaribagh and Manbboom, ... 81 

Leopard, the hunting (Felis jubatus) W. T. Blanford on, ... 191 

Lignite of the Punjab, formation of, ... ... ... 103 

Limulus ? .. '" ... .... 213 

Lion, the, in India, W. T. Blanford on, ... ... ... 189 

Lithostrotion floriforme (Flem.) L. irregulare (Phill.) ... 205, 216 

Littorina melanostoma (Gray) L. scabra (L.) L. ziczac (Chem.) 55 

Loch Katrine, water of, ... ... ... ... 123 

Macoma ala, (Hanley), ... ... ... 69 

M acrochelus Avellanoides (de Konn.) ... ... ...209, 222 

Malacology, Indian, Mr. W. T. Blanford's contributions to, ... 51 

Man, earliest traces of, in Kashmir, ... ... ... 115 

Maniktollak Well, Calcutta, water of, ... ... 131, 132 

Mari on the Indus, ... ... ... ... 101,114 

Martesia fulminalis (W. T. Blanford,) n. sp. ... 67 

Marwar, plains of, ... ... ... ... ... 93 

Masba Brum mountain, geology of, (with section) 48 

Manbboom, jungle products used as food in, ... ... 73 

Maurieune, Savoy, age of rocks in, ... ... 22 

Index. 235 


Mi'Lolland, Dr. J., on Panolia PJIdi, ... ... ... 175 

Meteorological observations made at the Surveyor General's 

Office, Calcutta; abstracts of the, ... 

Mhawa (Bassa latifolia) flowers of, used as food, ... ... 74 

Michelina^. ... . ... ... ... 216, 21 

Michelia or Beaumontia? ... ... ... ... 205 

Miocene epoch in Kashmir and the "West Himalayas, 104 

Modipla emavginata, (Bens.) ... ... ... ... 70 

Monohur Pass's Tank, Calcutta, water of , ... 131 

Mytilus smavagdmua (Chemn.) - ... ... ... 70 

Noasa planicoata (A. Adams), ... ... 54 

Nautilus clittelarius (Sow.) ? ... ... ... ... 217 

Fleming ianim (de Konn.) N. Favranits (Verch.) n. sp. 208 

ffieritina cornucopia (Bens.), ... ... 59 

crepidularia (Less.) ... ... ... ... 59 

■ ■■- - (jSosiid) depressa (Bens.) ... ... 59 

obtusa (Bens.) ... ... ... ... 59 

Peguenaia (W. T. Blanford) n. sp. ... 58 

Sniithii (Gray), ... ... ... ... 59 

Nimtollah St. Well, Calcutta, water of, ... ... 131, 132 

Nummulitic epoch in Kashmir and West Himalayas, ... 103 

limestone, ... .. ... ...19, 26, 29 

Nyan Cliiuul Dutt's lane Tank, Calcutta, water of,... 131, 132 

■ Well ditto ditto, ... 131, 132 

Organic matter in Hooghly water, ... ... 120 

. water, modes of estimating, ... ... 120 

Or/// /.v re&upinata (Martin), O. sp. ... ... 211 

Orthoceras sp, ... ... ... ... 208,217 

Ostrea sp. ... ... ... ... 72 

Os/rccf, various species, found at Shaikh Bodeen, ... ... 225 

Palaeozoic epoch in Kashmir and West Himalayas, 97 

Panolia Eldi (Gray) Captain R. C. Beavan on, ... ... 175 

Patagonia, rainfall in, ... ... ... 105 

Prr/m sp. ... ... ... ... ... ... 218 

Permanganate of Potash as a test for organic matter in water, 

Dr. Waldieon, ... ... ... 120 

Phyllopora cribellum (de Konn.) ... ... 205, 216 

Pig, the Indian wild, Mr. W. T. Blanford on, 195 

Pipal (Ficus religiosa) fruit of, used as food, ... ... 77 

Platanista, Mr. W. T. Blanford on the distribution of, 198 

Plectolrema Cummingiana (W. T. Blanford,) n. sp. ... 65 

Potanldes (Tympanotonos) alatus, (Phil.) ... 55 

euripeta (A. Ad.) ... ... ... ... 55 

— ■ (Telescopium) Jiiscus, (Chemn.) ... 55 

Productus Boliviensis (.D'Orb.) or aculeatuSj ... 203, 213 

cora (D'Orb.), ... ' ... ... 202,206,212 

costatus (Sow.), ... ... 201,212 

236 Index. 


Productus Flemingii (D'Orb.), longispinus, or lobattis, 202, 203, 213 

SwmbolUi (P'Orb.), ... ... ... 201, 212 

Icevis (Davidson), ... ... ... ... 220 

Purdonii (Davidson). ... ... ... 202,212 

semireticulatus (Martin), ... ... 201, 212 

Punjab, plains of the, ... ... ... ... 93, 106 

Punjobe (Singliara) nuts, used as food, ... ... ... 78 

Purifying Hooghly water, Mr. Clark's plan for, 137 

Purpura hitubercularis (Lam.) ... ... ... 51 

Puthurea Ghat St., Calcutta, Well at, ... ... 131, 132 

Earn Dhon Ghose's Tank, Calcutta water of, ... 131, 132 

Petepora lepida (de Konn.), ... ... 216 

Petzia radialis (Phil.) var. grandicosta (David), ... ... 211 

Phizomys castaneus (Blyth) Mr. W. T. Blanford on, 198 

Kiver water, Calcutta, analysis of, ... 4, 122, 131, 140 

Rock specimens described by Dr. Verchere, 228 

Hoots used as food in Hazaribagh and Manbhoom, ... 82 

Rotta Roh, mountain range, geology of, .., 11 

Pucervus Duvaucellii (Gray) Mr. W. T. Blanford on, ... 191 

Rukshu, geology of, ... ... ... 38 

Sal (Shorea robusta) seeds of, used as food, ... ... 77 

Saliferian formation, ... ... ... ... 22, 100 

Salt lakes in Rukshu, ... ... ... ... 39 

Salt Range, ... ... ... 93 

erratic blocks in, ... ... ... 11, 31, 14 

■ ; — limestone, ... ... .„, ... 21, 100 

Salt water lake, Calcutta, water of, ... ... ... 122 

Sanguinolaria diphos (L.), ... ... ... 69 

Sauricthys ? ... ... ... ... ... 216 

Scalaria sp. ... ... ... ... 55 

Scaphula deltce (W. T. Blanford,) n. sp ... ... 71 

Scott, John, Esq., on reproductive relations of different varieties 

of Verbascum, ... ... ... 145 

Scrobieularia angulata (Chemn.) ... ... ... 69 

Secondary period in Kashmir and West Himalayas, 99 

Seeds used as food in Hazaribagh and Manbhoom, ... 79 

Ser and Mer mountain chain, ... ... 34 

Sewage water, Calcutta, analysis of, ... ... ... 4 

Sewalik Hills, 110 

Shaikh Bodeen Mountain, ... ... ... 14, 110 

Shorea robusta (Roxb.) Sal, seeds of, used as food ... 77 

Silurian Archipelago of Kashmir, section of, ... 89 

epoch in Kashmir and West Himalayas, ... ... 94 

Singhara nuts> used as food, ... ... 78 

Sirbun Mountain, Abbottabad,... ... ... ... 30 

Sir-Oba, hot spring of, .. ... ... 20 

Solenopsis imbricata, (de Konn.), ... ... 204,217 

Index. 237 


Soolimanitc (Vcrcherc), ... ... ... 258 

Sphmronites sp. 8. Ryallii (Verchere) n. sp. ... ... 208 

Sphenia perversa, (W. T. Blanford,) n. sp. ... C8 

tipirijcr Moosakhelensis (David.) ... ... ... 209 

Bajah (Strachey), ... ... 210 

Striatus (Martin), ... ... ... ... 209 

Vercheri (Vernueil) n. sp. ... ... ... 204, 209 

Spirirfera Barussensis (David,) ... ... ... 220 

tipirijcrina octoplicata (Sow.) var. transversa (Verch.) ... 204, 210 

. Stracheyii (Salter), ... ... ... ... 220 

Spiti, ... ... 33, 100 

Stenothyra monilifera (Benson), ... ... ... 58 

Streptorhynchus crenistria (Phill.) var. robustus, 211 

8trophalo8ia ? Arachnoidea (Verch.) n. sp. ... ... 213 

Strophonema analoga (Phill.) ? ... ... 212 

Bufed Koh (Speen Ghur) mountain range, ... ...92, 96 

Bungnai (Guth. and Blyth) or Sungraee (Kid), 175 

Sus scropha, the Indian wild pig, Mr. W. T. Blanford on, ... 192 

Tectura fluvial-ilia (W. T. Blanford,) n. sp. ... 62 

Terehratula Bodeenensis (Vcrcherc) n. sp. ... ... 225 

globata, 225 

— sacvulus (Martin), ... ... ... ... 209 

subtilita (Halls), ... ... 203 

Teredo sp. ... .. ... ... ... ... 68 

Telracerus quadricovnis Mr. W. T. Blanford on, 196 

Thamyn of Bnrmah (JBanolia Ehli), ... ... ... 175 

Thrapp, in the Salt range, erratic blocks near, 114 

Trapa bispinosa and quadrispinosa (Roxb.) fruit of, ... 78 

Trochussp. ... ... ... ... 209 

Tukht-i-Sulaiman, Kashmir, ... ... ... ... 95 

Yrrfjascum j)/i(cnirrt(ni J characters of, ... 148 

Verbascum, Mr. Scott on the Reproductive Functional Relations 

of several species and varieties of, ... ... .. 145 

Verchere, Dr. A. M.. on the Geology of Kashmir, the Western 

Himalayas, and the Afghan mountains, ... 9, 83, 201 
Verneuil, M. Edouard tie, note on the fossils forwarded by 

Dr. A. M. Verchere, 201 

Vincularia multangularis (Portlock), ... ... 205, 215 

Waldie, D. Esq., F. 0. S., Experimental Investigations con- 
nected with the supply of water to Calcutta, ... 1, 115 

Wandle River, water of, ... ... ... 7 

Water supply of to Calcutta, Mr. D. Waldie on, ... ... 1, 115 

Wean Beds, 13, 217 

Wells in Calcutta, water of, ... ... ... ... 131 

Waziristan, Mountains of, ... ... 18, 96 

Yengyaing, plain of, ... ... ... <,.. ... 181 

Zeawan, (Limestone) bed, ... ... ... 12, 208 

Zizypkus jujuba (L.) fruit of, used as food, ... ... 77 

ERRATA in Dr. Verchere's Paper on the Geology of Kashmir and 
the Western Himalayas. 

(Only those errors which change the meaning of a sentence, or 
render the name of a locality or fossil impossible to recognize, have 
been noticed here.) 

PART II. 18G6. 











quartz like rock crystals 

quartz and rock crystals. 







(Sect G). 

The section is not given 







Insert after igneous 


and sedimentary rocks. 



sp. nora 

sp. nova. 







Pig. 3. 

Fig. 2. 



very similar to 

viz. the. 


33 & 37 



18G ; l,9,12&c. 



PART II. 1867 







Aksai chain 

Aksai chin. 







See PI. IX. 

Plate not given. 







a Neimas 

a Nerinees. 















• • . 

omit round. 



salpetre, of soda, 

sulphate of soda. 













































the other N. W.— S. E. 

the other N.E.— S. W. 







N. W.— N. W. 

N. W.— N. E. 



long ^ 




anticlinal clip, which 

anticlinal dips which 







cows, of 

bones of 



Munee Range 

Murree Range. 







(not vertical) 

(now vertical). 







. » • 

add PL II. fig. 2, 2a & 2b. 



. « • 

add PI. ILfig.l&la. 




add PL II. fig. 3 & 3a. 




add PI I. fig. 1, 13 & 16. 




add PL YI. fig. 3. 



(sp. hova) 

(sp. nova). . 



PI. VIII. fig. 62 & 63 

PL VIII. fig. 5&6&P1. 
IX. fig. 1 












Omit PL IV. bis fig. 1, 
a, b t c, d, 




Omit PL IV. bis fig. 2, 
a, b, c, d, 




Omit PL IV. bis fig. 3, 
a, b, c, d, 



Aviculo Pect Ranus 

Aviculo Pecten Planus. 












add PL VIII. fig. 2. 




add PL VIII. fig. 3. 




add PL VIII. fig. 4, & 
. 4a. 





. . . 

Omit Fenestella Sykesii. 


„ Fenestella megastoma. 


„ Vincnlaria Multangu- 



. , . 

add PL X. 

Meteorolvg ica I Obser valio n $ . 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the mouth of January 1867. 

Latitude 2-2° 33' 1" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34/' East. 

Height of tlie Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level, 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent 'hereon. 

Range of the Ba 


9 * 

Range of the Tempcra- 

£ "€ +3 

si -a 


during the day. 

( are during the day. 


P §2 




3 s 

















- | 8 








78. 1 





. )•"> 




7!». 8 





._ 9 






































73. <) 























.2 18 


















































6 1,2 















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.0 L7 




















.92 1 









































N 9.6 














































The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made during 
the day. 


Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 1867. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations ancl of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon . — (Continued.) 







© © d 

'S d . 






.8* "1-1 

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d ^ 

d £v3 




T. gr. 

T. gr. 
























































































































































































































































































All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 

Meteorological Observations. 


Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of January 18G7. 

Hourly Means, Sec. of the Observations and of the Hvojrometrieal dementi 
dependent thereon. 


Mt'iin Height of 
the Barometer at 

Bange of the Barometer 

for each hour during 

the month. 

Menu Pry Bulb 





















Range of the Tempera- 
ture for each hour 
during the month. 




























.< 1 12 










.23 1 
















Min. Diff. 


57. i 







The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived from the observations made at the several 
hours during the month. 


Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
talcen at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of January 1867. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 







> o 

°eS A 
-M O 

- f 03 SJ 






t^-l j_J 

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S" 3 

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All the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 

Meteorological Observation*. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta) 
in the month of January 1867. 
Solar Eadi ation, Weather, &c. 

. Solar 

H i 


• cl ion of the 

s i 

General aspect of the Sky. 


- •- 




I qcJh S 




S. S. W. & S. S. E. 




S. 8. W. & N. E. 

Clear. Foggy from 8 to 11 p. if. 



X . E. & E. 

Clear. Foggy from 7 to 11 p. m. 



E.N. E.&N.byW. 

Clear. Slightly foggy at 6 to 7 . if. 



N. W. &N. N. E. 

Chiefly clear. Slightly foggy 
from 8 to 11 p. m. 



S. by E. & S. W. 

Clear. Slightly foggy from mid- 
night to 9 A. if. 



S. by E. Si S. 

Clear to 11 a. if., Bcatd. Y_i to 6 
p. m., clear aft< pwards. Foggy 
from 5 to 8 a. if. Lightning to 
W. at 11 p. m. 





Overcast to noon, scatd. W to 
6 P. M., clear afterwards. Eain 
at 3. 1. & 7 a. M., foggy at 7 

& 8 p. M. 


N. by W. & N. E. 

Overcast to 8 a. m., scattered 
clouds to 5 P. if, clear after- 
wards. Foggy from 7 to 11 i\ 



N. N.E.&W.N.W. 

CleartolOA. m, scatd. ^ito3 
p. ii. clear afterwards. Slight- 
ly t'ogg.y at midnight &1a.m. 



N.W. & .N X. AY. 

Chiefly clear. 







W.byN. &W. 

Clear. Foggy from 9 to 11 p. M. 



W. & W.N.W. 

Clear. Foggy from midnight to 

4 A. M. 



s. w. 

Chiefly clear. Foggy from 5 to 7 



S. S.W.&N.W. 

A. M. 

Clear to 9 a. m. scatd. \i to 5 
p. M, clear afterwards. Foggy 
from 4 to 9 a. m. & from 7 to 

11 P. M. 



W. & N. W. 

Clear. Slightly foggy from mid- 
night to 6 a. m & from 8 to 11 



N. by W.&W.byS. 

P. M . 

Chiefly clear. Slightly foggy at 
7 & 8 p. m. 



N.W. &S. by W. 

Clouds of different kinds to 6 P. 
m, clear afterwards. Foggy 
from 4 to 8 a. m. 







N.W. & variable. 

Clear to 4 a. m, scatd. V-dto 11 
a. m., clear afterwards. 


Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January 1867. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 

u . 

rH <D 

. T3 


- i 

o o 

CO "43 
. e§ 



direction of the 

CD ^ 

« o 

General aspect of the Sky. 









N. by E. & variable 

Clear to noon, scattd. clouds 
afterwards, Lightning to S. 
W. at 8 p. m. Slight rain at 3| 

P. M. 



W. by S. 

Clear. Foggy at 7 a. M.&at9& 

10 P. M. 



S. & S. W. & E. 

Clear to 9 a. m, scattd. clouds 
afterwards. Slightly foggy 
from 1 to 9 a. m. & at.8 & 9 

P. M. 




ST. 1ST. W..& variable. 

Light clouds to 8 a. m. Va to 
6 p. m. Light clouds after- 
wards. Foggy from 1 to 3 a. 
m. Thin rain at 4 & 5 a. m. 




JST. E. & E. by S 

Light clouds to 1 p. m, clear af- 
terwards, Rain at 1 p. m. 



NJ.WiN. W. 

Clear. Foggy at 10 & 11 p. m. 



N. N. W. & N. W. 




N.W. &JV.N. W. 

Clear. Slightly foggy at 11 P.M. 



N.W. & N. N. W. 




S. by W. & variable 

Clear to 3 a. m., Vd to 1 p. m., 

clear afterwards. 

x i Cirri, — i Strati, 
^i Cirr-o cumuli. 

N i Cumuli, v_i Cirro-strati, ^ i Cumulo strati, ^i Nimbi, 

Meteorological Observations. vii 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, in the 

month of January 1867. 

Monthly Results. 


Mean height of the Barometer for the month .. . ... ... 30.048 

Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 9 a.m. on the 11th ... 30.248 

Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 p. m. on the 23rd ... 29.886 

Extreme range of the Barometer during the month ... ... 0.3(32 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures ... ... ... ... 30.125 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto ... ... ... ... 29.989 

Mean daily range of the Barometer during the month ... ... 0.136 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month ... 69.0 

Max. Temperature occurred at 3 p. M. on the 1st 22nd & 25th ... 83.2 

Min. Temperature occurred at 7 a. m. on the 28th 55.2 

Extreme range of the Temperature during the month 28.0 

Mean of the daily Max. Temperature ... ... 78.4 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, ... ... 61.4 

Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month... ... 17.0 

Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month ... ... ... 63.1 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean "Wet Bulb Thermometer 5.9 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month ... ... ... 58.4 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed mean Dew-point ... 10.6 

Mean Elastic force of Vapour fo r the month ... ... ... 0.496 

Troy grain. 

Mean Weight of Vapour for the month ... ... ... 5.46 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation ... 2.30 
Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity 0.70 


Rained 4 days, — Max. fall of rain during 24 hours ... ... 0.48 

Total amount of rain during the month ... ... ... 0.55 

Total amount of rain indicated by the Gauge attached to the anemo- 
meter during the month ... ... ... ... ... 0.53 

Prevailing direction of the Wind N. W. & N. by W. 

VI 11 

Meteorological Observations. 


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Meteorological Observations. 


Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observation* 

taken at the Surveyor General's Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of February 1867. 

Latitude 2-2° 33 ; 1" North. Longitude 88° 20' 34" East. 

Heightof the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the sea level. 18.11 feet. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. 





























' C K 

+S -+;- . 

(1 it +3 


s ^^ 

Range of the Barometer 
during the day. 

Max. j Min. Diff. 

!ll( i 





































.8 is 




















































Range of the Tempera- 
ture during the day. 
































































The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer Means are derived, from the hourly observations, made during 
the day. 

Meteorological Observations.